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Laboratorio Cineturismo

Laboratorio Cineturismo

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Laboratorio Cineturismo

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  1. Laboratorio Cineturismo Bicocca, Febbraio-Marzo 2010

  2. Definizioni • IMAGE: Crucial marketing concept in the tourism industry • Image influences tourism related attitudes & behaviours variously, by confirming/reinforcing existing & creating new

  3. Definizioni • GUNN (1972) • IMAGES: • 1) ORGANIC • 2) INDUCED • Organic images: formed from sources not directly associated with tourism interests (e.g. magazines, movies) • Induced images: deriving from the conscious effort of marketers to develop, promote & advertise their destinations

  4. Definizioni • Cinema & TV: • IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF POPULAR CULTURE & MAJOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES • SCHOFIELD (1996): Contemporary tourists’ organic images of places are shaped through the vicarious consumption of film & TV without the perceived bias of promotional material

  5. Definizioni • News & popular culture products are so deeply embedded in every day life that they are likely to have high market impact • PORTRAYALS OF PLACES IN NEWS & POPULAR CULTURE CAN ALTER AN AREA’S IMAGE DRAMATICALLY, EVEN IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME

  6. Definizioni • BUTLER (1990) discusses : • the influence of media and • the ways in which people derive images information and awareness of destinations • BASIS upon which people make CHOICES WHERE TO STAY AND VISIT

  7. Definizioni • BUTLER notes that people can RECEIVE INFORMATION from a COMBINATION OF MEDIA FORMS rather than exclusively from one • He traces the PROMOTION OF DESTINATIONS through VISUAL MEDIA back to the paintings & sketches brought home by those who undertook the “GRAND TOUR” in the 17-19° centuries


  9. Definizioni • More recently, movies and tv series have had a powerful influence on people’s tastes and ideas • Butler: As people read less, what is shown in movies, videos & tv is becoming more & more important

  10. Definizioni • What is shown in movies, videos & tv will become even more important than print media in shaping images of, and visitation to, places, due to the expanding accessibility & high credibility of these information sources (Butler 1990) • The impact of popular films & TV programs on individual & societal beliefs & behaviours will continue to increase as cable tv & video use diffuse rapidly (Brown-Singhal 1993)

  11. Definizioni • Perceptions of destinations & purchase decision are positively correlated • The IMAGE of an AREA is a CRITICAL SELECTION FACTOR • Importance of POPULAR CULTURE in BUILDING PLACE IMAGERY

  12. Definizioni • Morgan & Pritchard (1988) Power of constructed reality: likely to dominate any sense of objective reality In some cases, depiction on TV may even alter the reality of a place & TV shows have been catalysts for the recreation of places as living environments & tourism sites

  13. Definizioni • URRY (1990) • Places are chosen to be gazed upon because there is an anticipation. Such anticipation is constructed & sustained through a variety of NON –TOURIST PRACTICES such as films, tv, magazines, literature, records etc…which construct & reinforce the gaze


  15. Definizioni • In particular, MOVIES as VISUAL LANGUAGE have been one of the major vehicles to CONSTRUCT & TRANSMIT meaning, often of places with which people do not have first hand experience • VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE through movie viewing

  16. Definizioni • Metz (1972): People can experience a place vicariously by identifying with the characters • In certain types of PLACE-ORIENTED MOVIES, viewers are offered the opportunity to learn about the place by imaginatively participating in the place-related experiences of the characters

  17. Definizioni • Vicarious experience with a destination featured in a film: another type of destination experience • Concept of FAMILIARITY • Movies FAMILIARIZE audiences with places & attractions featured in them • Riley-Van Doren (1992): Extended exposure to attractions through the medium of film allows potential tourists to gather information and vicarious knowledge, therefore lowering the levels caused by anticipating risk

  18. Definizioni • This knowledge can provide a sense of security & comfort, which can lead to increased confidence in destination choice & an actual VACATION experience less threatening & more comfortable • Films: VIRTUAL HOLIDAY BROCHURES, having a significant impact on how tourists choose their holiday destinations • Negative effects of familiarity: Novelty of travel is reduced

  19. Definizioni • Several researchers have found that • certain motion picturesincreased the • AWARENESS OF THE PLACES THEY DEPICTED & HAD TOURIST-INDUCING EFFECTS • Popular motion pictures & tv programs: linked to increases in tourist numbers at places they depict

  20. Definizioni • A movie may generate & sustain interest in a destination in a way in which destination marketers cannot afford to do • MOVIE: “ADVERTISEMENT WORTH 72 MILLION PEOPLE, the average worldwide screen audience for a movie” (Tooke-Baker 1996)

  21. Definizioni • MOVIE AS “HALLMARK EVENT” (Riley-Van Doren 1992) • Ritchie (1984): HALLMARK EVENT=approach to generating increased destination appeal • Major one time or recurring events of limited duration, developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal and profitability of a tourism destination in the short and/or long term. Such events rely for their success on uniqueness, status or timely significance to create interest and attract attention

  22. Definizioni • Locations filmed as part of film are likely to see increases in the awareness & appeal of destinations & profitability of tourism operations, as effects similar to those created by hallmark events (Tooke-Baker 1996) • Major entertainment companies have been “cashing in” on movie-induced tourism for many years e. g. UNIVERSAL STUDIOS

  23. Definizioni • According to Riley and Van Doren (1992), motion pictures had several advantagesover hallmark eventswhen inducing people to visit: • -longer periods of location exposure when compared to the advertising and promotion of hallmark events & locations • -vicarious involvement & identification with locations through movie storylines

  24. Definizioni • - enhanced location images through the use of special effects, movie stars, picture perfect camera angles • -enhanced location awareness by different market segments through a universally popular medium such as movies • -movies as a non-sales form of communication that allowed discovery of the location as opposed to the hard sell of advertising • -in home access to the locations shown in the movies

  25. Definizioni RILEY-BAKER-VAN DOREN (1998) For some people movies induce them to travel to the locations where they were filmed Through movies, people are sometimes induced to visit what they have seen on the SILVER SCREEN Data gathered at 12 US locations

  26. Definizioni • Reasons why a movie can induce tourism: • A) natural scenery • B) plot • C) heritage • D) ludic attractions • In certain cases the reasons are MIXED

  27. Definizioni • Esempi: • -Thelma & Louise (1991): plot+natural scenery • Locations investigated: Canyonlands and Arches National Park in Utah. • After being released in May 1991, visitation increases: • -Canyonlands +22, 6% (1991) • Arches Park + 13, 7%

  28. Definizioni • Esempi: • -Close Encounters of the Third Kind: plot+natural scenery • Location investigated: Devils Tower National Monument (northeastern Wyoming) • In the first year after the movie’s release, visitation increased 74% over the previous year

  29. Definizioni • Field of Dreams: plot, theme • Cornfields in IOWA • Zero visitors before the release • Sequential increases of 8000, 26000, 65000

  30. Definizioni • Little Women: plot, theme • Location: Orchard House (Concord, Massachussetts) • 65% increase in the first year after the release

  31. Definizioni • Other cases and resulting actions: • Many UNATTRACTIVE LOCATIONS have attracted visitors after the release of related movies: • Home Alone: Kevin Chicago Home • Rainman: Motel Room • 4 weddings & a funeral: room in the Crown Hotel booked continuously until 1997 • In many cases the residents were not prepared for the influx of people or for their curiosity. • E.g. After the release of Forrest Gump visitors besieged the Savannah Chamber of Commerce when Forrest Gump’s bench could not be found

  32. Definizioni • But many sites started to organize trips so tourists could see all the locations • E.g. tours organized by local authorities • Natchitoches-SteelMagnolias • Madison County, Iowa-Bridgesof MadisonCounty • Atlanta, Georgia-DrivingMiss Daisy

  33. Definizioni • Fried Green Tomatoes • A small town turned into a boutique of movie memorabilia • PACKAGING STRATEGY TO EXTEND THE STAY AND SPENDING OF POTENTIAL VISITORS

  34. Definizioni • Recap: • A) Film companies & merchandisers have exploited the spin-off effects of movies for many years (cd, toys, tees etc…) but only recently have people thought that movies might promote tourism

  35. Definizioni • B) Each location’s allure is different (physical properties, theme etc…) • Locations need not to be beautiful nor the storylines positive in order to attract visitors. While positive affect may well be important, “dark” movies have also created visitation booms

  36. Definizioni • Varied tourism impacts created by movies: • A) good economic results • B) “bad” safety concerns & overcrowding • While the sight of the site may be sufficient for some visitors, a re-creation of the action or a piece of the location may be necessary for others to relive their favorite scene

  37. Definizioni • Movies that reflect the essence of authentic aspects of a destination, be it the scenery, the culture or key landmarks, induce tourists to visit the scenes they’ve experienced on screen (Grihault 2003) • Tourist agencies should be aware of the potential gain for featuring positive images of a destination in a movie • Morgan & Pritchard: Inserire una destinazione in un film è l’ultima frontiera del placement di un prodotto turistico

  38. Definizioni • Film-induced tourism: VISITATION TO SITES WHERE MOVIES & TV PROGRAMMES HAVE BEEN FILMED AS WELL AS TO TOUR TO PRODUCTION STUDIOS, INCLUDING FILM-RELATED THEME PARKS, WHAT IS OF INTEREST IS THE TOURIST ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE FILM INDUSTRY (Beeton 2001) • Beeton: movie-induced tourism=only cinema • Film-induced tourism= cinema + tv • Film-induced tourism- tourist’s visits to a destination or attraction as a result of the destination being featured on tv, video or the cinema screen (Evans 1997) • Film-induced tourism: TOURIST VISITS TO A DESTINATION AS A RESULT OF THE DESTINATION FEATURED ON THE CINEMA SCREEN, VIDEO OR TV (Busby-Klug, 2001)

  39. Definizioni • Screen tourism: Tourism generated by tv programmes, video, dvd, film (small & big screen productions) (Connell-Mayer) • Cinema sightseeing: Cinema e turismo vengono messi in relazione nel momento della fruizione del prodotto turistico (quindi non c’è legame esplicitamente motivazionale fra il cinema e la scelta di recarsi sui luoghi) (Jones 2004)

  40. Definizioni • PUSH FACTORS: fattori di spinta, attinenti al turista • PULL FACTORS: fattori di attrazione, attinenti alla destinazione • 3 differenti tipologie di film tourist • 1) SPECIFIC • 2) GENERAL • 3) SERENDIPITOUS

  41. Definizioni • Beeton: Aspetti interessanti del cineturismo: • A)DESTAGIONALIZZAZIONE DEI FLUSSI TURISTICI • B) Cineturismo come forma di PELLEGRINAGGIO • Pilgrimage: displaying an element of LONGEVITY, particularly in the case of televised drama. But now, with dvd, also “cinema-induced tourism” can be associated with “longevity”.

  42. Qualche numero • Stime ONU: Valore popolo cineturisti: 100 milioni di dollari all’anno • USA: 10 milioni di cineturisti ogni anno (Chierchia 2005) • Riley-Van Doren stimano nella misura del 54% l’incremento medio dei visitatori nei 5 anni successivi all’uscita del film • Effetto Elisa di Rivombrosa • Castello di Agliè e dintorni • Visite 2003: 8549 • Visite 2004: 92091 • (Ma le presenze alberghiere hanno fatto registrare un incremento di appena il 2, 21%)

  43. Qualche numero • The Passion: incremento di arrivi internazionali a Matera del 143, 8% nel 2004 (anno di uscita del film) • Montalbano. Città di Ragusa: aumento turistico del 50%. Boom di arrivi dalla Scandinavia, dove la fiction ha avuto grande successo

  44. Qualche numero • Dati cineturismo Italia: • 1700 percorsi • 10 mil. visitatori italiani • 41.622.000 turisti stranieri in Italia sui luoghi del cinema • Studi di mercato sul cineturismo dimostrano che per ogni euro investito nella promozione, il territorio ne ottiene 32, e che ogni settimana di lavoro sul set ha una ricaduta pari a 300.000 euro (Stefano Della Casa- Direttore Film Commission Torino-Piemonte)

  45. Complessità • DISPLACEMENT • Movie being SHOT in one place but representing (SET) somewhere else entirely • e.g. Philippines as Vietnam in Platoon • New Zealand as Japan in The Last Samurai • Romania as South Carolina in Cold Mountain

  46. Complessità • Il fenomeno per il quale una città viene spacciata per un’altra sullo schermo è chiamato “license plating”, dallo “scambio di targhe” automobilistiche. • Le città simbolicamente più forti sono generalmente ricercate proprio per la loro riconoscibilità e sono pertanto definibili “città protagoniste”. Le città meno connotate e più polivalenti possono essere definite “città controfigura”.

  47. Complessità • A sfruttare lo schermo come cassa di risonanza possono essere, come abbiamo visto, i luoghi reali in cui i film sono girati (SHOT), ma anche i luoghi in cui i film sono ambientati (SET) o ai quali la storia si richiama attraverso le tematiche o la tradizione.

  48. Complessità • Saving Private Ryan (1998):FILMED largely in IRELAND but gave a BOOST to tourism in the NORMANDY region of FRANCE • Braveheart : Much of Braveheart was filmed in Ireland though tourists indicated that they went to Scotland to visit places depicted in the film • IT IS NOT THE OBJECTIVE REALITY OF THE PLACE BUT THE MEANING IT REPRESENTS THAT TRANSFORMS PLACES DEPICTED IN MOVIES TO SYMBOLICALLY MEANINGFUL TOURIST ATTRACIONS

  49. Complessità • Destinazione cineturistica: SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED DESTINATION • Real place settings can be confused with-& even less important to tourists than-imagined ones • Some tourists are not attracted to experience the reality of the place but to consume a MYTHOLOGY (Schofield, 1996)

  50. Complessità • Conversely, fans of CULT film & tv (e.g. Twin Peaks) tend to undertake inordinate amount of research to seek out PRECISE film locations, some of which may be “underground”, i.e., not promoted or commercialised (Hills, 2000)