INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Download
1 / 168

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 244 Views
  • Updated On :

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Fundamentals For Court Leaders. Date(s) Educational Program or Sponsor Faculty 2.5 Day Toolbox. Agenda. Purposes and Context Governance: Leadership and Vision Strategic Planning Infrastructure Court Services and Applications 6. Projects.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - Rita


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Fundamentals For Court Leaders

Date(s)

Educational Program or Sponsor

Faculty

2.5 Day Toolbox


Slide2 l.jpg

Agenda

  • Purposes and Context

  • Governance: Leadership and Vision

  • Strategic Planning

  • Infrastructure

  • Court Services and Applications

    6. Projects


Pre workshop exercise review l.jpg
Pre-Workshop Exercise Review

My court or court organization; and

What I don’t know, want to know, and need to know.

  • Assessment results displayed

  • Discuss findings

  • Present IT court organization charts

  • Discuss implications of court size and state involvement


Slide4 l.jpg

1

Information Technology Fundamentals

PURPOSES AND CONTEXT


Slide5 l.jpg

1

Information technology is a tool, not an end unto itself.

Information Technology Curriculum Guidelines

National Association for Court Management


Slide6 l.jpg

1

Information technology must honor due process and equal protection, independence and impartiality, and the roles that courts and other organizations in the justice system properly play.

Information Technology Curriculum Guidelines

National Association for Court Management


Purposes of courts l.jpg

1

Purposes of Courts

  • Produce individual justice in individual cases;

  • Give the appearance of individual justice in individual cases;

  • Provide a forum for the resolution of legal disputes;

  • Protect individuals from the arbitrary use of government power;

  • Create a formal record of legal status;

  • Deter criminal behavior;

  • Rehabilitate persons convicted of crime; and

  • Separate some convicted people from society.

    Ernie C. Friesen


It and purposes l.jpg

1

Caseflow

Management

Information

Leadership

Technology

Management

Education,

Visioning and

Training and

Strategic

Purposes

Development

Planning

and

Responsibilities of

Courts

Human

Es

sential

Resources

Components

Management

Resources,

Court Community

Budget and

Communication

Finance

IT and Purposes


Information technology outcome measures l.jpg

1

Information Technology Outcome Measures

  • Improved processes and productivity;

  • Improved knowledge of the organization;

  • Increased communication;

  • Timeliness;

  • Integrity and accuracy; and

  • Dynamic and personal access.


Matching court purposes and technology l.jpg

1

Matching Court Purposes and Technology

  • Improved processes and productivity;

  • Increased communication;

  • Timeliness;

  • Integrity and accuracy; and

  • Dynamic and personal access.

Produce individual justice


Matching court purposes and technology11 l.jpg

1

Matching Court Purposes and Technology

  • Improved processes and productivity;

  • Increased communication;

  • Timeliness;

  • Integrity and accuracy; and

  • Dynamic and personal access.

Formal record of legal status


Information technology data measures l.jpg

1

Information Technology Data Measures

  • Integrity and accuracy;

  • Security;

  • Privacy;

  • Ubiquity and access

    a. Speed

    b. Scaleability

    c. Standardization


Technology acceleration l.jpg

1

Technology Acceleration

1623 First Mechanical Calculator

1823 First Programmable Mechanical Calculator

Babbage’s Difference Engine

1853 First Mechanical Computer

Scheutz Difference Engine

1890 US Census Bureau

Hollerith Punch Card Computer

1911 IBM Founded

Hollerith merges with competitor

1937

First Electronic

Calculator

Mechanical Era

1600

1800

1900

1930

1940

Est. 50,000

5 mill.

76 mill.

123 mill.

132 mill.


Technology acceleration14 l.jpg

1

Technology Acceleration

1991 World-Wide Web

E-Filing

1984 EDI 1992 E-Commerce

CD/Subscription: Legal Resources

1992 Public Internet

Video Conferencing

1950’s Digital Imaging (documents)

1971 Email 1992 Public Email

Thin Client

Web based

1984: Distributed Computing

Client Server Applications

1943: Legacy Systems (mainframe computers)

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

151 mill.

203 mill.

227 mill.

249 mill.

281 mill.

284 mill.


Emerging technologies l.jpg

1

Emerging Technologies

  • Wireless;

  • Voice recognition;

  • Virtual reality and 3D imagery;

  • Artificial intelligence;

  • Biometrics;

  • Service Oriented Architecture


Historical technology drivers l.jpg

1

Historical Technology Drivers

  • Population growth (367% from 1900-2000);

  • Dramatic caseload increases;

  • Systemic delays in case processing;

  • Massive increases in computing power, speed, and network capacity;

  • Automatic assumption that computers solve all our problems; and

  • Huge reductions in the cost of automation, infrastructure, data storage and development.


Current and new technology drivers l.jpg

1

Current and New Technology Drivers

  • Cost reduction and productivity demands;

  • Data and system standards;

  • Service improvement opportunities;

  • Interest groups (domestic violence, victim advocates, private sector (information exchange));

  • Tsunami of public expectations and demand;

  • 24/7 culture;

  • Instantaneous gratification, results and purchasing power; and

  • The Internet.


Exercise 1 l.jpg

1

Exercise 1

Matching the Purposes of Courts with information technology outcome and data measures

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Fill out forms and be prepared to report and discuss


Slide19 l.jpg

2

Information Technology Fundamentals

GOVERNANCE:

LEADERSHIP AND VISION


Information technology foundation l.jpg

2

Information Technology Foundation

Services &

Applications

Data, Business

Infrastructure

Hardware,

Systems, Software

IT Governance

Policy, Standards, Funding,

Architecture, Organization

Adapted by Permission of Gartner, Inc.


Slide21 l.jpg

2

Leadership is the energy behind every court system and court accomplishment.

Leadership Curriculum Guidelines

National Association for Court Management


Slide22 l.jpg

2

Leaders think about, create, and inspire others to act upon dreams, missions, strategic intent, and purpose.

Leadership Curriculum Guidelines

National Association for Court Management


It leadership principles l.jpg

2

IT Leadership Principles

  • The Court’s mission and service must drive technology decisions and priorities;

  • Technology is not self-justifying;

  • Organizational change is the key to advancing technology;

  • Court leaders must understand technology and what it can do for them;

  • Technologists must understand court processes;

  • The end users must be involved in planning and development.


What i know that ain t so l.jpg

2

What I Know That Ain’t So


Changing court processes l.jpg

2

Changing Court Processes

Courts…design automated systems to reproduce their existing work processes rather than take advantage of technological capabilities to redesign those processes to do them more efficiently…At best, we can be said to have moved from the quill pen to the typewriter to the the keyboard.

COSCA/NACM Joint Technology Committee, Third Long Range Plan: July 2001 – June 2004, 1st Draft, May 4, 2001


What is process reengineering l.jpg

2

What is Process Reengineering?

A discipline that assumes courts must:

  • Change processes to leverage the potential of technology;

  • Use technology to drive changes in processes; and

  • Develop measurements and controls for feedback and continuous improvement.

  • Process Improvement is reengineering “lite,” or incremental change, usually defined by simplification and streamlining of court work processes. It is easier to promote in conservative and horizontal organizations.


Process reengineering principles l.jpg

2

Process Reengineering Principles

  • Change will not happen without leadership and champions;

  • Change for the sake of change is pointless and dispiriting.

  • Don’t oversell the benefits;

  • Power users are your best advocates. They know the processes, applications, and pitfalls. They will not get on your side unless they believe in the change; and

  • Pilot projects always help promote change and discover what we do not know.

    See IT Projects, Section 5, for a step by step approach to process reengineering and improvement.


Process reengineering examples l.jpg

2

Process Reengineering Examples


Why is it governance important l.jpg

2

Why is IT Governance Important?

  • Information technology is in constant flux;

  • There is a need for a clear vision of organizational goals and objectives;

  • Alignment of IT expenditures with organizational goals;

  • Fosters participatory leadership and ownership, both for existing policies, standards and lifecycle management, as well as for new projects and initiatives;

  • Enhances accountability; and

  • Promotes successful adoption of technology and improved work processes;


It governance l.jpg

2

IT Governance

  • Policies

  • Organization

  • Standards

  • Funding

  • Architecture

  • Systems

    Someone, somewhere is making decisions about these issues for your court or court organization.


Effective it policies l.jpg

2

Effective IT policies:

A

Highest Level of Governance

  • Clearly articulate goals, with plans of action;

  • Address all key IT issues: Security, privacy, reliability, equity of access, data quality, network growth, investment, skills, research and development, funding, outsourcing and Web content;

  • Unify court and other stakeholder interests using common themes across departments and regions;

  • Challenge courts to be bold and innovative;

  • Are credible, realistic and affordable.


Organization how it decisions get implemented l.jpg

2

OrganizationHow IT decisions get implemented

B

  • Chief Information Officer (CIO) vs. Director

  • Ombudsman

  • Cross-jurisdiction management

  • IT staff skill sets

  • End user support, help desk functions, and training

  • Network support

  • Systems support, analysis, maintenance and modifications;

  • In-house development capacity vs. outsource


Standards l.jpg

2

Standards

C

  • Network

    Capacity (performance), hardware and software;

  • Systems (application and database)

    Development and application platforms, hardware and software;

  • End user hardware and software;

  • Data and enterprise integration;

  • Performance and responsiveness;

  • Security and Privacy

  • Functional (applications)

    Generally applied to projects.

    See Section 5.


Network standards l.jpg

2

Network Standards

C

  • Standards foundation is performance

    Response time for database requests;

    LAN capacity shall be N x user population;

    Redundancy: e.g., minimum two paths.

  • Network protocols, software and hardware must be compatible with applications and client hardware and software

    e.g. An IPX/SPX network protocol is generally compatible with a Novell network but not compatible with the Internet (TCP/IP).

    Let your IT professional be your guide, but ask questions.


Funding and prioritization l.jpg

2

Funding and Prioritization

D

  • Systems lifecycle and maintenance;

    Many courts utilize a 3-4 year hardware replacement cycle

    Software licenses, renewals and upgrades

  • Technology staff salaries and benefits;

  • Funding for research and development;

  • Funding for new projects;

  • Lifecycle (continuous) and project funding for training and education.


Architecture overview l.jpg

2

Architecture Overview

E

  • Wide and Local Area Network Topologies (maps)

    Centralized (hub and spoke, token ring)

    Decentralized (client server)

    Distributed (Internet model, peer to peer, email)

  • Network architectures (multiple layers)

    Open System Interconnection (OSI) model:

    Seven network layers between applications (Applications are the 7th layer)

  • N-tiered application architectures

    Includes at minimum: User interface, presentation, business logic, and database tiers


Architecture overview37 l.jpg

2

Architecture Overview

E

  • Security

    Build into network architecture

    Build into application development

  • Redundancy and disaster recovery

    Build into network architecture

    Distributed networking most effective


Slide38 l.jpg

2

Systems: Services and ApplicationsSelection and prioritization of services for the application of needed technologies

F

  • Where the rubber meets the road: the First and Foremost Task of IT Governance;

  • Demands alignment with Court purposes and mission;

  • Requires some compromise;

  • Phased and incremental approach – organize by

    1) Immediate (6 months to two years);

    2) Mid range (two to five years);

    3) Long term (five to ten years).


Slide39 l.jpg

2

Systems: Services and ApplicationsTechnical Decisions

F

  • Develop in-house vs. contracted;

  • Planned applications approach to information exchange, shared services, security, privacy, and access; and

  • Open and closed applications

    Open: Generally, off the shelf and standardized

    Closed: Proprietary software, highly customized, non standard


It trial court meta governance models l.jpg

2

IT Trial Court Meta Governance Models

  • State Centralized

  • State/Local Distributed

  • Local Centralized

  • Local Distributed


State centralized l.jpg

2

State Centralized

  • State Capitol (AOC)

  • Infrastructure and Networks

  • Hardware and Software

  • Case Management Systems

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Public Access Technologies

  • Office Automation

  • Audio and Video

  • Email

  • Small Town USA

    Local Trial Court

  • Enterprise integration

NJ, Partial MD


State local distributed l.jpg

2

State/Local Distributed

  • State Capitol (AOC)

  • State Network

  • Case Management Systems

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Email

  • Small Town/County USA

    Local Trial Court

  • Enterprise Integration

  • Local Network and Infrastructure

  • Hardware and Software

  • Local Network

  • Public Access Technologies

  • Office Automation

  • Audio and Video

HI, CT


Local centralized l.jpg

2

Local Centralized

  • State Capitol (AOC)

  • Enterprise Integration

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Big County USA

    Local Trial Court

  • Enterprise Integration

  • Infrastructure and Networks

  • Hardware and Software

  • Case Management Systems

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Public Access Technologies

  • Office Automation

  • Audio and Video

  • Email

Philadelphia, Montgomery County, MD


Local distributed l.jpg

2

Local Distributed

  • State Capitol (AOC)

  • Enterprise Integration

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Small-Medium County USA

    County Government

  • Enterprise Integration

  • Infrastructure and Networks

  • Hardware and Software

  • Office Automation

  • Audio and Video

  • Email

Trial Court

  • Case Management System

  • Judicial Support Systems

  • Public Access Technologies

TX, GA, OH


Idealized it leadership structure l.jpg

2

Idealized IT Leadership Structure

Stakeholders: Policy and Standards

Co-Chairs: IT and Court Leader

Funding Authority

Budget Committee

Stakeholders, Inter-Agency

Architecture Committee

Stakeholders and IT Representatives

Communities of Interest

Core Mission

Case Management Management Information

E-Filing

Document Mgmt.

Enterprise

Criminal Justice

Finance

Human Resources

Shared Services

Operating Systems

Library Tools

Email

Wireless

Public Access

Web

E-Records

E-Commerce

IVR


Exercise 2 l.jpg

2

Exercise 2

Mapping and assessing IT Governance in my court or court organization

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams if with your co-workers/leaders

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Be prepared to report and discuss


Slide47 l.jpg

3

Information Technology Fundamentals

STRATEGIC PLANNING


It strategic planning l.jpg

3

IT Strategic Planning

Services &

Applications

Data, Business

Implementation

Planning

Infrastructure

Hardware,

Systems, Software

IT Governance

Policy, Standards, Funding,

Architecture, Organization

Adapted by Permission of Gartner, Inc.


Slide49 l.jpg

3

IT Strategic Planning StepsImmediate (6 months to two years); Mid range (two to five years);Long term (five to ten years).

  • Leadership and Vision: Establish an IT stakeholders group with direct user involvement and IT expertise and support;

  • Select and prioritize court services for needed automation and new technologies;

  • Formulate an infrastructure strategy that meets the court services and application needs; and

  • Design an IT governance structure that is directly accountable for policy-level decisions AND prioritized long-term initiatives.


It long range planning waterfall development older approach l.jpg

3

IT Long Range Planning:Waterfall Development (older approach)

Establish Infrastructure/ Software Platform & Development Approach

Identify, Match and Prioritize Court Services to Needed Automation

Build and Test


Slide51 l.jpg

3

IT Long Range Planning:Waterfall Development (older approach)

  • One big, humongous project;

  • Huge capital investment;

  • Cost overruns;

  • High failure rate;

  • Technology moving too fast to keep up; and

  • Functionality – 5 to 10 years behind the curve.


It long range planning spiral development newer approach l.jpg

3

Identify, Match and Prioritize Court Services to Needed Automation

Establish Infrastructure/ Software Platform & Development Approach

Evaluate, Identify Gaps, Re-Focus on Next Phases

Build and Test

IT Long Range Planning:Spiral Development (newer approach)


It long range planning spiral development l.jpg

3

IT Long Range Planning:Spiral Development*

Advantages

  • Better able to cope with changes

  • Better able to accommodate technology improvements

  • In-house developers are less restless during the design process

  • Costs become more realistic as work progresses

    Disadvantages

  • Costs are harder to estimate at outset

  • Incremental change can lose momentum

  • Early versions are often skeletal

    * Methodology developed by Barry Boehm


Slide54 l.jpg

3

IT Long Range Planning:Other Development Approaches

  • Top Down

  • Bottom Up

  • Chaos

  • Prototyping (sub-category)

    Evolutionary Prototyping

  • Agile Software Development (spiral derivatives)

    Lean Development

    Extreme Programming (XP)

    Evolutionary Approach


Slide55 l.jpg

3

Services and ApplicationsSelection and prioritization of court services for needed automation and new technologies

  • Where the rubber meets the road: the First and Foremost Task of IT Governance;

  • Demands alignment with Court purposes and mission;

  • Requires some compromise;

  • Phased and incremental approach – organize by

    1) Immediate (6 months to two years);

    2) Mid range (two to five years);

    3) Long term (five to ten years).


Life cycle management feasible lifespan of systems and infrastructure l.jpg

3

Life Cycle ManagementFeasible lifespan of systems and infrastructure

  • NEW: Provision of connectivity, peripherals and support systems; ideally state of the art.

  • USED or DATED: Maintenance, updates, revisions and needed changes. Includes software licensing, new security features, increased connectivity and data exchange, software revisions and patches

  • OBSOLETE: Cyclical replacement of old hardware and infrastructure, strategic replacement of systems and applications


Slide57 l.jpg

3

Life Cycle ManagementSystem Replacement

  • How, when and why should a court leader make decisions about system replacement?

    Do not wait until obsolete; maintenance will be costlier than replacement

  • What are the system utilization criteria that will help a court leader make these decisions?

    These should be defined ahead of time. They include response time, capacity/scaleability, and user satisfaction. Are systems accomplishing what they are intended to do in a cost-effective manner?”


Disaster recovery redundancy and contingency planning l.jpg

3

Disaster Recovery, Redundancy and Contingency Planning

As dependency on technology grows, user tolerance for failure decreases.

  • Weigh Risk and Cost

    Be careful of what you ask for, you may pay for it.

  • Do it Early

    Disaster and recovery plans may influence your strategic, infrastructure and systems choices.

  • Think in terms of Manageable Pieces

    How much failure can the organization tolerate. One size may not fit all


Disaster recovery redundancy and contingency planning59 l.jpg

3

Disaster Recovery, Redundancy and Contingency Planning

Components:

  • Case entry and retrieval

  • Calendar preparation

  • Counters

  • Public access

  • Judicial proceedings

  • Payment proceedings

  • Administrative functions

  • Servers

  • Network


Contingency planning levels l.jpg

3

Contingency Planning – Levels

  • Interruption: System or component is down for less than ___ hours. No facility damage

  • Minor Disaster: Down time is more than ___ hours and less than ___ days. May include minor software re-write, multiple disk failures, minor fire, or minor flood. Little facility damage.

  • Major Disaster: Down time is more than ___ days. Fire, flood, earthquake or civil disorder results in extensive facility or component damage.

  • Catastrophe: Community operations are disrupted and no need for computer support until rebuilding takes place.


Privacy and access l.jpg

3

Privacy and Access

  • Historic Practical Obscurity

    The law has always recognized that court documents were public, and theoretically, they were. But the practical difficulty of reviewing those documents kept them effectively private.

  • Newfound Technological Access

    Technology now makes those documents “in fact” public.

  • Establish a Formal Policy

    Must review access policies and practices to reflect laws and public expectation.

    Typically, electronic information on single cases is free

    Charge fees to cover cost of generating reports

    Charge additional fees for customized/bulk information


Increased access positives l.jpg

3

Increased Access Positives

  • Public trust and confidence in the courts

  • Public knowledge of defective products and negligent professionals

  • Public knowledge of public interest issues, e.g. environmental and class action lawsuits

  • Increased public safety – access to criminal records


Slide63 l.jpg

3

Increased Access Negatives

  • Threats to personal safety from contact information

  • Invasions of personal privacy

  • Identity theft

  • Disclosure of trade secrets

  • Deterrence from seeking court resolution of conflicts – disclosure of personal information or personal embarrassment


Slide64 l.jpg

3

Privacy and Access - Document Categories

  • Case data, documents and other records

  • Judges’ notes on cases

  • Court administrative records

  • Emails

  • Internal memoranda

  • Employee personnel records

  • Internal management reports

  • Telephone records


Slide65 l.jpg

3

Privacy and Access – Other Issues

  • Bulk Data

    Employers, credit agencies, government often seek access to bulk data

    Search and query applications circumvent “one case at a time” restrictions

    Recommend: Contract out bulk information access; impose duty of continually updating information

  • Federal courts have barred Internet access to criminal case documents, except in 12 pilot courts

  • Federal legislation restricts public access to Social Security numbers for most new systems

  • Most courts restrict access to juvenile records, and many types of personal data on all records


Exercise 3 l.jpg

3

Exercise 3

Choosing a Technology Strategy: Prioritizing the Court’s Services and Needs

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams by table

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Be prepared to report and discuss


Slide67 l.jpg

4

Information Technology Fundamentals

INFRASTRUCTURE


Information technology backbone l.jpg

4

Services &

Applications

Data, Business

Infrastructure

Hardware,

Systems, Software

IT Governance

Policy, Standards, Funding,

Architecture, Organization

Adapted by Permission of Gartner, Inc.

Information Technology Backbone


Network topologies physical or logical layouts l.jpg

4

Network TopologiesPhysical or logical layouts

  • Star Topology

    Token ring, cheap, slower

  • Ring Topology

    Expensive, higher bandwidth

    3. Bus Topology

    Ethernet, LANs

    4. Tree Topology

    Stars on a bus, hybrid


Network questions l.jpg

4

Network Questions

  • Can’t I just trust my IT professionals?

  • The State handles everything, why do I need to know this?

  • The County IT department seems to make all network decisions, they fund IT anyway. Why do I need to know this?

  • Do I care if we seem to be all Microsoft, all the time?


Wide area networks decision making criteria l.jpg

4

Wide Area NetworksDecision Making Criteria

1. Existing Infrastructure

Older networks, often star topology; urban networks, often ring topologies. Improvement over replacement.

2. Speed

Common standard is T-1 (1.5 Mbps, leased phone line, also called DSL). Future standard is T-3 (43 Mbps)

3. Protocols

Generally TCP/IP, older usually frame relay, future may see Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM )

4. Media

Usually leased lines, microwave, or satellite

  • Cost

    Need to annualize.


Local area networks decision making criteria l.jpg

4

Local Area NetworksDecision Making Criteria

  • Existing infrastructure

    Most today are Ethernet, limited user capacity

    2. Speed

    Current PC (Windows) standard is Fast (100 Mbps = megabits per second) and Gigabit (1,000 Mbps) Ethernet

    3. Protocols

    Rules for sending data, most courts use client/server and TCP/IP (transmission control/Internet protocol).

    4. Media

    Wiring (twisted pair, CAT 5), fiber optic, coax, or wireless

  • Cost

    Maybe wireless IS cheaper. Need to annualize.


Network principles l.jpg

4

Network Principles

  • A network that combines topologies or multiple redundancies is faster than one big pipe.

  • Network and data storage redundancy are a must, not because you’ll lose your data (although that’s crucial, too), but because one connection or server will inevitably fail at 10 a.m. Monday, with 2,325 people in the courthouse.

  • Faster and bigger ARE more expensive. Bandwidth is a combination of both.

  • No one has proven yet that ATM is better than Ethernet.


Three network diagrams how to read them and why it is important l.jpg

4

Three Network DiagramsHow to read them and why it is important

  • Review the 3 network diagrams on the next 6 slides

    An enlarged printout will be issued for each.

    2. Discuss the questions after each diagram

    Table talk is good.

    3. Ask questions, be confused, it’s okay

    Network analysts are a special breed.


Slide75 l.jpg

4

Network Architecture High Level WAN Diagram

Bandwidth

Circuit: Multiple Courts


Slide76 l.jpg

4

Network High Level WAN Diagram

Group Discussion

Court leaders need to be able to read and understand these types of diagrams or ask network specialists:

  • Diagrams illustrate technical information better than a narrative

  • Diagrams are the way network specialists design and plan system.

    What types of information are important to understand from this diagram?

  • How does our system provide redundancy?

  • Why is one of the islands always losing its connection to the mainframe?

  • Is the network leased, from whom, and how much does it cost annually?


Slide77 l.jpg

4

Wide Area Network (WAN) Diagram

Building (LAN)


Slide78 l.jpg

4

WAN Diagram

Group Discussion

What types of information are important to understand from this diagram; what are the questions?

  • Number of Local Area Networks and who is responsible for them.

  • Where the court’s responsibility begins and ends.

  • How safe is the Court from hackers or piracy? How are we protected?

  • What’s a mainframe, and why does everyone complain about it? Are they complaining about response time or about the ability to make changes?


Slide79 l.jpg

4

Small WAN Diagram (many LANs)


Slide80 l.jpg

4

Small WAN Diagram

Group Discussion

What types of information are important to understand from this diagram; what are the questions?

  • What network protocol are we using and is it providing the best efficiency?

  • What’s the big gray rectangle, full of computers/ servers on the left? Which color blocks represent the courts?

  • Where are the courts’ primary case management mainframe or servers located? Is it a problem that the county controls them? What happens when our servers crash? Who is responsible?

  • Where’s the connection to the Internet? What protects the network from hackers?


Slide81 l.jpg

4

Wireless

Are we there yet?

1. Two primary types of wireless systems:

Fat access points; distributed application switch

Thin access points; consolidated application switch

Dramatic increases in coverage

2. Security is a multi-headed beast:

Remote client (end user) hacking detection

Access point hacking detection

Hardwired switch hacking detection/firewall

Data transmission encryption

Signature handshakes

3. Significant long-term infrastructure savings

Yes, and no. Court will still need to maintain and upgrade access points. NO WIRE.


Slide82 l.jpg

4

Wireless Diagram, how it works


Slide83 l.jpg

4

Network Security

Where the rubber meets the road

  • Purposes

    Authentication, confidentiality, integrity, compression

  • Decision Factors

    Risk, cost and speed.

  • Types of Security

    Firewalls; Encryption (e-commerce); Digital Signatures; Secure Socket Layers (SSLs) (Internet and e-commerce); and Virtual Private Networks (VPN’s)


Slide84 l.jpg

5

Information Technology Fundamentals

COURT SERVICES AND APPLICATIONS


Slide85 l.jpg

5

Information Technology Driver

Services &

Applications

Data, Business

Infrastructure

Hardware,

Systems, Software

IT Governance

Policy, Standards, Funding,

Architecture, Organization

Adapted by Permission of Gartner, Inc.


Slide86 l.jpg

5

Information Technology Architectures

No architecture is mutually exclusive, many overlap.

  • Legacy (mainframe)

  • Stand Alone

  • Client Server (2 and 3-tiers)

  • Data Warehouse Systems

  • Mediated Systems

  • Internet/Intranet Architectures

  • Web Services

  • Service Oriented Architecture (n-tier)


Slide87 l.jpg

5

Legacy (mainframe)

  • Usually, operating system, application logic, database and presentation and user interface layers are in one location;

  • Traditionally, flat-file tables, instead of relational database, repetitive data, hard to program, report generation may require extensive programming hours;

  • End users’ (clients) computers traditionally see screens generated by host system (green screen). New graphic user interfaces require more “client” memory and power;

  • Network topology/protocols are token ring/frame relay, inexpensive/closed systems, high processing speeds, used for EDI – with middleware; and

  • MANY court systems are still on legacy platforms.


Slide88 l.jpg

5

Stand Alone

  • Independent applications, often developed in-house by small court or departments within courts lacking organizational capacity or resources;

  • Applications range from Visual Basic (VB) ,MS Access, Word or Excel to old relational database programs lacking open architecture and SQL (structured query language) data;

  • Application is run on one or multiple computers and are not linked to other networks;

  • Examples of traditional uses include probation management, fiscal (fines, fees, bail), calendaring, jury management, among others.


Slide89 l.jpg

5

Client PC

Database Server

Client PC

Application Server

Client PC

Client Server

  • Any application that separates (physically) the user interface layer from the database layer (2 tiers). In early systems, application logic was included on either the client or the server. Newer systems include the application on a 3rd tier, often called the application server;

  • Internet or “web-based” applications are often adapted from client server with a browser user interface, and multiple layers (n-tiered);

  • Most mission critical systems today are still built using this architecture;


Slide90 l.jpg

5

Internet/Intranet Architectures

Jurisdiction B

Host DB and web server

Jurisdiction A

Host DB and web server

Internet/Intranet connecting several jurisdictions or agencies

Client Browsers

Jurisdiction D

Host DB and web server

Jurisdiction C

Host DB and web server


Slide91 l.jpg

5

Internet/Intranet Architectures

  • Systems based on Internet technology and protocols, although often in a closed network connected to the Internet through a firewall;

  • Information is accessible to clients/users through a browser – no client-side application – generally, HTML;

  • No inherent structure for data sharing between systems;

  • Functions similar to a wide area network (WAN);

  • Good platform for enterprise email. File and data sharing generally occurs through email.


Slide92 l.jpg

5

Data Warehouse Systems

Interface

Jurisdiction A

Jurisdiction B

Jurisdiction C

Jurisdiction D

Data

Warehouse

Interface

Client Browsers

Interface

Interface

Client Applications

  • Centralized management and control of information, linked to multiple systems or databases, difficult to add new data sources, distributed interfaces;

  • Requires data transformation to standards (usu. extensible markup language – XML);

  • Often latent information, based on update lag, overcome using replication or mirroring technology, high initial costs – inexpensive integration.


Slide93 l.jpg

5

Mediated (Data Sharing) Systems

Jurisdiction A

Jurisdiction B

Jurisdiction C

Jurisdiction D

Query

Mapper

Single

Application

Client Browsers

Single

Interface

Permission

Set

Client Applications

  • Similar objectives as data warehouse systems, except without a data warehouse;

  • Real-time access to other data sources;

  • Mandates data transformation to a single standard (XML);

  • Query layer becomes a separate, unified application;

  • Less costly, but politically very difficult – one agency pulling data from another agency database.


Slide94 l.jpg

5

Web Services Architecture

A derivative of mediated systems applied to the Web

  • A web-based set of tools used as a platform to integrate disparate applications over the Internet or a network using Internet protocols;

  • The standardized tools used to transmit native data and processes independent of proprietary applications include:

    XML (extensible markup language): Used to tag (identify) data according to a standard set of definitions

    SOAP (simple object access protocol): Sends XML data over the Internet

    WSDL (web services description language): Describes a web services capabilities, used by UDDI (see below)

    UDDI (universal description discovery and integration): A worldwide business registry


Slide95 l.jpg

5

Web Services Architecture

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Webservices.png. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this bitmap under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation


Slide96 l.jpg

5

Web Services Architecture

  • Court Advantages

    Very useful for closed, proprietary and legacy systems;

    Most applicable to: CJIS and therapeutic justice integration

  • Court Disadvantages

    Still immature, while sold as the great solution to EDI Lack of security

    Poor performance - XML model is data and process heavy


Slide97 l.jpg

5

Service Oriented Architecture

  • Cultural Shift to thinking about technologies as tools to provide services to users and the public;

  • Introduction of the term “channel,” ways that users access information;

  • Enterprise response to users and the public drove a rethinking about horizontal vs. vertical (silos) information, distributed computing, shared services, and integrated systems;

  • Synthesis of many architectures.


Slide98 l.jpg

5

Channels

Conceptual Court Service Architecture


Slide99 l.jpg

5

Service Delivery Architecture – New Concepts

  • Government – not Court – is model

    Adapted to medium-large court enterprise

  • Data storage is not always application dependent

    Based on data repository concept and shared services

  • Shared Services are not proprietary

    Forms, identities, payments, decision support, GIS

  • Customers are ALL users: Court and Public

    Judges, employees, partners, citizens, vendors

  • Methods of user access are called channels

    Internal and external, independent from systems


Slide100 l.jpg

5

Service Delivery Architecture – Pitfalls

  • Threatens Independence/Accountability Balance

    Especially when integrated with other government (county or state) systems;

  • “Local Courts are Local”

    For regional or state-wide systems, local identities (citizens) and other shared services create “big brother” tension;

  • Friction and Competing Priorities

    Between stakeholders if leadership is not present and parties feel a lack of ownership; and

  • Complexity Demands Implementation Skill

    Often lacking in government.


Slide101 l.jpg

5

Service Delivery and Communities of Interest

  • Services Should Drive Technology

    IT stakeholders must prioritize services and organizational needs and then map infrastructure and technology solutions;

  • State IT Systems Must Include Local Input

    State centralized systems often impose solutions, but they must get local input for planning and development;

  • Local Court Leaders Must Lead IT

    Trial courts that are part of a distributed county system must be drivers in a service delivery architecture. It’s hard to do.


Exercise 4 l.jpg

5

Exercise 4

The Dilemma: Courts, Government, and Service Oriented Architecture

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams by table

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Be prepared to report and discuss


Slide103 l.jpg

5

Public

Public

Public

Public

Web Portal

Web Portal

IVR

IVR

Access

Access

Access

Access

Access to Records

Access to Records

E

E

-

-

Commerce

Commerce

Core

Core

Core

Core

Case Management

Case Management

E

E

-

-

Filing

Filing

Mission

Mission

Jury Management

Jury Management

E

E

-

-

Documents

Documents

Mission

Mission

Audio

Audio

Audio

Audio

Recording

Recording

Video Conference

Video Conference

Assistive Listening

Assistive Listening

Video

Video

Video

Video

Shared

Shared

Shared

Shared

Operating Systems

Operating Systems

Office Tools

Office Tools

Services

Services

Identities

Identities

Email

Email

Services

Services

Fiscal

Fiscal

CJIS

CJIS

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Procurement

Procurement

HR

HR

Court Services and Applications


Slide104 l.jpg

5

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Core Mission

Critical to the Court’s primary function – to process cases from filing through to disposition and enforcement of orders.

  • Case management

  • Jury management

  • E-Filing

  • Electronic document management (EDM)


Slide105 l.jpg

5

Case Management, Mission Critical

MODEL TRAFFIC FLOW CHART

Washington County, MD


Slide106 l.jpg

5

Case Management Systems

Any system that records and tracks court cases electronically. Generally, they are subdivided by casetypes:

  • Casetypes

    Appellate, criminal, civil, domestic relations, juvenile, traffic, probate and specialized courts (drug, community);

  • Architectures

    Include legacy, stand alone, client server, Internet/intranet, and service oriented architectures;

  • Enterprise Links

    Many systems have been linked with enterprise architectures, such as criminal justice information systems, that include data warehouses and mediated systems.


Slide107 l.jpg

5

Case Management Functions (Six Total)

1. Case initiation and data entry

Case-centric file management

Docketing and record keeping (filings and events)

Document indexing (generation and processing)

2. Calendaring

Hearing schedules and case assignment

Schedule coordination

3. Accounting

Case-centric financial transactions

Fees, fines, costs, bail, and related payments

Reconciliation, distribution and reporting


Slide108 l.jpg

5

Case Management Functions (Six Total)

4. Management information

Case-centric measures and reporting

Aggregate measures and reporting

Standards integration

5.Systems Integration and External Interfaces

Core systems: document management; data retrieval; web access; e-filing

Enterprise: CJIS, finance, human resources

6. Administration

User controls, security and privacy

Monitoring and maintenance


Slide109 l.jpg

5

Case Management Functional Standards

National benchmark for case management system functions; sponsored by COSCA/NACM Joint Technology Committee and endorsed by the Conference of Chief Justices and the Conference of State Court Administrators. Managed by the National Center for State Courts.

http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Tech/Standards/Standards.htm

Uses

  • Gap analysis and audit of your system;

  • Tool for strategic and technology planning;

  • Tool for RFP development and procurement assistance;

  • Helps vendors measure their products against existing standards.


Slide110 l.jpg

5

Functional Standards: Caution

  • Wholesale use of functional standards for RFPs without alignment with court needs and resources will result in costly proposals and unanticipated results;

  • Mandatory functions must be selected carefully, better results from incremental approaches and creative solutions.


Slide111 l.jpg

5

Case Management Issues

  • Ubiquity

    Many small to midsize courts do not yet have a case management system. Some have rudimentary docket entry systems based on entries (minutes) made during court hearings.

  • Older Architectures

    Many case management systems are built on legacy and older client/server platforms, developed over many years at great expense.

  • Modernization

    The “look and feel” of older applications is modernized by the use of a graphic user interface (GUI) or middleware to a more advanced presentation application.


Slide112 l.jpg

5

Case Management Issues

  • Newer Architectures

    For many older applications, the presentation and client (GUI) layer have been converted to a browser environment, using HTML, often referred to as “web-based,” even though these systems are often on closed networks, independent of the world wide web (WWW).

  • The Next Wave

    Newer case management systems are being rapidly developed on enterprise platforms, some based on a service delivery architecture or using web services.


Slide113 l.jpg

5

Jury Management Systems

  • Two primary functions

    1. Selecting and noticing prospective jury pool

    2. Managing jury panels and trial assignments

  • Issues

    Works best when integrated with case management systems for calendar coordination

    Integration with prospective jury pool names and addresses with sources (DMV, voter registration, varies by state) is crucial. Some name and address lists are provided by CD subscription.

  • Standards


Slide114 l.jpg

5

E-Filing

E-filing refers to the electronic filing, usually via the Internet, of complaints, petitions, amendments, motions and answers. Two approaches:

  • Court Owned

Court

Data

Storage

Review

Filing

Firewall

  • Third Party Contracted

CMS

Data

Storage

Firewall

Review

Filing

Court

3rd Party


Slide115 l.jpg

5

E-Filing Approaches

  • Court Owned

    Usually no additional user fees;

    Higher development costs;

    Higher maintenance and expert resources;

    Can be integrated into case management system, increased performance

  • Third Party Contracted

    Pricing model based exclusively on user fees, in some cases on court use fees;

    Usually no development or maintenance fees;

    Database is usually stored off-site;

    Some vendors are offering a mixed approach.


Slide116 l.jpg

5

E-Filing Objectives

  • Electronic filing to be the official court record, paper records should be considered a copy;

  • Use of freeware and/or open source software;

  • Use of browser interface, open standards (WC3), and most likely XML data standards;

  • Data and document integrity – Federal information processing standard 180.2;

  • Establish e-commerce to accept fines and fees;

  • Avoid surcharges; and

  • Integrate with electronic document management.


Slide117 l.jpg

5

E-Filing Standards

National benchmark for e-filing standards; sponsored by COSCA/NACM Joint Technology Committee and endorsed by the Conference of Chief Justices and the Conference of State Court Administrators. Managed by the National Center for State Courts: http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Tech/Standards/Standards.htm

  • Describes a “full service model;”

  • Maximizes incentives to use e-filing;

  • Road map for vendors;

  • Share expertise and experience; and

  • Helps move from paper to electronic environment


Slide118 l.jpg

5

E-Filing Example

Designed for self representation

Small Claims

Password Hint

Subscription

Log In

http://www.apps-saccourt.com/scc/


Slide119 l.jpg

5

Electronic Document Management (EDM)

Electronic document management enables a court or court organization to create, tag, search, check out, check in, save, locate and print documents stored electronically. Courts use EDM to manage:

  • Archived (old), scanned case files and other court documents (e.g. court orders, deeds);

  • Court filings and supporting documentation, such as briefs, motions and document attachments (e.g. contracts, affidavits).


Slide120 l.jpg

5

Electronic Document Management Approaches

  • Scan at Counter

Court

Data

Storage

CMS

Review

File

Scan

Index

Firewall

  • Attach to E-Filing document

Court

CMS

Data

Storage

Review

Filing

Firewall

Index


Slide121 l.jpg

5

EDM Issues and Considerations

  • Court owned vs. third party contracted

    Also subject to the e-filing choices between fee-based and no fee systems.

  • Document Formats

    Allow most formats, simple conversion for display:

    Word; Word Perfect; Adobe; XML

  • Security/Document Locking

    Documents must be secure, no tampering

  • Scaleability

    Anticipate growth, allow for extensive storage capacity


Slide122 l.jpg

5

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Public Access Technologies

  • Website portals

  • Electronic access to court records (Internet and public access workstations)

  • E-commerce

  • Interactive voice response (IVR) and database applications


Slide123 l.jpg

5

Public Access Goals and Issues

  • Increased Access

    Social divide between users with and without Internet and technology access;

    Alternative approaches: Assisted e-filing; public access workstations, both in the court and in libraries and other public locations; interactive voice response;

  • Integrity

    Provide court users and the Court with greater accuracy and integrity by reducing data entry and duplication. Goal is problematic if technology is not trusted, processes are not transparent.


Slide124 l.jpg

5

Transformation

Channel Exploitation

Transaction

Channel Development

Interaction

Channel Exploration

Presence

Cyberspace Placeholder

2005

Popular E-Government Model

A channel is an electronic mechanism to access government or conduct government business.

Are channels key to the court’s mission?

Gartner, Inc.


Slide125 l.jpg

5

Website Portals

A single website approach to access to local Courts and all the services that are offered online.

  • E-government theory is that all local government transactions should be accessible from a single portal;

  • In some jurisdictions (NJ), all trial courts statewide are accessible from a single statewide portal;

  • In some jurisdictions (LA), trial court websites are accessed from county or clerk portals.


Slide126 l.jpg

5

Website Portal Example

1 Click to Search Cases

Site Index

1 Click to Pay Fines

Large Menu

3 Clicks Max.

News and Community

http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/


Slide127 l.jpg

5

Website Portals

Potential functionality:

  • Static information about the courts, court processes, ways of getting to court, and judge and personnel directories;

  • Calendar information about court cases (requires continuous update from the case management system);

  • Self-represented assistance resources;

  • Dynamic case information, accessible by outline or search;

  • Payment of fines and fees.


Slide128 l.jpg

5

Electronic Access to Court Records

Any electronic means to access court records and information, including calendars.

  • Fixed Location Systems

    Public access workstations;

    Monitor displays of daily calendars (usu. in the courthouse)

  • Internet Based Systems

    Daily calendars, posted in a static view

    Searchable daily calendars

    Searchable case information

  • Interactive Voice Response Systems

    Dial up, key pad response

    Voice recognition systems


Slide129 l.jpg

5

Internet Access to Court Records

Case Number

Court

Casetype

Disclaimer

http://www.gwinnettcourts.com/lib_asp/casendx2.asp?divisionCode=ALL


Slide130 l.jpg

5

Internet Access to Court Calendars

Click a Date!

http://216.77.33.236/civil/calendar (NC Business Court)


Slide131 l.jpg

5

Electronic Commerce

The buying, selling, and marketing of products and services over computer networks or the Internet. Courts generally use e-commerce to collect fees and fines associated with court filings and court cases.

Approaches include:

  • Third party (bank link) credit card processing;

  • Debit accounts, usually set up by attorneys and law firms

     Escrow account, against which fees are drawn;

     Revolving credit or debit card accounts; or

     Direct bank account funds transfer.


Slide132 l.jpg

5

Electronic Commerce Example

Credit card payment of traffic fines

Parking/Traffic Ticket

License #

Credit Card

Help Desk

http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/atswep/njmcdirectmain/


Slide133 l.jpg

5

E-Commerce Benefits and Hurdles

  • Cost Savings Benefits

  • A 2001 Gartner study notes a $3.25 savings per transaction for traffic fine collection, and a 20-30% penetration within one year.

  • Incremental Improvements

  • The same study notes “…cost savings do not appear instantaneously. There is a ramp-up period…”

  • Political Issues

  • Credit card transactions often include fees that are not easily offset by operational cost savings in Government.


Slide134 l.jpg

5

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise Applications

Cross-jurisdictional, linked applications that build on Shared Services. Enterprise systems are architectures that link previously separate systems, allowing data exchange.

  • Criminal justice information systems (CJIS)

  • Problem solving court systems

  • Child support systems

  • Finance and accounting

  • Procurement and inventory

  • Human resources


Slide135 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Any enterprise platform that links disparate agencies, branches of government, and treatment providers to allow data exchange

  • Criminal processing linkage – e.g. arrest to arraignment;

  • Criminal treatment systems – associated with probation terms and alternatives to incarceration;

  • Criminal history data exchange;

  • Juvenile justice systems;

  • Drug and treatment court systems;

  • Community court systems;

  • Extended Family court systems – usually associated with classes, private mediation and counseling orders.


Slide136 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Old Approach: Single Integrated System, Common Platform.

Problems include:

  • Massive initial investment of time and resources; often technology had changed long before project completion;

  • Jurisdictional disputes: systems ownership, data ownership, funding, security;

  • Technology development faster than project development;

  • Limited number of developers/companies capable of implementation.


Slide137 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Data Warehouse Approach

Prosecutor

Sheriff

Police Booking

Data Warehouse

Treatment Providers

Federal and State Criminal History

Probation and Pretrial

Court Case Management System


Slide138 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Data Warehouse Approach

  • Court participation demands Court leadership;

  • Who pays for, owns and manages the data warehouse;

  • Initial expense is high, cost sharing;

  • Data access controlled by agreement;

  • Does not require XML translation;

  • Promotes but does not require standardization of data elements;

  • In practice, often aggrandizing of data elements, e.g. six different defendant identifiers.


Slide139 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Mediated Approach

Prosecutor

Sheriff

Police Booking

XML

Middleware

Treatment Providers

Federal and State Criminal History

Probation and Pretrial

Court Case Management System


Slide140 l.jpg

5

CJIS and Problem Solving Systems

Mediated Systems

  • Court participation demands Court leadership;

  • Demands data standardization, use of XML translation;

  • Everyone owns their own data; data exchange is process-based;

  • Data exchange controlled by agreement;

  • Security controls are crucial;

  • Promotes standardization of data elements;

  • Mediated systems devolve to agency/agency (linear) and not on a spoke.


Slide141 l.jpg

5

Finance, Procurement and HR

Enterprise management applications that are often owned by the executive/legislature in county governments.

  • Finance and procurement almost always require linkage to a county, and often to a state, system;

  • Court case management systems usually require a fee/fine/bail component that is linked to general revenue systems. Procurement, escrow, and estate accounting (masters) sometimes fall under court jurisdiction.

  • Courts often maintain their own HR applications as separate or sub-systems of a county;

  • Many accounting and HR applications exist, even for government. They are easily adaptable to the court environment.


Slide142 l.jpg

5

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Shared Services

Services that are provided to more than one department through a single service provider (internal or external)

  • Departments can work together in Communities of Interest to identify needs and requirements, and determine technological solutions

  • Common data and tool sets

  • Help desk operations

  • Improved quality and control

  • Better management of public and staff data and data exchange/retrieval


Slide143 l.jpg

5

Shared Services

  • Identities

  • Operating systems

  • Office automation systems

  • Email

  • Judicial support and bench book applications

  • Geographic information systems (GIS)

  • Customer service – customer resource management (CRM)

  • Application Security


Slide144 l.jpg

5

Shared Services

  • Identities: Names, aliases and contact information for ALL court users, both internal and external

    Reduces data entry errors;

    Easy to compile from county/court records

    Requires system interfaces with all/most applications

  • Operating systems: PCs, Server, and Network. Economy of scale and maintenance. Tension between ubiquitous commercial and open source systems.

  • Office automation systems: Economy of scale and maintenance – Continuity. Legal vs. commercial popularity.


Slide145 l.jpg

5

Shared Services

  • Email: Generally, supported centrally. Smaller courts may rely on pre-installed commercial applications, assigning email addresses linked to domain names.

  • Judicial support and bench book applications: Usually, subscription based, billed by number of users. Can be Internet or CD-ROM with central storage.

    Bench book applications require extensive state customization. (e.g. Georgia)

  • Geographic information systems (GIS): Usually, executive/legislative branch function. Includes data for deeds, legal surveys, maps (website), etc.


Slide146 l.jpg

5

Shared Services

  • Customer Service – customer resource management (CRM): Linked to Public Access and Identities. Channels used to link the public and other court users with court information at public counters, workstations, lobby monitors or in direct transactions.

    Broad term to unify court community services in automation. Examples include on-line self-help centers (see following Slide).

  • Application and Network Security: Applicable to shared security applications and technology in an organization. Includes firewalls, encryption, public key, passwords etc. Often managed by one department.


Slide147 l.jpg

5

On-Line Self Help Center

Legal Help

Family

Small Claims

PFA

Traffic

Seniors

Languages

http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/selfhelp/


Slide148 l.jpg

5

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Public Access

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Core Mission

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Audio Video

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Shared Services

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Enterprise

Audio and Video

Primarily technologies used in the courtroom, although increasingly in basic office tasks

  • Video conferencing

  • Audio and video recording

  • Evidence presentation

  • Assistive listening technologies


Slide149 l.jpg

5

Judge

Clerk

Attorneys

Basic Courtroom Audio Video Setup

Screen

Monitors

Jury

Evidence

Cameras


Slide150 l.jpg

5

Basic Video Conferencing Functions

  • Video conferencing and display

  • Video standard (usu. H.323)

  • Linkage to courtroom audio system

  • Video and audio recording

  • Existing external linkage via virtual private network (VPN), codex and/or local area network (LAN)

  • Future external linkages via public Internet line, an MCU gateway and a wide area network (WAN)

  • Linkage to evidence display systems


Slide151 l.jpg

5

Video Conferencing & Arraignment Issues

  • Courtroom usage is primarily for pretrial/arraignment hearings;

  • Few office uses of video conferencing – matching sites

The Future

  • In the future, will be a subset of smart or hi-tech courtrooms;

  • Point to point video connectivity will not be dependent on dedicated systems;

  • Video links will be scheduled, authorized and transmitted using Internet or Intranet connectivity and common video standards


Slide152 l.jpg

5

Audio and Video Recording

Primarily technologies used in courtrooms

  • Video recording incorporates audio recording

  • Video recording requires a shift of reporting skills to monitoring, annotation and transcription

  • Audio recording often used as backup to real-time transcription or court reporting systems

  • Linkage to sound systems and directional mikes

  • Primary tension is political with the use of court reporters

  • Australia is the leader in automated court recording


Slide153 l.jpg

5

Judge

Judge

Clerk

Clerk

Attorneys

Attorneys

Evidence Presentation

Components usually include:

  • Integrated into courtroom video display and projection

  • Whiteboard (electronic markup board)

  • Digital camera (display of documents and objects)

  • DVD and VCR players (recorded and expert testimony)

  • Evidence recording linkage (bar code or other technology for court control during trial)


Slide154 l.jpg

5

Wireless Sound Transmitter

Assistive Listening Technologies

Technologies used to provide sound amplification for hearing disabled and for language interpretation

Components usually include:

  • 360 degree wireless sound transmitter (microwave or other medium)

  • Headphones with receivers; often courts share among courtrooms

  • Linkage to language interpretation and remote (separate room) transmission


Exercise 5 l.jpg

5

Exercise 5

Establishing a Technology Solution: Prioritizing the Court’s Services and Needs

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams by table

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Be prepared to report and discuss


Slide156 l.jpg

6

Identify, Match

Identify, Match

Establish

Establish

Identify, Match

Identify, Match

Establish

Establish

and Prioritize

and Prioritize

Infrastructure/

Infrastructure/

and Prioritize

and Prioritize

Infrastructure/

Infrastructure/

Court Services to

Court Services to

Software Platform &

Software Platform &

Court Services to

Court Services to

Software Platform &

Software Platform &

Needed

Needed

Development

Development

Needed

Needed

Development

Development

Automation

Automation

Approach

Approach

Automation

Automation

Approach

Approach

Evaluate, Identify

Evaluate, Identify

Evaluate, Identify

Evaluate, Identify

Build and Test

Build and Test

Build and Test

Build and Test

Gaps, Re

Gaps, Re

-

-

Focus

Focus

Gaps, Re

Gaps, Re

-

-

Focus

Focus

on Next Phases

on Next Phases

on Next Phases

on Next Phases

Information Technology Fundamentals

PROJECTS


Projects strategic principles l.jpg

6

ProjectsStrategic Principles

Spiral Approach

Plan, Build, Test, Rollout, Fix..Repeat

Plan for Versions/ Releases, not the Big Bang

1

4

Pilot New Projects With a High Performance Group

Constant Development, Migration, Rollout

2

5

6 Month Development Increments

Budget Hardware, Software Replacement

3

6


Project management system lifecycle l.jpg

6

Project ManagementSystem Lifecycle

  • Leadership Initiation and Funding Sources

  • Feasibility, Alternatives Analysis

  • Functional Requirements and Conversion Analysis

  • System Design and Specifications

  • Procurement

  • BUILD – Development

  • Testing

  • Training

  • User Acceptance

  • ROLLOUT

  • System andPerformance Review


Project failure does it need to be a nightmare l.jpg

6

Failed

Succeeded

23%

28%

Challenged

49%

Project FailureDoes It Need to Be A Nightmare?

Project Resolution 2000

Data from Extreme Chaos, The Standish Group International, Inc. 2001


Technical procurement does it need to be a nightmare l.jpg

6

Technical ProcurementDoes It Need to Be A Nightmare?

  • Open, interoperable and scaleable systems

  • Eschew custom development, where possible

  • Penalty clauses

  • Performance based contracts – bonds

  • Early completion incentives

  • Match the contract to the task

  • Clear specifications

  • Fixed price better than time and materials


Project management the team contracted developer l.jpg

6

Project ManagementThe Team: Contracted Developer

Vendor Project Director

4x per project

Stakeholders

4x per project

COURT

Court Project Manager

Daily

Vendor Project Manager

Daily

DEVELOPER

Senior Developer

Biweekly

COIs

Power User Group

Biweekly

Senior Analyst

Biweekly

IT Analysts

Daily and Biweekly

Programmers

Biweekly


Project management contracted developer pitfalls and concerns l.jpg

6

Project ManagementContracted Developer Pitfalls and Concerns

  • Developer goes out of business

  • Marketing folks are on their best behavior; small problems there signal big problems down the road

  • Developer leadership/management – high priority

  • Platform dependent systems

  • Proprietary and semi-closed systems

  • Understanding of court processes by development team – “learning on the job”

  • In-house (in)ability to modify/update application

  • Costly upgrades (future versions)


Project management risk management checklist l.jpg

6

Project ManagementRisk Management Checklist

  • Independent verification and validation

  • User review, testing, acceptance and training

  • Performance based contracts and specifications

  • Court ownership of CODE (major systems)

  • Written PLANS for:

    • Security

    • Systems Integration

    • Data Migration

    • Operations/Maintenance

    • Downtime Contingencies

    • Disaster Recovery


Project management lessons learned l.jpg

6

Project ManagementLessons Learned

  • Hands on approach, constant demos

  • Use technology, demo online

  • Heavy user involvement (COIs and power users)

  • Incremental products

  • Constant and meaningful feedback

  • Don’t meet just to meet

  • Frequent written updates should flag areas of concern and need for group meetings


Project management in house team l.jpg

6

Project ManagementIn-House Team

Independent Industry Analyst/Consultant

Biweekly (luxury)

Stakeholders

4x per project

IT Director

4x per project

Senior Developer Project Manager

Daily

Court Project Manager

Daily

COURT

Senior Analysts

Biweekly

COIs

Power User Group

Biweekly

Programmers

Biweekly


Project management in house development pitfalls and concerns l.jpg

6

Project ManagementIn-house Development Pitfalls and Concerns

  • Inadequate expertise, long learning curve

  • Narrow IT advice – “This is what we know.”

  • Strong allegiance to existing systems

  • No competitive incentive to perform

  • No contractual incentive to meet deadlines

  • Isolation of IT staff

  • Lack of knowledge of court processes

  • Ongoing cost of large IT staff is high

  • Not enough money to hire IT experts


Project management in house development benefits l.jpg

6

Project ManagementIn-house Development Benefits

  • Previous experience and better knowledge of Court’s processes and needs

  • Court owns system outright

  • Process inherently promotes applications expertise

  • Should get IT folks involved with users

  • Upfront costs are hidden in salaries – “we would have paid them anyway”


Slide168 l.jpg

6

Exercise 6

Managing a Procurement

  • Use materials from Tab III

  • Work in teams by table

  • Appoint a spokesperson

  • Be prepared to report and discuss


ad