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How Research Helps Shape the Future of Arboriculture / Urban Forestry. Roger C. Funk, Ph.D. The Davey Tree Expert Company rfunk@davey.com. “Tis Easy to See, Hard to Foresee” - Benjamin Franklin. History of Arboriculture. “He that has a trade, hath an estate” - Benjamin Franklin.

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how research helps shape the future of arboriculture urban forestry

How Research Helps Shape the Future of Arboriculture / Urban Forestry

Roger C. Funk, Ph.D.

The Davey Tree Expert Company

rfunk@davey.com

“Tis Easy to See, Hard to Foresee”

- Benjamin Franklin

history of arboriculture

History of Arboriculture

“He that has a trade, hath an estate” - Benjamin Franklin

arboricultural services
Arboricultural Services
  • The basics at the turn of the century:

(95% of the work)

    • Cavity work
    • Pruning
    • Cabling and bracing
  • 1930’s added:
    • Fertilization
    • Pest control
    • Lightning protection
arboricultural services5
Arboricultural Services
  • 1975 NAA Survey of Arboricultural Services

(Journal of Arboriculture, 3 (8), Aug., 1977)

    • 37% Pruning
    • 18% Spraying
    • 16% Removals
    • 8% Utility pruning
    • 6% Fertilizing
    • 8% Other:

tree moving,

bracing,

planting,

cavity work,

diagnosis

arboricultural services6
Arboricultural Services
  • 1997 NAA and Forest Service survey of 25.5 million trees serviced

(May, 1997, Arbor Age)

    • 54% Pruning
    • 23.5% Insect spraying
    • 14.5% Fertilizer
    • 6% Removals
    • 1% Cabling
national research plan for urban forestry 2005 2015
National Research Plan for Urban Forestry 2005 – 2015

Goal 1

Expand knowledge and innovation about urban forest resource management to promote urban ecosystem health and sustainability.

Goal 2

Assess and monitor changing land use, and develop policy and practices to reduce landscape change.

Goal 3

Develop and deliver knowledge to mitigate and control invasive species and natural disturbances.

A report by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

national research plan for urban forestry 2005 20159
National Research Plan for Urban Forestry 2005 – 2015

Goal 4

Expand understanding of how trees and forests enhance air and water quality and other environmental services.

Goal 5

Understand and implement urban forest systems and conditions that enhance human health and well-being.

Goal 6

Assess and implement community development and economic benefits through community-based planning and management of forests.

A report by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

drivers of change

Drivers of Change

  • Economics
  • Demographics
  • Environmental Awareness
  • Climate Change
  • Globalization
  • Technology / Dissemination
economics research funding
Economics / Research Funding

“Remember that time is money” - Benjamin Franklin

  • R&D = investment in the future…but “deferrable”
  • How large is arboriculture/urban forestry market?
    • Fragmented industry
    • $5 billion for arboriculture alone
    • What constitutes the urban forest?

Look outside your window…

  • What is the annual spending for arboriculture / urban forestry research?
    • Urban Community Forest Programs have declined 25% in the past 4 years from a high of $36 million annually to $27 million in 2007
    • Nearly $3 million has been funded by the TREE fund since 1975
economics research funding12
R&D expenditures as a

% of GDP: .

US 2.68% (56% for defense)

China 1.25% to 2.5% in 2020

Japan 3.0%

EuropeanUnion 1.9% to 3% in 2010

Russia 1.5%

R&D expenditures as a

% of net sales: .

In 2003 health care services spent 2.3%

Innovative companies with an R&D line budget increased revenues by 346%

Other companies: 138%

Economics / Research Funding

“Remember that time is money” - Benjamin Franklin

  • How much should be spent annually for research?
  • Research Funding Opportunities
    • Tax Credits
    • Aligned agencies, foundations, trusts
demographics

Today, it is about 80% urban

In 1920 the urban and rural population were about equal

In 1880 the population was about 30% Urban

Demographics

“Love your neighbor, yet don’t pull down your hedge” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Arboriculture and urban forestry are not just about trees, but also about people
  • Population in 1880, 1920, and 2008

From 50 million

in 1880 to over

420 million

by 2050

demographics14
Demographics

“Love your neighbor, yet don’t pull down your hedge” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Increasing population shifts to coastal areas
demographics15
Demographics

“Love your neighbor, yet don’t pull down your hedge” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Impact on environment
    • Consumption
    • Loss of green space
    • Disaster-prone areas
  • Future research
    • Tougher trees, tree-friendly landscapes, placement

Picture credit: Urban Advantage

environmental awareness
Arbor Day

Tree City USA

The 1970’s

Silent Spring

Earth Day

EPA

The Critical Role of Trees

“Collapse, How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed”

Thou Shalt Not Pollute

Quantifying Benefits

UFORE

STRATUM

i-Tree

NYC: $5.60 for each $1.00 spent. Budget from $22m to $62m

Trees as Infrastructure

American Planning Association

Canadian National Forest Strategy

Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Study

Forestry

Forestry

Environmental Awareness

“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” - Benjamin Franklin

Urban ecologists will move up!

climate change
Climate Change

“When the wells dry, we know the worth of water” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Atmospheric CO2 increase
    • Extreme weather effect
  • Extreme weather effect on trees
    • Nanling National Nature Reserve
  • Direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on trees
    • Increased growth
    • Insect susceptibility
    • Storm water run-off
  • Planting trees to offset CO2 emissions
    • Utilities – SMUD, Iowa
    • Cities – Los Angeles, Boston, Seattle, Denver, Salt Lake, New York City
    • United Nations
  • Bio Technology
    • Stress gene

17% Increase in the Last 50 Years

globalization
Globalization

“Failing to prepare is preparing to fail” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Global trade = invasive species

Turn of the 20th Century

    • Gypsy moth, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight

Turn of the 21st Century

    • Asian longhorned beetle
    • Emerald ash borer
    • Sudden oak death
  • Prevention, eradication and dissemination
  • NOAA – Most serious threat of the decade
  • Pace of globalization quickening; so must efforts
technology dissemination
Technology / Dissemination

“An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest” - Benjamin Franklin

  • Technical knowledge
    • Research, Education and Training: Seeds of Innovation
    • Doubles: 2000 5 years; 2008 2 years; 2010 72 hrs
  • Dissemination
    • Existing & future professionals, public officials, clients and public
    • Computers and the internet
      • Continue to rewrite the rules
      • Full digital integration within 10 years
      • 90% of all technical information will be available digitally; will need interpretation
      • Semantic Web
      • By 2050, $1000 computer (2008 dollars) will exceed computing capability of human race
    • MIT
    • Enciclomedia: curriculum for 10 and 11 yr olds in Mexico
    • Corporate Universities

400 in 1998; 1,600 in 2008

KSU/Davey partnership

  • Other: Master Gardener Program, Garden and Civic Clubs
summary

Summary

“Well done is always better than well said”

-Benjamin Franklin

how research shapes the future of arboriculture urban forestry
How Research Shapes the Future of Arboriculture / Urban Forestry
  • Economics Drives Decisions
  • Environmental movement and Climate Change Focus Attention
  • Globalization Increases Invasive Species
  • Population Increase, Shift and Economic Growth Increases Environmental Impact
  • Research and Dissemination
    • History has assured our today
      • Professional trade organizations, ISA certification, research
    • Today will assure our future
      • Research quantifying economic, social and environmental benefits
      • Creating “tougher trees” and better growing conditions
      • Cooperation and Coordination of Research and Dissemination