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Global Marketing. Professor Lawrence Feick University of Pittsburgh. CBA/BSC Picnic!. Saturday, September 12, 3-6 PM WPU Lawn Featuring bands The Simpletons Blend Food Prizes. Outline. The importance of foreign trade Deciding which countries Deciding how to enter

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global marketing

Global Marketing

Professor Lawrence Feick

University of Pittsburgh

cba bsc picnic
CBA/BSC Picnic!
  • Saturday, September 12, 3-6 PM
  • WPU Lawn
  • Featuring bands
    • The Simpletons
    • Blend
  • Food
  • Prizes
  • The importance of foreign trade
  • Deciding which countries
  • Deciding how to enter
  • Deciding on selling using a localized or standardized marketing mix
  • Exports: domestically produced products sold in foreign markets
  • Imports: products produced in a foreign market and sold in the domestic market
  • Balance of trade: approximately = exports - imports
the importance of foreign trade us gdp and foreign trade in nominal billions of usd
The importance of foreign tradeUS GDP and foreign trade in nominal billions of USD

Source: US International Trade Administration, USDC

who are our top trading partners 1997 us trade data in millions of usd
Who are our top trading partners?1997 US trade data in millions of USD

Source: International Trade Administration, USDC

top 10 us exports and imports
Top 10 US Exports and Imports

Major Export Product

Amount (billions)

Amount (billions)

Major Import Product

1. Agricultural products


1. Computers and office equipment


2. Electrical machinery


2. Crude oil


3. Computers and office equipmt.


3. Clothing


4. General industrial machinery


4. Telecommunications equipment


5. Motor vehicle parts


5. Agricultural products


6. Specialized industrial machnry.


6. Cars produced in Canada


7. Power generating equipment


7. General industrial machinery


8. Telecommunications equipmt.


8. Cars produced in Japan


9. Scientific instruments


9. Power generating equipment


10. Chemicals-organic


10. Motor vehicle parts


foreign market entry decisions
Foreign market entry: decisions

How to






typical triggers to initial internationalization
Typical triggers to initial internationalization
  • Saturation or competition in domestic market
  • Movement overseas of domestic customers
  • Diversification of risk
  • Sourcing opportunities in overseas markets
  • Government incentives to export
foreign market entry which countries
Foreign market entry: which countries?









company factors
Company factors
  • Geographic and language distance
  • Preexisting ties with customers going abroad
product factors
Product factors
  • Product-market fit
  • Product adaptability
country factors screening criteria
Country factors: screening criteria
  • Macro variables
    • GDP, inflation, population size, political risk
  • General market factors
    • size, growth, taxes, duties, regulation, support
  • Customer characteristics
    • segments, preferences, buying power
  • Competitor characteristics
    • size, strength, importance of the market to them
foreign market entry how to enter
Foreign market entry:how to enter?


Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign assembly and production


of Risk



Contractual Agreements

Franchising, Licensing,and Contracting


Direct and indirect Exporting


foreign market entry exporting
Foreign market entry: exporting
  • Indirect exporting
    • using a trading company
  • Direct exporting
    • using sales reps or manufacturers reps in the foreign country
foreign market entry contractual agreements
Foreign market entry: contractual agreements
  • Licensing
    • for a fee, grant rights to use patent or trademark to foreign company
  • Franchising
    • special form of licensing that dictates operations and marketing procedures
  • Contract manufacturing
    • produce locally under contract from firm
foreign market entry foreign production
Foreign market entry:foreign production
  • Assembly
    • produce locally from subunits [completely (CKD) or semi (SKD) knocked down] parts shipped in
    • usually has high labor, small capital investment
  • Full production
typical initial internationalization
Typical initial internationalization
  • Opportunistic exports of unadapted products
  • Usually to close, same language markets
  • Contracted marketing activities using distributors, trading companies, etc
should we standardize the marketing mix across borders
Should we standardize the marketing mix across borders?
  • Benefits of standardization
    • cost savings, communication benefits, MNC customers, exploit good ideas, better control
  • Benefits of localization
    • better meet local customer needs, allow discretion of local managers
  • Which elements of the mix to standardize?
when to standardize
When to standardize...
  • Similar macro environments
    • socio-cultural, economic, technological, regulatory, political-legal, competitive
  • Intrinsically borderless products
culture defined
Culture defined
  • …values, attitudes, beliefs, artifacts, and … symbols represented in the pattern of life adopted by people that help them interpret, evaluate and communicate as members of society (Rice 1993)
  • …underlying framework that guides an individual’s perceptions of events …and selection of responses (Johansson 1997)
understanding culture
Understanding culture
  • Includes shared interpretations, meanings, understandings of a group
  • Reflected in knowledge, values, beliefs, art, music, dance, material artifacts, language
  • Culture is learned
  • People are to culture as fish are to water
example us culture
Example: US culture
  • Some core values
    • individualism, freedom, industriousness, self-determination, materialism, impatience, present focus, youth, secularism
  • The importance of subcultures
example other cultures
Example: Other cultures
  • How different from US?
    • core values?
    • subcultures?
culture s impact on marketing
Culture’s impact on marketing
  • Taste and preferences
    • pizza topping preferences
  • Values
    • impact on ads
  • Language
    • product names, slogans
pizza hut most popular pizza toppings by country
Pizza Hut: most popular pizza toppings by country
  • US-pepperoni
  • England-corn and tuna
  • India-pickled ginger
  • Japan-squid
  • Guatemala-black bean sauce
  • Australia-eggs
  • Bahamas-barbecued chicken

A US ad for Guerlain’s Champs-Elysees perfume

A Middle Eastern adaptation of the Guerlain ad

so when does a standardized mix seem to work
So, when does a standardized mix seem to work?
  • Consumer products bought on functional characteristics
    • stereos, computers, cameras
  • Common cross-border segments, especially high end, image products
    • jewelry, cosmetics
standardized products continued
Standardized products (continued)
  • Industrial products
    • airplane engines, semiconductors, medical equipment, etc
  • Services
    • banking, accounting, advertising
  • Brands positioned on country-of-origin
    • Fosters’ beer, Marlboro cigarettes
when is standardizing least likely to work
When is standardizing least likely to work?
  • Consumer products where unique taste differences are important
    • foods
    • personal care products
    • clothing