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General Psychology PSY111. Fall Semester, 2010 Jim Wilwerding , M.Div., MA, LMHC,CADC, NCC. What is the purpose of education?. Should education teach people WHAT to think? HOW to think?. Critical Thinking.

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general psychology psy111

General Psychology PSY111

Fall Semester, 2010

Jim Wilwerding, M.Div., MA, LMHC,CADC, NCC

what is the purpose of education
What is the purpose of education?
  • Should education teach people
    • WHAT to think?
    • HOW to think?
critical thinking
Critical Thinking
  • The process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.
  • Involves components of:
    • Affective (emotional)
    • Cognitive (thought)
    • Behavioral (actions)
affective components of critical thinking
Affective Components of Critical Thinking
  • Value truth above self-interest
  • Accept change
  • Empathize
  • Welcome divergent views
  • Tolerate ambiguity
  • Recognize personal biases
cognitive components of critical thinking
Cognitive Components of Critical Thinking
  • Think independently
  • Define problems accurately
  • Analyze data for value and content
  • Employ a variety of thinking processes
  • Synthesize
  • Resist overgeneralization
  • Employ metacognition (think about thinking)
behavioral components
Behavioral Components
  • Delay judgment until data is available
  • Employ precise terms
  • Gather data
  • Distinguish fact from opinion
  • Encourage critical dialogue
  • Listen actively
  • Modify judgments in light of new information
  • Apply knowledge to new situations
psychology
Psychology
  • From two Greek words:
    • Psyche meaning “mind”
    • Logos meaning “word”
  • Employs Scientific Method
  • Requires Critical thinking skills
goals of psychology
Goals of Psychology
  • Describe
  • Explain
  • Predict
  • Change
careers in psychology
Biopsychology/Neuroscience

Clinical

Cognitive

Counseling

Developmental

Educational/school

Experimental

Gender and/or cultural

Industrial/ organizational

Social

Careers in Psychology
psychological theory
Psychological Theory
  • What is your belief about human nature?
  • What are your assumptions about unconscious/conscious, human development, learning and socialization?
  • What is your understanding about time orientation?
  • What is your belief about the process of change and free will?
  • What is your belief about the role of the helper?
perspectives
Perspectives
  • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
    • Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney
  • Behaviorism
    • Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner
  • Humanistic psychology
    • Rogers, Maslow
  • Cognitive psychology
    • Piaget, Ellis, Bandura, Sternberg, Gardner
perspectives13
Perspectives
  • Neuroscience/biopsychology
    • Muller, Lashley, Hubel, Olds, Sperry, Pert
  • Evolutionary psychology
    • Darwin, Lorenz, Wilson, Buss
  • Sociocultural psychology
    • Berry, Greenfield, Brislin
  • Biopsychosocial Model
research in psychology
Research in Psychology
  • Basic research—explores theories, general scientific understanding (meets first three goals of psychology—describe, explain, and predict)
  • Applied research—addresses real-world problems (meets fourth goal—change)
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • Review of literature (or ask a question)
  • Develop testable hypothesis
  • Design study and collect data
  • Analyze data—accept or reject hypothesis
  • Publish, replicate, and seek review
  • Build a theory
ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • Human participants
    • Informed consent
    • Deception
    • Confidentiality/anonymity
    • Special issues for students
  • Non-human participants
  • Ethical issues related to psychotherapy
psychological research
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
  • Descriptive research
  • Correlational research
  • Biological research
psychological research18
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
    • Seeks to identify cause and effect
    • Meets the goal of explanation
    • High level of control over variables
    • High control=limited applicability
variables
Variables
  • Independent—the variable that is manipulated
  • Dependent—the variable that is measured
psychological research20
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
  • Descriptive research
    • Collection of data without manipulation
    • Low level of artificiality
    • No control of variables=lower explanation of why
psychological research21
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
  • Descriptive Research
    • Naturalistic Observation—measure and record behavior of participants
    • Surveys—used to determine opinions, attitudes, feelings or behaviors related to a specific issue
    • Case studies—intensive study of a particular case, patient or situation
psychological research22
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
  • Descriptive research
  • Correlational research
    • Identifies relationships between variables
    • Statistical analysis
    • No cause and effect only relationships
psychological research23
Psychological Research
  • Experimental research
  • Descriptive research
  • Correlational research
  • Biological research
    • Studies brain and nervous system
    • Identifies cause, description and prediction
    • Shares advantages/disadvantages of other three types
    • Several methods of study (see text pp. 37-38)
variables24
Variables

A psychology student decided to design a study to determine the correlation between the number of hours a student studied and final exam score.

  • Identify the independent and dependent variables in this study
  • Propose a simple design for this study
problems to research
Problems to research
  • Experimenter bias
    • Safeguarded by using blind or double blind studies
  • Ethnocentrism
    • A particular type of experimenter bias in which one assumes (remember) that what holds for one’s own culture is also true for other cultures
problems to research26
Problems to research
  • Sample bias—using a sample that is not representative of the general population
    • Safeguarded by use of random or representative sampling or random assignment
  • Participant bias—occurs when participants attempt to present themselves in a particular light
    • Safeguarded by anonymity, double blind methods, etc.
correlation
Correlation
  • By observing or measuring two or more variables, one can determine a relationship or correlation
  • Positive correlation—the two variables move or vary in the same direction
  • Negative correlation—the two variable move or vary in opposite directions
  • Zero correlation—no relationship
correlation28
Correlation
  • Correlation Coefficients
    • Vary from -1.00 to +1.00
    • Numerical value indicates the relative strength of the relationship between the two variables
    • +/- Indicates direction of relationship
    • Relationship can be STRONG whether it is a positive or negative relationship
    • REMEMBER: “0” indicates NO RELATIONSHIP
the correlational method
The Correlational Method
  • Correlational data can be graphed and a “line of best fit” can be drawn
    • Positive correlation = variables change in the same direction
    • Negative correlation = variables change in the opposite direction
discussion
Discussion

As a critically thinking student of psychology, you wish to study the relationship between good manners in the lunchroom and aggressive play on the playground among second grade students.

  • Identify the variables and types
  • What type of research would you be doing?
  • What research method would you use?
  • What are some ethical issues involved?
discussion34
Discussion
  • After completing the above study, you determine a correlation coefficient of -0.89. What conclusions could you draw? Prepare to defend your conclusions.
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