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Estuaries Miles Bryan Matthew Okoneski Justin McCotter Definition of Estuary Estuary: Any body of water where freshwater and saltwater mix. Transition area from land to sea Often called bays, lagoons, and sounds Ex: Pamlico sound, Chesapeake Bay Contains many different habitats

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estuaries

Estuaries

Miles Bryan

Matthew Okoneski

Justin McCotter

definition of estuary
Definition of Estuary
  • Estuary: Any body of water where freshwater and saltwater mix.
    • Transition area from land to sea
    • Often called bays, lagoons, and sounds
      • Ex: Pamlico sound, Chesapeake Bay
    • Contains many different habitats
origin of estuaries
a.) drowned river valley

b.) former glaciated valley

c.) lagoon separated from ocean

d.) fault flooded by ocean

Origin of Estuaries
classification of estuaries
Classification of Estuaries
  • Vertically mixed:
    • shallow, low volume, constant salinity with depth
  • Slightly stratified:
    • deeper
    • upper layer less salty, lower layer more salty
  • Highly stratified:
    • deep, strong halocline
  • Salt wedge:
    • deep, high volume
    • Strong halocline
importance of estuaries
Importance of Estuaries
  • Provides habitats
    • Nurseries
    • Areas for migratory birds
  • Filters water
    • Sediments and pollutants
  • Stabilize shoreline
  • Human Benefit
biological diversity
Fish:

Black Sea Bass

Menhaden

Flounder

Sea Trout

Use estuaries as breeding grounds and food sources

Biological Diversity
biological diversity7
Birds

Migratory Birds

Tundra Swans

Sea Ducks

Canada Geese

Water Fowl

Egrets

Herons

Important to threatened species

Biological Diversity
biological diversity8
Plants:

Submerged Plants

Produce oxygen

Provide food source

Trees

Cypress

Tupelo

Swamp maple trees

Grasses

Black needle rush

Cordgrass

Purify water

Biological Diversity
biological diversity9
Shellfish

Oysters

Clams

Stone crabs

Grass shrimp

Scallops

Marine worms

Filter water, secure sediment, recycle nutrients, provide juvenile fish habitats

Biological Diversity
biological diversity keystone species
Microbes

Algae

Phytoplankton

Dinoflagellates

Base of food chain

Contribute to sediments

Recycle nutrients

Biological Diversity: Keystone Species
human involvement types of pollution
Eutrophication

Increase in nutrients

Causes harmful overgrowth

Toxicants

Harmful substances, metals, and other organic material

Pathogens

Cause disease (pfiesteria)

Corrupt food chain

Human Involvement: Types of Pollution
human involvement causes of pollution
Point source vs. non-point source

Human development

Industrial/agricultural waste

Natural pollutants

Human involvement: Causes of Pollution
human involvement dredging
Dredging- use of boats and/or machines to remove sediment from bottom of river bays, etc.

Disturbs habitats

Removes nutrients

Removes organisms

Disturbs natural flow of water

Human Involvement: Dredging