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Effective Writing Instruction for All Students Developed by Region IV Education Service Center in collaboration with the Texas Education Agency News Flash

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effective writing instruction for all students

Effective Writing Instruction for All Students

Developed by

Region IV Education Service Center

in collaboration with the

Texas Education Agency

news flash
News Flash

“Children want to write. They want to write the first day they attend school. This is no accident. Before they went to school, they marked up walls, pavements, and newspapers with crayons, chalk, pens or pencils… anything that makes a mark. The child’s marks say ‘I am’.”

Graves, 1983

2

slide3

What Happens?

Research shows that about 90% of the students entering first grade believe they can write, but only about 15%believe they can read.

Graves, 1983

3

traditional methods of teaching writing
Traditional Methods of Teaching Writing
  • Frequency
  • Grammatical
  • Evaluative
  • Formula

4

components of effective writing instruction
Components of Effective Writing Instruction

Focus on Established Standards

Teach the Writing Process

Monitor Progress

5

teks based instruction

12

K

TEKS-Based Instruction
  • Vertical Alignment of the TEKS
  • Horizontal Alignment of the TEKS
  • TEKS Strand Connection
  • TEKS/TAKS Connection

6

vertical alignment of teks

12

K

Vertical Alignment of TEKS

Vertical alignment provides continuity of instruction across grade levels.

District and campus vertical teams of teachers must meet regularly and have purposeful grade-level overlap.

7

horizontal alignment of teks

Your grade level

Your grade level

Your grade level

Your grade level

Your grade level

Horizontal Alignment of TEKS

Purposeful horizontal alignment ensures that all classroom instruction at a particular grade level is planned from a unified, connected curriculum.

8

language arts strands
Language Arts Strands

Receptive

Expressive

9

language arts strands10
Language Arts Strands

Writing TEKS

Listening/ speaking TEKS

Viewing/ representing TEKS

Reading TEKS

10

reading and writing connection
Reading and Writing Connection

“Reading and writing are two sides of the same coin. Both processes involve creating meaning through print.”

Cullinan, 1993

11

research on reading writing connection
Research on Reading/Writing Connection

Reading and writing as processes involve the construction of text from prior knowledge, personal meanings, and relationships discovered through reading/writing engagements.

Kucer, 1985

Proficient readers and writers actively control their actions and shift strategies as they construct and monitor meaning.

Birnbaum, 1982

12

research on the reading writing connection
Research on the Reading/Writing Connection

The development of thinking and learning from multiple perspectives is greatest when the interrelatedness of reading and writing is made evident to students.

Reading and writing are each enhanced when they are taught and learned together.

13

teks taks connection
TEKS/TAKS Connection

Writing

Grades 4 and 7

English Language Arts (ELA)

Grade 10 and Grade 11 Exit Level

15

taks grades 4 7 writing
TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing

Objectives 1 and 2

Composition

Objectives 3, 4, 5, 6

Revising and Editing

16

taks grades 4 7 writing composition
TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Composition

Objective 1 (focus and coherence, organization, development of ideas, voice)

The student will, within a given context, produce an effective composition for a specific purpose.

Objective 2 (conventions)

The student will produce a piece of writing that demonstrates a command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.

17

taks grades 4 7 writing revising and editing
TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Revising and Editing

Objective 3

The student will recognize appropriate organization of ideas in written text.

Objective 4

The student will recognize correct and effective sentence construction in written text.

18

taks grades 4 7 writing revising and editing19
TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Revising and Editing

Objective 5

The student will recognize standard usage and appropriate word choice in written text.

Objective 6

The student will proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, and spelling in written text.

Revising and editing objectives are accomplished within the context of peer editing.

19

taks grade 10 grade 11 exit level ela test
TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: ELA Test

Objectives 1, 2, 3

Reading

Objectives 4, 5

Composition

Objective 6

Revising & Editing

20

taks grade 10 grade 11 exit level reading objectives

Objective 1

The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of culturally diverse written texts.

Objective 2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of literary elements and techniques in culturally diverse written texts.

Objective 3

The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate culturally diverse written texts and visual representations.

TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Reading Objectives

21

taks grade 10 grade 11 exit level composition
TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Composition

Objective 4 (focus and coherence, organization, development of ideas, voice)

The student will, within a given context, produce an effective composition for a specific purpose.

Objective 5 (conventions)

The student will produce a piece of writing that demonstrates a command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.

22

taks grade 10 grade 11 exit level revising and editing
TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Revising and Editing

Objective 6

The student will demonstrate the ability to revise and proofread to improve the clarity and effectiveness of a piece of writing.

The revising and editing objective is accomplished within the context of peer editing.

23

how do we teach writing
How Do We Teach Writing?

“Teaching writing is no different than teaching any other subject. The teacher has to know the subject, the process, the children, and the means for the children to become independent learners.” Graves, 1983

24

the writing process
The Writing Process
  • Promote effective writing instruction in the classroom
  • Teach writing as a process
  • Understand the stages of the writing process

25

promoting effective writing instruction in the classroom
Promoting Effective Writing Instruction in the Classroom

Sufficient Time

  • Writing Conferences
  • Teacher/Student Conferences
  • Peer Conferences

Modeling

Mini-lessons

26

sufficient time
Sufficient Time
  • Elementary students should write a minimum of four times a week, for at least 35 to 40 minutes. (Graves, 1983)
  • Secondary students should write as much as possible each day during English class and across the curriculum.

27

sufficient time28
Sufficient Time

“Writing taught once or twice a week is just frequent enough to remind students that they can’t write and teachers that they can’t teach.”

Graves, 1983

28

support provided through teacher modeling
Support Provided Through Teacher Modeling

Modeling or demonstrating is an important part of all good instruction, including mini-lesson instruction.

Writing Instruction

Examples of Good Writing

29

mini lessons in writing
Mini-Lessons in Writing
  • Are of short duration (10–20 minutes)
  • Demonstrate important aspects of the writing process with clear, powerful examples
  • Focus on a specific writing principle or procedure
  • Are interactive and meet students’ needs

30

mini lessons in writing31
Mini-Lessons in Writing

Procedural Matters

Literary Concepts

Strategy and Skill Lessons

31

mini lessons in writing32
Mini-Lessons in Writing

Students should apply and be held accountable for skills and strategiestaught in mini-lessons.

32

teacher student writing conferences purposes
Teacher/Student Writing Conferences – Purposes
  • The teacher
  • Helps the writer, not the writing
  • Identifies instructional needs to be used as a basis for planning mini-lessons
  • Learns how the writer is progressing in his/her application of the writing process

33

teacher student writing conferences purposes34
Teacher/Student Writing Conferences – Purposes

The teacher discovers

What students know about topic development and organization

If students can write using their own voice for a variety of purposes and audiences

If students can revise and edit effectively

34

types of teacher student conferences
Types of Teacher/Student Conferences

On-The-Spot

Writing Process Stages

Instructional Mini-lessons

Assessment

Portfolio

35

teacher student writing conferences
Teacher/Student Writing Conferences
  • Listen to the student talk about the writing and find out what kind of help is needed
  • Teach strategies and activities that a more experienced writer uses to write well
  • Reinforce strategies taught in mini-lessons
  • Evaluate student progress

Conferences should not be lengthy, drawn-out sessions.

36

teacher student writing conferences37
Teacher/Student Writing Conferences
  • Point outspecific positive aspects in the writing and reinforce strengths
  • Assist students in setting goals
  • Teachstudents to be reflective and evaluative about their writing

Our goal is for our students to become independent writers.

37

purposes of peer conferences
Purposes of Peer Conferences

Give students real and immediate audiences for their work

Help develop effective communication skills

Assist students in becoming self-evaluators

Improve student writing

38

peer conference activities

Work together through the stages of the writing process

Peer Conference Activities
  • Talk about choices for topic, audience, purpose, and form
  • Ask questions so the writing is clear and understandable to the reader
  • Edit for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammatical errors

39

why teach writing as a process

Process writing is a reflective process because the writer is constantly thinking and rethinking about his/her writing.

Why Teach Writing as a Process?
  • Shifts emphasis from a product-driven approach to a process-driven approach
  • Provides effective writing instruction
  • Enforces the process all writers go through as they develop their compositions

40

stages in the writing process
Stages in the Writing Process

Prewriting

Reflective

Recursive

Publishing

Drafting

Revising

Editing

41

prewriting

Prewriting

Prewriting
  • Helps create ideas and organize the writer’s thoughts
  • Focuses a writer’s attention on a particular subject, purpose, audience, and form
  • Motivates a person to write

42

prewriting goals

Prewriting

Prewriting Goals
  • Explore the possibilities in the writing task
  • Stimulate and enlarge the writer’s thoughts
  • Movewriters from the stage of thinking about a writing task to the act of writing
  • Develop a plan to help choose the topic, purpose, audience, and form or structure

Do not overlook prewriting activities!

43

selecting a topic

If the teacher continually supplies the topic, students never experience the pleasure and challenge of choosing their own subjects for writing. Furthermore, students may not have anything to say about the topic or may not want to say anything about it.

Prewriting

Selecting a Topic
  • Teacher-assigned topics should provide choice.
  • Students should also have opportunities for self-selected topics.

44

selecting a topic45

“Writing is best done if it involves a subject or idea about which a child has some knowledge or possesses some feeling.”

Bromley, 1998

Prewriting

Selecting a Topic

45

strategies for topic selection problems

Students hearing others’ choices

Prewriting

Strategies for Topic Selection Problems

Teacher/peer discussion

Teacher modeling

46

audience

Writing for real audiences motivates the writer and gives a reason for writing.

Prewriting

Audience

Writers need to consider

  • Who is the audience or reader?
  • What does that reader know or want to know about the subject?

47

purpose

Narrative

Expository

Persuasive

Prewriting

Purpose

Purpose is a controlling factor in the way the paper will be written.

Types of purposes include

48

narrative

Prewriting

Narrative

Elements of Story Structure

Plot

Characters

Setting

Theme

Point of View

49

expository

Prewriting

Expository

Expository Text Structures

Description

Sequencing

Compare and Contrast

Cause and Effect

Problem and Solution

50

persuasive

Prewriting

Persuasive

Writing Persuasively

Have a clear sense of audience

State an opinion or position

Use reasoned or logical appeals

Support with evidence

Make the conclusion meaningful

51

form or structure

Audience

Content

Purpose

Prewriting

Form or Structure

Form and structure are determined by

There are many forms of writing. Students should have a basic knowledge of all forms but may have more in-depth experiences with certain forms.

52

prewriting activities

Prewriting

Prewriting Activities
  • Brainstorm and quickwrite
  • Use graphic organizers
    • Concept maps
    • Venn diagrams
    • KWL
  • Interview
  • Research

53

prewriting activities54

Plot, diagram, or draw ideas

Take notes and outline information

Read/listen to magazine articles, short stories, or books

Incorporate direct personal experience

Prewriting

Prewriting Activities

54

drafting

Drafting

Drafting
  • As thefirst version of writing, the purpose of drafting is to put the thoughts onto paper.
  • Writing’s recursive nature means that drafting will be revisited again and again and again.

56

drafting goals

Drafting

Drafting Goals
  • Write with the following in mind
    • Topic
    • Audience
    • Purpose
  • Make decisions on
    • Organization
    • Voice
    • Development

57

organization in writing

Drafting

Organization in Writing

Ideas

Sentences

Paragraphs

Linked Text

58

voice in writing

Drafting

Voice in Writing
  • The imprint of the writer on his/her writing
  • The driving force of the writing process

“Writing with voice is writing into which someone has breathed. It has that fluency, rhythm, and liveliness that exists naturally in the speech of most people when they are enjoying a conversation. . . . Writing with real voice has the power to make you pay attention and understand—the words go deep.”

Peter Elbow, 1973

59

development

Depth

Drafting

Development

Ideas that are interesting and not contrived

The writer must develop

Focus

and Coherence

60

fluency

Drafting

Fluency

“Fluency with written English is critical at this stage.”

Proett and Gill, 1986

61

slide62

Technical Fluency

Aesthetic Fluency

Flow

Movement

Speed

Accuracy

Drafting

Fluency

Automaticity

Fluidity

62

drafting63

Drafting

Drafting

Students need to

  • Focus on meaning rather than on conventions
  • Feel free to experiment
  • Discuss drafts with others

“Drafting is not a smooth and steady process.” Bromley, 1998

63

when drafting is difficult

Drafting

When Drafting Is Difficult
  • “Big Picture” note cards
  • Think sheets
  • Freewriting
  • Focused writing

64

revising

Revising

Revising
  • Improves the composition so that the product is more interesting and understandable to the reader
  • Clarifiesmeaning and expands ideas
  • Helps writers learn the craftof writing

Revising means seeing again.

65

revising goals

Revising

Revising Goals

Students need to think again about

  • Purpose
  • Audience
  • Form
  • Development of topic
  • Word choice
  • Evidence of voice

66

revising strategies

Revising is an ongoing process.

Revising

Revising Strategies
  • Reread for meaning during and after writing the draft(s)
  • Rethink what has been written

67

revising strategies68

Revising

Revising Strategies

Ask yourself questions:

“Does this make sense?”

“What else can I do?”

“How does this sound or look to the audience?”

Receive feedback from the teacher and/or other students in conferences

68

when revision is difficult

Revising

When Revision Is Difficult

The student may not

Know enough about the subject

Have a clear sense of audience

Have enough time to write

Be familiar with the form or structure

Know when to stop writing

69

editing

Editing

Editing

“Editing is making sure that the conventions of language (spelling, punctuation, and grammar) are used correctly.”

Fletcher, 2001

70

editing goals

Editing

Editing Goals
  • Make corrections to errors in the conventions of writing, including spelling, grammar, capitalization, and punctuation
  • Understand that conventions help the writer convey meaning

71

editing activities

Editing

Editing Activities
  • Exchanging papers during peer conferencing
  • Working with the teacher during a

teacher/student

conference

72

when editing is difficult

Editing

When Editing Is Difficult
  • Focus on one aspect at a time
  • Engage in multiple rereadings

73

publishing goals

Publishing

Publishing Goals

Help focus on the communication of meaning to a real audience, thus giving a purpose for writing efforts

Making Publicly Known

Acknowledge that writing is genuine communication

Practice the highest level of revision and editing skills

74

publishing activities

Publishing

Publishing Activities
  • Share published pieces
  • Publish one piece every 3-4 weeks

75

remember
Remember
  • Learning any process takes time.
  • The process will not work if the student is not comfortable with writing.
  • The writing process is taught by example.
  • Paying more attention to how your students write will ensure that what they write will be their best product.

76

informal writing
Informal Writing

Helps students learn from their reading

Lists

Notes

Diagrams

Summaries

Helps students understand ideas better

Journals

77

types of journal writing
Types of Journal Writing

Response

Personal

Dialogue

Learning Logs

Double-entry

Simulated

78

journals

Promote fluency in writing and reading

Encourage risk taking

Provide opportunities for reflection

Validate personal experiences and feelings

Journals

79

journals cont

Provide a safe private place to write

Journals (cont.)

Make thinking visible

Promote the development of written language conventions

Provide a vehicle for evaluation

Provide a personal record for students

Routman, 1995

80

monitoring progress

Formal Assessment

Informal Assessment

Process Measures

Product Measures

Monitoring Progress

81

the teaching learning cycle
The Teaching/Learning Cycle

Assessment

Learning

Evaluation

Teaching

Planning

82

assessing student progress
Assessing Student Progress
  • What should be assessed
  • What is used to assess
    • Formal instruments
    • Informal measurements
  • How data should be used to drive instruction
  • How to continually monitor progress

83

what should be assessed

Process as well as product

Organization and development of ideas

Drafts

Writer’s craft, voice, word choice, and language

What Should Be Assessed?

Conventions

84

formal assessment
Formal Assessment
  • Formal assessments
    • Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
    • State Developed Alternative Assessment (SDAA)
    • Additional norm- or criterion-referenced tests

85

informal assessment
Informal Assessment
  • Observations
  • Conferences
  • Writing Samples
  • Anecdotal records
  • Checklists

86

process measures
Process Measures

Writing Process Checklists

Assessment Conferences

Self-Assessment

87

product measuring
Product Measuring

Rubrics

  • Holistic
  • Analytic

Rubric

Skill/Topic + –

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

88

grades
Grades
  • Set the criteria
  • Involve students as evaluators

91

using assessment to guide instruction
Using Assessment to Guide Instruction

Conferences

Mini-lessons

Portfolio Observations

Student Observations

92

research about motivation to learn

Zone of development Csikszentimihalyi, 1990

Clear goals Skinner & Belmont, 1993

Student control Erickson, 1995

Research about Motivation to Learn

94

teachers motivate students to write
Teachers Motivate Students to Write
  • Model, guide, and scaffold
  • Supportwritten expression
  • Provide opportunities to write
  • Set realistic expectations that challenge
  • Provide meaningful and functional activities

95