ISM 4300 Managing Information Resources. Computer Hardware. CPU. INPUT DEVICES. SECONDARY STORAGE. OUTPUT DEVICES. COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES. PRIMARY STORAGE. COMPUTER COMPONENTS. BUSES. PRIMARY STORAGE. CPU. OUTPUT DEVICES. SECONDARY STORAGE. INPUT DEVICES.
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ISM 4300 Managing Information Resources Computer Hardware
CPU INPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES PRIMARY STORAGE COMPUTER COMPONENTS BUSES
PRIMARY STORAGE CPU OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE INPUT DEVICES CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS
ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT CLOCK ROM RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CONTROL UNIT
ALU & CONTROL UNIT • ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT:CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations • CONTROL UNIT:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system *
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE Instruction Cycle: 1. FETCH 2. DECODE 3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER 4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER *
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE Execution Cycle: 5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER 6. COMMAND ALU 7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION 8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR *
COMPUTER TIME Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years * # PER COMPARED NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND
TYPES OF MEMORY • RAM:Random Access Memory • Dynamic: Changes thru processing • Static: Remains constant (power on) • ROM:Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) • PROM: Program can be changed once • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light • EEPROM: Electrically erasable • Also, primary and secondary memory *
MEMORY SIZE • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes • TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes *
MICROPROCESSOR VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications *
NAME MICROPROCESSOR WORD DATA BUS CLOCK SPEED MANUFACTURER LENGTH WIDTH (MHz) PENTIUM INTEL 32 64 75 - 200 PENTIUM (MMX) INTEL 32 64 166 - 233 PENTIUM II INTEL 32 64 233 - 450 PENTIUM III INTEL 64 64 500+ PowerPC MOTOROLA, IBM, APPLE 32 64 100 - 400 ALPHA DEC 64 64 1000+ EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS
Program Program TASK 1 RESULT CPU CPU CPU CPU TASK 1 TASK 2 TASK 3 RESULT Program TASK 2 RESULT CPU SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL PCs are now being built with parallel processors!
SECONDARY STORAGE • DISK • TAPE • OPTICAL STORAGE *
DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE • HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems • RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks • FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC *
DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITE HEADS CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK PACK STORAGE • LARGE SYSTEMS • RELIABLE STORAGE • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE • TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks • CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces *
TRACKS START OF TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR
OPTICAL STORAGE • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data *
MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS • INEXPENSIVE • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION • CAN BE REUSED *
INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES • POINTING DEVICES • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION • OUTPUT DEVICES *
POINTING DEVICES • KEYBOARD • MOUSE • WIRED • INFRA-RED • TRACKBALL • TOUCH PAD • JOYSTICK • TOUCH SCREEN *
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount *
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION • PEN-BASED INPUT:Digitizes signature • DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:Converts spoken word into digital form • SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges) *
OUTPUT DEVICES • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) • PRINTER • PLOTTER • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE • MULTIMEDIA *
DATA PROCESSING • BATCH PROCESSING:Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. • ON-LINE PROCESSING:Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. • on-line batch • on-line real-time *
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA • INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA • TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION • STREAMING TECHNOLOGY • MP3: Audio compression standard *
CMOS • CMOS holds important system data used during the start process and makes them instantly available to the POST and BIOS programs (loaded from ROM). The values are regarding: • Floppy and hard disk drives • The keyboard • The CPU, cache, chip set values, RAM type • Date and time • Much more ...
CPU • The CPU history is closely tied to the companies IBM and especially Intel. • The CPUs have their roots back to Intel's chip 4004 from 1971. • You can identify seven or eight CPU generations up till today. • The compatibility concept has been important throughout the development.
Serial I/O Buses • Soon high-end PC probably will hold both these serial I/O buses: • USB version 2 for all low speed gear. • FireWire for high speed I/O to Digital Video recorders, high-end scanners etc. • Firewire is Apple's implementation of the IEEE1394 standard.
Standards Commitees • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) • ITU (International Telecommunication Union) • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) • ISO (International Standards Organization) • VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association)
IEEE • IEEE sets standards for most types of electrical interfaces. Its most famous standard is probably RS-232C, which defines an interface for serial communication. This is the interface used by most modems, and a number of other devices, including display screens and mice. • Another standard is IEEE 1394 for firewire.
Questions • What are the main advances in PC technology over the past ten years? • What are the main problems in supporting business PCs? • What is the relationship between PC hardware and software? What problems can this cause in PC support?