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ISM 4300 Managing Information Resources. Computer Hardware. CPU. INPUT DEVICES. SECONDARY STORAGE. OUTPUT DEVICES. COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES. PRIMARY STORAGE. COMPUTER COMPONENTS. BUSES. PRIMARY STORAGE. CPU. OUTPUT DEVICES. SECONDARY STORAGE. INPUT DEVICES.

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slide1

ISM 4300

Managing Information Resources

Computer Hardware

computer components

CPU

INPUT DEVICES

SECONDARY STORAGE

OUTPUT DEVICES

COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

COMPUTER COMPONENTS

BUSES

cpu primary storage

PRIMARY

STORAGE

CPU

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

INPUT

DEVICES

CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

central processing unit cpu

ARITHMETIC/LOGIC

UNIT

CLOCK

ROM

RAM

PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

CONTROL UNIT

alu control unit
ALU & CONTROL UNIT
  • ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT:CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations
  • CONTROL UNIT:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system

*

instruction execution cycle
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

Instruction Cycle:

1. FETCH

2. DECODE

3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER

4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER

*

instruction execution cycle7
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

Execution Cycle:

5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER

6. COMMAND ALU

7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION

8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR

*

computer time
COMPUTER TIME

Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec

Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days

Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years

Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years

*

# PER COMPARED

NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND

types of memory
TYPES OF MEMORY
  • RAM:Random Access Memory
    • Dynamic: Changes thru processing
    • Static: Remains constant (power on)
  • ROM:Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)
    • PROM: Program can be changed once
    • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light
    • EEPROM: Electrically erasable
  • Also, primary and secondary memory

*

memory size
MEMORY SIZE
  • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes
  • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes
  • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes
  • TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes

*

microprocessor
MICROPROCESSOR

VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU

  • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time
  • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second
  • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices
  • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed
  • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications

*

examples of microprocessors

NAME

MICROPROCESSOR

WORD

DATA BUS

CLOCK SPEED

MANUFACTURER

LENGTH

WIDTH

(MHz)

PENTIUM

INTEL

32

64

75 - 200

PENTIUM (MMX)

INTEL

32

64

166 - 233

PENTIUM II

INTEL

32

64

233 - 450

PENTIUM III

INTEL

64

64

500+

PowerPC

MOTOROLA, IBM, APPLE

32

64

100 - 400

ALPHA

DEC

64

64

1000+

EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS
sequential parallel processing

Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

PCs are now being built with parallel processors!

slide14

SECONDARY STORAGE

  • DISK
  • TAPE
  • OPTICAL STORAGE

*

direct access storage device
DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE
  • HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems
  • RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks
  • FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC

*

disk pack storage

DISK 1

DISK 2

DISK 3

DISK 4

DISK 5

READ/WRITE

HEADS

CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK)

DISK PACK STORAGE
  • LARGE SYSTEMS
  • RELIABLE STORAGE
  • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA
  • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE
  • TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks
  • CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces

*

slide17

TRACKS

START

OF

TRACKS

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0

TRACKS AND SECTORS

EACH TRACK HOLDS

SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

SECTOR

slide18

OPTICAL STORAGE

  • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES
    • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light
    • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light
  • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):
    • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable
    • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable
  • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data

*

slide19

MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE

  • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE
  • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS
  • INEXPENSIVE
  • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION
  • CAN BE REUSED

*

input output devices
INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES
  • POINTING DEVICES
  • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • OUTPUT DEVICES

*

pointing devices
POINTING DEVICES
  • KEYBOARD
  • MOUSE
    • WIRED
    • INFRA-RED
    • TRACKBALL
    • TOUCH PAD
  • JOYSTICK
  • TOUCH SCREEN

*

source data automation
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION

  • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format
  • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments
  • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount

*

source data automation23
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • PEN-BASED INPUT:Digitizes signature
  • DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form
  • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:Converts spoken word into digital form
  • SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)

*

output devices
OUTPUT DEVICES
  • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
  • PRINTER
  • PLOTTER
  • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE
  • MULTIMEDIA

*

data processing
DATA PROCESSING
  • BATCH PROCESSING:Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.
  • ON-LINE PROCESSING:Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.
    • on-line batch
    • on-line real-time

*

interactive multimedia
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
  • INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA
  • TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION
  • STREAMING TECHNOLOGY
  • MP3: Audio compression standard

*

slide29
CMOS
  • CMOS holds important system data used during the start process and makes them instantly available to the POST and BIOS programs (loaded from ROM). The values are regarding:
  • Floppy and hard disk drives
  • The keyboard
  • The CPU, cache, chip set values, RAM type
  • Date and time
  • Much more ...
slide32
CPU
  • The CPU history is closely tied to the companies IBM and especially Intel.
  • The CPUs have their roots back to Intel's chip 4004 from 1971.
  • You can identify seven or eight CPU generations up till today.
  • The compatibility concept has been important throughout the development.
serial i o buses
Serial I/O Buses
  • Soon high-end PC probably will hold both these serial I/O buses:
  • USB version 2 for all low speed gear.
  • FireWire for high speed I/O to Digital Video recorders, high-end scanners etc.
  • Firewire is Apple's implementation of the IEEE1394 standard.
standards commitees
Standards Commitees
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
  • ISO (International Standards Organization)
  • VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association)
slide47
IEEE
  • IEEE sets standards for most types of electrical interfaces. Its most famous standard is probably RS-232C, which defines an interface for serial communication. This is the interface used by most modems, and a number of other devices, including display screens and mice.
  • Another standard is IEEE 1394 for firewire.
questions
Questions
  • What are the main advances in PC technology over the past ten years?
  • What are the main problems in supporting business PCs?
  • What is the relationship between PC hardware and software? What problems can this cause in PC support?