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An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication Claudine Métral COST C21 Towntology Workshop Geneva - November 6-7, 2006 Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Purpose Contribute to a better communication between the various actors involved in an urban planning process

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an ontology based system for urban planning communication

An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication

Claudine Métral

COST C21 Towntology Workshop

Geneva - November 6-7, 2006

ontology based system for urban planning
Ontology-based System for Urban Planning
  • PurposeContribute to a better communication between the various actors involved in an urban planning process
  • Why?Due to the complexity of the urban planning processExample of Geneva: Master plans (PDC=plan directeur cantonal) Local plans (PDQ=plans directeurs de quartier, PLQ=plans localisés de quartier) Communal or thematic master plans Federal or cantonal laws Public consultations and opposition procedures GIS (SITG)

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 2

urban planning objects and actors
Urban Planning Objects and Actors

Various actors

Various objects

urbanists

spatial data from GIS

3D city models

politicians

texts

maps, plans, pictures

inhabitants

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 3

ontology based system for urban planning4
Ontology-based System for Urban Planning

Three goals

  • Semantic IntegrationOf the objects (data and documents) related to an urban planning project-> creation of an urban knowledge base
  • InterfaceTo visualize the content of the knowledge base
  • AdaptationOf the interface to user profiles and centers of interest-> access to the urban knowledge according to different viewpoints

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 4

ontology based system for urban planning5
Ontology-based System for Urban Planning
  • Semantic Integration
  • Interface
  • Adaptation to user profiles

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 5

semantic integration
Semantic Integration
  • An urban planning project

Uses urban data and documents (spatial data from GIS, 3D city models, texts, maps, plans, pictures)Is represented in our system by an ontology with concepts and instances related to the data and documents so as to present an integrated view of the project

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 6

semantic integration7
Semantic Integration

concepts

data

semanticannotation

integrated view

3DCM

documents

instances

  • understand the project
  • find information

knowledge base

urbanobjects

(semi-)automatic extraction of concepts or annotations

formalization with OWL-DL

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 7

slide8

3D City Models

  • Many modelsWith different levels of detail (LOD)
  • Many application areasUrban planningDisaster managementTraining or environmental simulations TelecommunicationsNavigation systems
  • Future standard: CityGMLCityGML = unified 3D city model = common information model for the representation of 3D urban objectsDefined in UML -> 47 classes and many attributes

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 8

slide9

CityGML

  • Geometric and topological modelVarious objects: relief, sites/buildings, transportation, vegetation, water, city furniture
  • Multipurpose modelVarious application fields as 3D city models
  • Multiscale modelFive levels of detail:LOD 0 to LOD 4
  • External references possibleAs links to external ressources: databases, etc.
  • More information on the CityGML web site

Dr Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 9

slide10

Example: Building Model in CityGML

from[Kolbe 2005]

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 10

slide11

Abstract View of CityGML

City Object

City Model

Generic City

Object

Transportation

Object

Relief

Feature

Vegetation

Object

Land Use

Water Object

City Object

Group

City

Furniture

Site

Relief

Component

Abstract

Building

Transportation

Complex

Water Body

Plant Cover

Room

TIN Relief

Solitary

Vegetation

Object

Water Boundary

Surface

Track

Building Part

Mass Point

Relief

Boundary

Surface

BuildingInstallation

Building

Road

Traffic Area

BuildingFurniture

Breakline

Relief

Railway

Auxiliary

Traffic Area

Water Surface

Opening

Square

Water Ground

Surface

Ceiling Surface

Raster Relief

Door

Interior

Wall Surface

Water Closure

Surface

Window

Floor Surface

isA link

Roof Surface

partOf link

Closure Surface

Wall Surface

Ground Surface

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 11

slide12

Ontology for Urban Planning Process

  • CityGML is not sufficient for urban planning

City GML

Geometric concepts

Other types of concepts such as right_of_way (droit de passage) or soft_mobility (mobilité douce)

Other types of relations such asis_used_by

UrbanPlanningProcess

  • Creation of an Ontology of Urban Planning Process = OUPP
  • Semantic links between CityGML and OUPP

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 12

slide13

Example of Concept Alignments

CityGML

OUPP

PLQ

City Model

City Object

vegetation

VegetationObject

compensationtree

protected tree

SolitaryVegetationObject

Plant Cover

tree to cut down

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 13

slide14

Part of OUPPrelated to soft mobility

City Model

PLQ

City Object

vegetation

Vegetation

Object

protected tree

Solitary

Vegetation

Object

tree to cut down

compensation tree

Plant Cover

Example of Integration: Concepts

is a

uses

mobility(mobilité)

is used for

participates in

thoroughfare(voies de communication)

soft mobility(mobilité douce)

transportation user(usager)

transport(moyens de transport)

not motorized transport(moyens de transport non motorisés)

green way(voie verte)

pedestrian(piéton)

cyclist(cycliste)

pedestrian path(chemin piétonnier)

walking(marche à pied)

cycle path(piste cyclable)

bicycle(bicyclette)

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 14

slide15

Example of Integration: Documents

  • Instance of conceptPromenade_des_Parcs= instance of concept green_way
  • Various documents related to this instance
  • Various sources for these documentsMaster plans (PDC, PDQ) SITG (graph of the soft mobility = geometric entities with attributes)
  • Integration of these documents with OUPP

Dr Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 15

slide16

instance

concept

Example of Integration

mobility(mobilité)

transportation user(usager)

thoroughfare(voies de communication)

soft mobility(mobilité douce)

transport(moyens de transport)

not motorized transport(moyens de transport non motorisés)

pedestrian(piéton)

green way(voie verte)

cyclist(cycliste)

pedestrian path(chemin piétonnier)

walking(marche à pied)

cycle path(piste cyclable)

bicycle(bicyclette)

Promenadedes Parcs

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 16

ontology based system for urban planning17
Ontology-based System for Urban Planning
  • Semantic Integration
  • Interface
  • Adaptation to user profiles

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 17

interface
Interface
  • To visualize the content of the knowledge base-> visual objects to define from the objects of the knowledge baseObjects of various kinds: documents, 3D objects but also abstract concepts-> define representations for non geometric objectsLinks between these urban planning objects -> assemble the interface elements and generate navigation links in the interface= a spatial hypermedia document

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 18

interface19
Interface

visualrepresentations

interfacespecification

refers to

refers to

content of the knowledge base

layoutmanagers

interface generation

e.g. [El Atifi & Falquet 2005]

The specification connects OUPP concepts to visual representation objects

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 19

ontology based system for urban planning20
Ontology-based System for Urban Planning
  • Semantic Integration
  • Interface
  • Adaptation to user profiles

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 20

adaptation to user profiles
Adaptation to user profiles
  • Various profilesVarious actors (urbanists, politicians, inhabitants, associations, etc.) with differences in terms of knowledge background and vocabularyFor example: green_way (urbanist) versus pedestrian_path (inhabitant)Different centers of interest for inhabitants A and B-> different user profiles-> represented by user ontologies aligned with OUPP and CityGML

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 21

adaptation to user profiles22
Adaptation to user profiles

OUPPCityGML

concepts

inhabitant A

inhabitant B

urbanist X

instances

user specific ontologies

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 22

example of adapted interface
Example of Adapted Interface
  • Promenade_des_ParcsUrbanist XInterested by concepts right_of_ways or dangerous_intersections (that can be defined by a crossing between a main_road and a green_way)Inhabitant AInterested by the remarkable_objects (trees, buildings) along the Promenade_des_ParcsInhabitant BInterested by the time_of_travelling to go through the Promenade_des_Parcs

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 23

adaptation to user profiles24
Adaptation to user profiles
  • Adapted interfaceVisualization of what is useful or relevant to the userExploratory interface to understand an urban planning project in a personalized way
  • Ontology-based approachAdaptation to the user profile not only of the content of the knowledge base but also of the interface-> Different viewpoints and representations of the same concept are possible

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 24

example of adapted visualization
Example of Adapted Visualization
  • Promenade_des_ParcsUrbanist XA map with symbols correlated to the concepts right_of_way or dangerous_intersectionInhabitant AA 3D scene with remarkable_objectsInhabitant BA 3D scene with time_of_travelling in superimposition

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 25

example of adapted visualization26
Example of Adapted Visualization
  • Promenade_des_Parcs

concepts

inhabitant A

inhabitant B

23 min.

urbanist X

instances

user specific interface composition(object representation, vocabulary, etc.)

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 26

conclusion

23 min.

Conclusion
  • Definition of an ontology-based system to improve the communication of urban planning projects

OUPPCityGML

inhabitant A

inhabitant B

urbanist X

urbanobjects

user specific interfaces

user specific ontologies

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 27

future work
Future Work
  • OUPPTo enhance and validate
  • Specification language of the interfacesAdapt the actual general-purpose specification language to the urban planning context
  • Interface DesignFind and test (3D) representations of the urban conceptsContinue our research on the relationship between image and text -> integration of text in 3D scenes or integration of 3D scenes in text?

Claudine Métral – An Ontology-based System for Urban Planning Communication 28