AIM OF THIS PRESENTATION. Introduce the important components of the Autoimmune Diseases. Demonstrate what happens when things go wrong & the body turns against itself (Autoimmunity) Provide examples of Autoimmune Disease Such as Graves ,Rheumatology. . OVER VIEW OF THE PRESENTATION.
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Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues.
Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the body's immune system reacts against some of its own tissue and produces antibodies to attack itself.
Auto antibodies are the antibodies that attack its own cells, tissues, and/or organs. This causes inflammation and damage and it leads to autoimmune disorders.
Paul Ehrlich, at the beginning of the twentieth century, proposed the concept of horror autotoxicus, where in a 'normal' body does not mount an immune response against its own tissues. Thus, any autoimmune response was perceived to be abnormal and postulated to be connected with human disease.
The immune system is a network of organs, cells and molecules that work together to defend the body against attacks by foreign (not of the body) invaders such as germs, bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.
In general terms, when antibodies are directed against the body's own cells, or when B and T cells attack and destroy their own body's cells and not foreign antigens, an autoimmune disorder can result
Autoimmune disorders fall into two general types:
Non-organ-specific or Systemic Autoimmune Diseases are those that damage many organs .
Organ-specific or Localized Autoimmune Diseases are those where only a single organ or tissue is directly damaged by the autoimmune process .For example
In some cases, a person may have more than one autoimmune disease; for example, persons with Addison's disease often have type 1 diabetes, while persons with sclerosing cholangitis often have ulcerative colitis.
In some cases, the antibodies may not be directed at a specific tissue or organ; for example, antiphospholipid antibodies can react with clotting proteins in the blood, leading to formation of blood clots within the blood vessels (thrombosis).
High level of autoimmunity is unhealthy, a low level of autoimmunity may actually be beneficial.
The cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, but it appears that there is an inherited predisposition to develop autoimmune disease in many cases.
In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.
Three main sets of genes are suspected in many autoimmune diseases. These genes are related to:
A person's sex also seems to have a major role in the development of autoimmunity.
The symptoms and signs vary by specific autoimmune disease. The common symptoms are:
- to inhibit the activity of the immune system.
-inoculation of the patient with specific parasitic intestinal nematodes
-to reduce inflammation and pain.
- to reduce inflammation. They are sometimes used to treat an acute flare of symptoms.
- such as paracetamol and codeine.