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It is sometimes amazing that photo editors get any pictures published against ... Sometimes crime photos take on an importance beyond the new value of the story. ...

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where to find news photos
Where to Find News Photos
  • Scanner Radio
    • Know the codes
  • Tips Help
    • Special interest groups call in tips to the newspaper if they think publicity will do them some good.
    • Keep in mind they want to direct what you shoot to present the image they want.
  • News Radio
    • Everyone knows then but better than nothing.
where to find news photos1
Where to Find News Photos
  • Beat Reporter
    • They should know what is going in their area.
  • Making Contacts
    • Get to know people who can keep you informed.
  • PR Office is There to Aid You
    • Most agencies will have PR people to help you out. They can keep you informed of schedules.
    • Keep in mind they want to direct what you shoot to present the image they want.
    • Many of these PR releases suggest good picture possibilities.
where to find news photos2
Where to Find News Photos
  • Paper Prints Schedules
    • The daily paper can keep you informed of what is coming up.
    • You should also keep a eye on what other people or shooting.
  • Trade Magazines
    • Trade Magazines can supply unusual leads.
working with reporters
Working with Reporters
  • Photo Request Starts the process
  • Most news publications have many more reporters than photographers.
  • Reporters request a photographer to be assigned to the story.
  • Photo Request Starts the process
    • A assignment sheet should include: Name or person or event to be photographed, Time, Date, Place, Color or B&W, Slug (story name), Contact numbers, and brief description of story.
photographer and reporter
Photographer and Reporter
  • You should meet the reporter ahead of time.
  • The best circumstance is when the photographer and reporter work as a team.
  • The team should meet and try to define the story’s thrust and news.
  • Many times the reporter and photographer don’t meet until on location. The photographer just gets the info from the editor.
best time for an assignment
Best Time for an Assignment
  • The best time for a photographer and reporter to cover a story are often different.
  • A reporter often needs time after the action to talk with the subject. A photographer must cover the action when it happens.
  • Recreation of events is sometime a necessary evil.
making arrangements
Making Arrangements
  • Editors and reporters do not always take into account the special needs of photographers.
  • Often photographer, because they know the kinds of pictures they are looking for, they can make arrangements better than others.
  • For many stories the photographer and reporter don’t have or should work together.
  • Lighting can effect when a photographer should take the photograph.
  • The activity of the subject also effects the time a photo should be taken.
working in tandem
Working in Tandem
  • Some times the photographer and reporter must cover the event together.
  • The reporter and photographer can help cover each others backsides.
  • Even when they are working together they should most times go their own way when covering the story.
  • It is important that the story and photographs tell the same story.
    • If there are any discrepancy between the story and photos they should be worked out before the story goes to press.
picture politics
Picture Politics
  • Many publications over rate the value of written word and under rate the value of the photographs.
  • Assignments are normally proposed by reporters or editors, not photographers.
  • Photographers rarely originate story ideas.
  • Traditional photographer are only brought in when the story nears completion.
  • The photographer is very often given very little time to shoot the assignment.
    • Sometimes the photographer just has to make due with the time and conditions available.
the budget meeting
The Budget Meeting
  • A budget meeting is to decided how much space to allow for each item in the newspaper and what position in the paper they are placed.
  • Each section editor pitches their best story to the managing editor to decide what stories get on the front page.
  • Each editor other than the photo editor normally has a certain amount of space that is his or her responsible.
the budget meeting1
The Budget Meeting
  • The photo editor has no reserved space in the publication.
  • Managing editor who make the final decision about who gets what space normally come from the written side and not the visual side of education.
  • It is sometimes amazing that photo editors get any pictures published against all the odds against him.
the budget meeting2
The Budget Meeting
  • Today in reality every managing editor knows the importance of front photographs. Papers must sell to keep everyone employed. Front page photos SELL newspapers. The right photo can make people pick the paper up at the newsstand.
take a reporter to lunch
Take a Reporter to Lunch
  • To avoid the trap of being the last one to know about stories try to be informed about what is coming up.
  • Try to know what the reporters are working on.
  • If you find out that a story is in progress try to take photos that might work for the story when it is done.
  • It is a whole lot easier to find the right subject when you days to find it and not hours!
self generated assignment
Self Generated Assignment
  • Self-generated assignments are ones that a photographer proposes to an editor.
  • Sometimes a photographer just shoots a photo of a happening event without an assignment of any kind.
  • If a photographer sees news happening they should take the photo.
  • Most often a photographer receives a written or oral assignments.
  • The photographer then develops the story and near the end a reporter is assigned.
international assignments
International Assignments
  • Many larger publications routinely sent photographers around the country and the world.
  • Many photographers keep passports in their camera bags.
  • If you have the possibility of traveling keep ready.
  • Travel light. (Don’t forget a towel.)
assuring visual variety what shots
Assuring Visual Variety (what shots)
  • Overall shot
  • Medium Shot
  • Action
  • Close-Up
overall shot sets the scene
Overall shot sets the scene
  • The overall allows viewers to orient themselves to the scene.
    • How big was the crowd, what were the surroundings and what was the weather like are some of the things that a over all should show.
  • You should always shoot a overall. It will allows the photo editors to better understand the situation
  • Generally the overall requires a high angle.
  • A wide angle lens can also give you an advantage in a overall shot.
medium shot tells the story
Medium Shot Tells the Story
  • The medium shot should “Tell the story” in one photograph.
  • Shoot the picture close enough to see the participants, action, yet far enough to show their relationship to one another and the environment. (A wrecked car and the victim.)
  • Action improves the photo
medium shot tells the story1
Medium Shot Tells the Story
  • Shooting news action is like shooting sports. (see Chapter 6)
    • If the fire chief tell everyone to move back that a wall is going to fall, be ready to take the photo of the wall falling. If you are not ready to take the action you will miss it!!!
  • For the medium shot, a wide-angle lens, such as a 24mm or 28mm works well, a 50mm will do.
    • The wide lens will in part a closeness to the subject in the photograph. It can also emphasize the subject.
wide angle distortion
Wide-Angle Distortion
  • Buying a wide-angle lens, however, is not a photographer’s panacea.
  • The wider the angle of the lens the greater the chance for apparent distortion.
    • Wide angle lens appear to distort distances.
    • They can also make building look if they are going to fall over.
  • Try to keep the camera parallel to the subject.
  • If you are shooting NEWS do you want to distort reality?
close up adds drama
Close-Up Adds Drama
  • Nothing beats a close-up for drama.
  • A close-up should isolate one element and emphasize it. Not all close-ups should include a person’s face.
  • Long lenses enable a photographer to be less conspicuous when shooting close-ups.
  • With a 200mm lens, you can get 10 ft away and still get a tight facial close-up.
  • Micro lens and extension tubes can also be used for close-ups.
high low angles bring new perspective
High/Low Angles Bring New Perspective
  • Most people see the world from standing or sitting.
  • You can add interest in your photo from just changing your perspective.
  • Avoid the 5'7" syndrome.
saturation method increases your chances
Saturation Method Increases Your Chances
  • When on assignment, take several frames from each vantage point.
    • A slight change in perspective can bring important elements in the scene together to make the picture more visual.
  • Keep shooting! Shoot the scene then keep trying to take a better photo.
  • Photographers stay on location until they get the best picture possible within their time limits. Amateurs take a few snapshots and hope for the best.
saturation method increases your chances1
Saturation Method Increases Your Chances
  • 35mm film is cheep in comparisons to a good photo.
  • Pro photographers may take hundreds or thousands of exposures to get just the right photo.
  • If you see a picture, you should take it.
  • Most times if you don’t click the shutter you have lost the moment and can’t go back.
save the last frame
Save the Last Frame
  • Many photographers stop shooting before the end of the roll.
  • They have been caught with only one frame left just as something spectacular take place.
catching candids
Catching Candids
  • The photojournalistic style depends on catching candids.
  • The photojournalist must catch the subject as unaware as possible to record real emotions.
  • The photographer observes but does not direct.
  • Always a spectator and never a gladiator.
  • With good candid pictures, subject never stare at the camera. Eye contact with the subject leads the viewer to suspect the subject knows about the photo.
approaches to candids
Approaches to Candids
  • There are 3 approaches to candids
  • Big Game Hunter
  • Hit and Run
  • Out-in-the-Open
big game hunter
Big Game Hunter
  • Use a long lens to stock the subject.
  • Shoot from a long way a way to avoid being seen.
  • Patience. Patience. Patience.
hit and run
Hit and Run
  • Shoot quickly before they know you are taking a photo.
out in the open
  • The out-in-the-open approach works when the subject, engaged in an activity that is so engrossing, forgets for a moment the photographer’s present.
  • A subject can also just be so comfortable with you being around they just forget you are there.
preset your camera
Preset Your Camera
  • Set your camera’s aperture and shutter speed before you point the camera at the subject.
  • Use areas with similar lighting to preset the camera’s aperture and shutter speed, focus on something the same distance away from you as the subject.
  • Automatic cameras’ with auto focus and exposure are great for candids, however you need to learn the delay time from pressing the button to when the exposure is made.
anticipation and timing
Anticipation and Timing
  • To catch a candid requires the photographer to anticipate the action.
  • A photographer must choose the right lens, film, shutter speed and f-stop.
  • Timing is of the essence! You must click the shutter at the peak of the action.
  • Most action builds to a peak and then settles down again. And almost every event has a crucial moment.
candids when they know you re there
Candids When they Know You’re There
  • When the worker goes back to his daily routine, he tends to get lost in his work, and the photographer can produce story-telling candids.
staff photographer vs freelances
Staff Photographer vs Freelances
  • If you are a staff photographer once you take a spot news photograph your next steps are very simple you just call the editor and inform him of the photo and the circumstances.
    • Your editor will direct you if the story is important enough to spend more time on.
  • If you freelance you must find where to sell your photos.
determining possible outlets
Determining Possible Outlets
  • Local paper & TV stations
  • Associated Press (AP)
  • Agence France-Presse (AFP)
  • Reuters
  • National Chain Newspapers (Night Rider)
  • National Magazines, (Life, Time, Newsweek)
  • National Tabloids
  • Agencies (Mercury Pictures or Black Star)
time element is crucial
Time Element is Crucial
  • Don’t underestimate the value of your pictures, and don’t wait too long to find a buyer for them.
  • For the price of a telephone call, you can find out if an editor is interested and would like to see your film.
  • Because of the time element, the best market for spot news is a newspaper or wire service.
  • News Wires pay around $100 per photo.
  • If you go with a picture agencies they negotiate the sales and split the profit with you.
  • Exclusive photos can be worth a lot of money.
crimes make headlines
Crimes Make Headlines
  • Almost any kind of crime makes a news.
bringing the crisis home
Bringing the Crisis Home
  • Crime pictures rivet readers attention.
  • When viewers recognize the location it give the photo personal meaning.
  • The publics’ curiosity is why so many crime photos are run.
  • A photo can be worth a 1,000 words when describing a crime.
photographing a crime in progress
Photographing a Crime in Progress
  • Photographers unlike reporters can’t reconstruct the details of a crime.
  • A photographer must be able to sense some up coming violence.
  • Photographing a crime in progress is very rare!!
evaluating news appeal
Evaluating News Appeal
  • Sometimes crime photos take on an importance beyond the new value of the story.
  • Because it is so rare for to a photograph to capture a crime editors usually give it much more play than importance of the crime.
  • The photo’s value depends not only on crime but the freshness of the photo.
  • Besides action, the editor also evaluates the photo on the importance of the story, how many people involved, how much money, etc.
uncooperative subjects
Uncooperative Subjects
  • The true test of a news photographer is getting pictures of criminals entering or leaving police headquarters.
  • Focus and keep your distance from the subject.
  • Night surveillance pictures can be made with Kodak’s p3200 film pushed to 6400 ISO.
  • Results are VERY grainy but recognizable.
  • The flatness of the film helps the high contrast lighting of night photography.
fires catching the flames without missing the people
Fires: Catching the Flames Without Missing the People
  • Why Shoot Fires?
  • Over 500,000 homes burn each year, counting all fires over 2 million are reported each year.
  • A photo can show not only the emotion of the participants but also the size of the fire better than words.
  • Even the remains of a fire can carry impact.
covering a fire
Covering a Fire
  • Scanner radios are standard gear for spot news photographers.
  • Scanners can tell you where the fire is and how big.
get there on time
Get There on Time
  • The first on-scene report from the fire department can tell you how big the fire is.
    • Is the fire big enough to still be burning when you get there.
  • Don’t waste your time with false alarm or one-alarm fires.
  • Working fires are however indicates a substantial blaze.
  • Two alarm fires require additional companies of firefighters to be called out.
  • Five alarms mean a major conflagration is underway.
  • If you can’t arrive at a fire within a few minutes of the time the first alarm sounds, stay at home.
    • Cover it any way.
plan for traffic
Plan for Traffic
  • Check your map.
  • Listen for fire engines and sirens.
  • Don’t block the way for firefighters and don’t get blocked by firefighters!
watch for the human side
Watch for the Human Side
  • Try to get people in the shot. Look for trapped people, people getting first aid, firefighters working, people watching, and etc.
look for the economic angle
Look for the Economic Angle
  • Show the dimension of the incident.
  • You can shoot the remains the next day, often residents return to salvage property.
features highlight the sidelights
Features Highlight the Sidelights
  • Look for related stories.
get the facts
Get the Facts
  • Even though you are not a reporter you must get some facts.
  • Get names and companies of the firefighters.
  • Interview both the fire and police chiefs for cutlines.
  • Get the exact location of the fire.
  • Name of the injured and where they were taken.
  • The extent of damage.
judging a fire s new value
Judging a Fire’s New Value.
  • The importance of a fire not only depends of the size of the fire but also the size of the newspaper running the photo.
  • The type of structure also effects the importance of the photo.
  • Sometime is just the nature of the photo that make the fire important. (Dog story from book)
night fires are difficult
Night Fires Are Difficult.
  • Most fires are at night.
  • The difference between the brightness of the flames and the darkness of the night give photographer fits.
  • Use a slow shutter speed and a flash.
  • Watch out for slow shake at slow shutter speeds. Brace yourself to hold the camera sill.
  • If the fire is bright enough you can shoot available light.
accident and disaster grim but necessary
Accident and Disaster: Grim but Necessary
  • 100,000 Die in Accidents Each Year
  • Almost 1/2 of the accidents in the US involve motor vehicles.
  • Accidents make news.
accident pictures shock readers into caution
Accident Pictures Shock Readers Into Caution.
  • Why to shoot accident pictures
    • Record what goes on
    • Keep readers informed
    • Readers are curious about accidents.
    • Readers want to see what they read about.
    • Accident pictures grap readers emotions.
not all accident merit coverage
Not All Accident Merit Coverage
  • Photographer must judge the value of accidents on the fly.
  • Some factors that influence the newsworthiness of a photo
    • Were people rescued, hurt, or killed?
    • Was the damage excessive?
    • Was the accident large?
    • Was a public official or celebrity involved?
    • Was the mishap unique in any way?
  • The importance of a accident not only depends of the size of the accident but also the size of the newspaper running the photo.
  • Timing is of the essence. TV now can cover story live and make you photo look old the next morning.
photo possibilities from tragic to bizarre
Photo Possibilities: From Tragic to Bizarre
  • All accidents are unique, but all will have common points.
    • Check Human Tragedy First.
    • Make a Record
    • Symbolic Pictures Imply Rather than Tell.
    • Photograph the Cause
    • Show the Impact
    • Follow-up
    • Feature One Aspect.
    • Try to not become hardened.
the biggest problem may be getting there
The Biggest Problem May Be Getting There
  • Be ready to take photos when you get to the scene.
  • Keep a scanner and map in your car.
  • If transportation is down it is very hard to cover the story.
  • You can try to get rides with police or fire departments.
  • Check with PR people to see if they can help you get there.
  • When everyone else heads for cover is the best time to get a photo.
when the police say no to pictures
When the Police Say No To Pictures.
  • Police put media back for many supposed reasons.
    • Privacy of citizens
    • Interference with rescue
    • Pre-trial problems
    • Safety of photographer
  • Some police departments are using two-perimeter systems.
  • Ask where you can be.
  • Don’t use flash.
  • Talk to the police before starting to shoot.
meetings tension resolution
Meetings: Tension & Resolution
  • The governmental news is about 80% of what is in Time and Newsweek.
  • You do not have to hunt down politicians to take their photo, they are like shoot fish in a barrel.
meetings generate news
Meetings Generate News
  • Because the result of meeting are important to readers they are news.
  • Editors routinely assign photographers to cover meetings, awards, and press conferences.
  • Meetings challenge the photographer in different ways than spot news.
  • The challenge with meetings is to the creativity.
  • How to make a photo of a meeting tell the story and not look like every other meeting.
face and hands reveal emotions
Face and Hands Reveal Emotions
  • Readers understand a wrinkled brow, or a clenched fist.
revealing versus accidental photos
Revealing versus Accidental Photos
  • You can capture a photo that show false emotions.
  • Be sure what you shoot tells the real story.
personalities make news
Personalities Make News
  • A simple snapshot of a politicians can front page of every paper in the country.
  • A photographer must know the players without using a score card.
  • Shoot the most news worthy of the group.
props add meaning
Props Add Meaning
  • If there are any objects special to the meeting shoot them.
  • Signs, guns, drugs etc.
lighting is important
Lighting is Important
  • Let the Sunshine in
    • Lighting and choice of lens can add impact to a simple meeting photo.
    • Try to shoot with natural sunlight if possible, open drapes.
    • Watch out for TV lights.
    • Shoot flash only as a last resort.
  • Fluorescent Light is Bland.
    • Fluorescent light is very flat.
    • TV lights can be very flat if you shoot from the same angle as the same position as the TV camera.
    • Try to get an angle on the lighting.
  • Separate the Subject from the Background.
    • Newsprint grays out blacks and muddies whites.
    • Small differences in tones are lost in newspaper reproduction.
    • A subject may be lost in the background if there is not enough tonal difference between the two.
    • Try to get a angle where there is a good tonal separation between the subject and the backgroune.
blow up or compression
Blow-Up or Compression?
  • A row of people setting at a table has big blank spaces in it. When printed the people are quite small.
  • Shoot from the side with a long lens to compress the group.
  • Watch out for depth of field when shooting from the side.
  • Focus one third of the way into the group.
politicians and elections
Politicians and Elections
  • Politicians seek photographers.
  • Media events planed for photographer are called “photo opportunities”.
  • Editors can’t resist politicians in funny hats.
the campaign trail
The Campaign Trail.
  • Two major areas to cover.
    • Public life
    • Private life
  • Too often we only get to see the public life in photos.
  • Go behind the Scenes—Show the private life.
  • Photograph the Issues
    • Almost all of a campaign issues can be shown in photographs.
    • Try to be objective with your photos!
    • It is easy to distort what is seen in photos.
  • Steer Clear of the Pack
    • If your shot looks like everyone else’s why should they run it.
awards avoiding the grip and grin
Awards: Avoiding the Grip and Grin
  • An “Grip and Grin” is a photo of people giving a check or award and shaking hands.
  • Grip & Grins do not tell a story.
  • You should not shoot grip & grins photos.
  • Most times G&Gs are not news, but sometimes they are.
  • You will take G&Gs!
the story behind the award
The Story behind the Award
  • Try to find the story behind the award.
nursing homes a case study
Nursing Homes: A case Study
  • Translating Numbers into People
  • Photographing Statistics
  • Gaining Access
  • Results
ingredients for in depth coverage
Ingredients for in-depth Coverage
  • Important Issues
    • Start with a issue that is important.
  • Time
    • Most editors think nothing of assigning a reporter to work weeks on a story. The same editor may only give a photographer minutes.
    • It take time to develop an in depth story.
  • Display
    • If the images don’t get proper space the story does not get results.
backgrounding the news
Backgrounding the News
  • Backgrounding means explaining the cause of a news story.