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Self-Organization in Natural Systems

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  1. Self-Organization in Natural Systems MANO Jean Pierre

  2. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits into a coherently structured entity?

  3. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity? • From simple neurons to the thinking brain • From individuals to the society • From molecule to pattern

  4. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity? • From simple neurons to the thinking brain • From individuals to the society • From molecule to pattern

  5. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity? • From simple neurons to the thinking brain • From individuals to the society • From molecule to pattern C3H4O4 NaBr NaBrO3 HSO3 C12H8N2SO2Fe Malonic acid Sodium bromide Sodium bromate Sulfuric acid 1,10 Phenanthroline ferrous sulfate

  6. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • Definitions • Pattern formation In living and non-living systems • Social systems Sociality and gregarism • Cellular systems Cells build animals • Properties of self-organized systems

  7. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • Definitions • Pattern formation In living and non-living systems • Social systems Sociality and gregarism • Cellular systems Cells build animals • Properties of self-organized systems

  8. Definitions • What is Chaos ? [Poincarré] [Lorenz] [Prigogine] disorder, confusion, is opposed to order and method “Chaos” define a particular state of a system that is characterized by the following behaviors: • Do not repeat • Sensible to initial conditions: sharp differences can produce wide divergent results • Moreover, ordered and characterized by an unpredictable determinism • When moving away from equillibrium state => high organization • Non equillibrium phasis: bifurcations • Amplification => Symetry break

  9. Definitions • What is Self-organization in natural systems? Self-organization is a process in which pattern at the global level of a system emerges solely from numerous interactions among the lower level components of the system. [Deneubourg 1977] Moreover, the rules specifying interactions among the system’s components are executed using only local information, without reference to the global pattern In other words, the pattern is an emergent property of the system, rather than a property imposed on the system by an external influence

  10. Definitions • What is an emergent property ? • Many Agents • Simple rules • Many interactions • Decentralization • Emergent properties • Unreductibility • Macro-level (odre magnitude difference) • Feed-back effect on the micro-level Conditions Observations

  11. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • Definitions • Pattern formation In living and non-living systems • Social systems Sociality and gregarism • Cellular systems Cells build animals • Properties of self-organized systems

  12. Non-living pattern formation • Based on physical and chemical properties • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction • Bénard convection cells • Sand dune ripples • Glass cracks • Mud cracks

  13. Non-living pattern formation • Based on physical and chemical properties • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction • Bénard convection cells • Sand dune ripples • Glass cracks • Mud cracks

  14. Non-living pattern formation • Based on physical and chemical properties • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction • Bénard convection cells • Sand dune ripples • Glass cracks • Mud cracks

  15. Non-living pattern formation • Based on physical and chemical properties • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction • Bénard convection cells • Sand dune ripples • Glass cracks • Mud cracks

  16. Non-living pattern formation • Based on physical and chemical properties • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction • Bénard convection cells • Sand dune ripples • Glass cracks • Mud cracks

  17. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  18. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  19. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  20. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  21. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  22. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerization • Occular dominance stripes

  23. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerisation • Occular dominance stripes

  24. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerisation • Occular dominance stripes

  25. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerisation • Occular dominance stripes

  26. Pattern formation in biological systems • Most of those patterns are in fact fixed states of reactions that have occurred long time ago… • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerisation • Occular dominance stripes

  27. Pattern formation in biological systems • Most of those patterns are in fact fixed states of reactions that have occurred long time ago… • Patterns characterizing individuals • Giraffe coat • Zebra • Leopard • Vermiculated rabbitfish • Cone shells • Finger prints • Morel • Metamerisation • Occular dominance stripes … or process is still running. Mechanisms ?

  28. Degradation Degradation Slow diffusion ACTIVATOR ACTIVATEUR INHIBITOR INHIBITEUR Quick diffusion + + - Activation-inhibition mechanism autocatalyzis Inspired by equations of reaction-diffusion [Turing1949] inhibition The activator autocatalyzes its own production, and also activates the inhibitor. The inhibitor disrupts the autocatalytic process. Meanwhile, the two substances diffuse through the system at different rates, with the inhibitor migrating faster. The result: local activationandlong-range inhibition

  29. Activation-inhibition mechanism Activation-inhibition and self-organization share a common mechanism Starting point: a homogeneous substrate (lacking pattern) Positive feedback (short-range activation, autocatalyzes) Negative feedback (long-range inhibition)

  30. Self-Organization in Natural Systems • Definitions • Pattern formation In living and non-living systems • Social systems Sociality and gregarism • Cellular systems Cells build animals • Properties of self-organized systems Low dynamic High dynamic

  31. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ants • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  32. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  33. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  34. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  35. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  36. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans

  37. Pattern formation in colonies activity • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of… social insects • Ant • Bees • Wasps • Termites Mammalians • African Mole-rats • Humans • Several orders of size magnitude difference • Those patterns result of the permanent activity of society’s elements… Causality and mechanisms ?

  38. Pattern formation in colonies activity Environmental constraints Openess Heterogeneity… Template Gradients Grids… Stigmergy [Grassé 1959] Indirect interactions between animals Local environmental changes (pheromones, mud pellets…)

  39. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  40. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  41. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  42. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  43. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  44. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  45. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  46. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  47. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  48. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  49. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians

  50. Pattern formation in biological systems • Patterns occurring during collective movement Microorganisms Insects and Crustaceans Social insects Fishes Birds Mammalians