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Self-Organization in Natural Systems. MANO Jean Pierre. Self-Organization in Natural Systems. What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits into a coherently structured entity?. Self-Organization in Natural Systems.

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self organization in natural systems2
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits into a coherently structured entity?
self organization in natural systems3
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity?
    • From simple neurons to the thinking brain
    • From individuals to the society
    • From molecule to pattern
self organization in natural systems4
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity?
    • From simple neurons to the thinking brain
    • From individuals to the society
    • From molecule to pattern
self organization in natural systems5
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • What are the mechanisms for integrating subunits activity into a coherently structured entity?
    • From simple neurons to the thinking brain
    • From individuals to the society
    • From molecule to pattern

C3H4O4

NaBr

NaBrO3

HSO3

C12H8N2SO2Fe

Malonic acid

Sodium bromide

Sodium bromate

Sulfuric acid

1,10 Phenanthroline ferrous sulfate

self organization in natural systems6
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems
self organization in natural systems7
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems
definitions
Definitions
  • What is Chaos ? [Poincarré] [Lorenz] [Prigogine]

disorder, confusion, is opposed to order and method

“Chaos” define a particular state of a system that is characterized by the following behaviors:

      • Do not repeat
      • Sensible to initial conditions: sharp differences can produce wide divergent results
      • Moreover, ordered and characterized by an unpredictable determinism
        • When moving away from equillibrium state => high organization
        • Non equillibrium phasis: bifurcations
        • Amplification => Symetry break
definitions9
Definitions
  • What is Self-organization in natural systems?

Self-organization is a process in which pattern at the global level of a system emerges solely from numerous interactions among the lower level components of the system. [Deneubourg 1977]

Moreover, the rules specifying interactions among the system’s components are executed using only local information, without reference to the global pattern

In other words, the pattern is an emergent property of the system, rather than a property imposed on the system by an external influence

definitions10
Definitions
  • What is an emergent property ?
  • Many Agents
  • Simple rules
  • Many interactions
  • Decentralization
  • Emergent properties
  • Unreductibility
  • Macro-level (odre magnitude difference)
  • Feed-back effect on the micro-level

Conditions

Observations

self organization in natural systems11
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems
non living pattern formation
Non-living pattern formation
  • Based on physical and chemical properties
    • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    • Bénard convection cells
    • Sand dune ripples
    • Glass cracks
    • Mud cracks
non living pattern formation13
Non-living pattern formation
  • Based on physical and chemical properties
    • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    • Bénard convection cells
    • Sand dune ripples
    • Glass cracks
    • Mud cracks
non living pattern formation14
Non-living pattern formation
  • Based on physical and chemical properties
    • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    • Bénard convection cells
    • Sand dune ripples
    • Glass cracks
    • Mud cracks
non living pattern formation15
Non-living pattern formation
  • Based on physical and chemical properties
    • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    • Bénard convection cells
    • Sand dune ripples
    • Glass cracks
    • Mud cracks
non living pattern formation16
Non-living pattern formation
  • Based on physical and chemical properties
    • Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    • Bénard convection cells
    • Sand dune ripples
    • Glass cracks
    • Mud cracks
pattern formation in biological systems
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems18
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems19
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems20
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems21
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems22
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerization
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems23
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerisation
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems24
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerisation
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems25
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerisation
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems26
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Most of those patterns are in fact fixed states of reactions that have occurred long time ago…
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerisation
    • Occular dominance stripes
pattern formation in biological systems27
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Most of those patterns are in fact fixed states of reactions that have occurred long time ago…
  • Patterns characterizing individuals
    • Giraffe coat
    • Zebra
    • Leopard
    • Vermiculated rabbitfish
    • Cone shells
    • Finger prints
    • Morel
    • Metamerisation
    • Occular dominance stripes

… or process is still running.

Mechanisms ?

activation inhibition mechanism

Degradation

Degradation

Slow diffusion

ACTIVATOR

ACTIVATEUR

INHIBITOR

INHIBITEUR

Quick diffusion

+

+

-

Activation-inhibition mechanism

autocatalyzis

Inspired by equations of reaction-diffusion [Turing1949]

inhibition

The activator autocatalyzes its own production, and also activates the inhibitor. The inhibitor disrupts the autocatalytic process. Meanwhile, the two substances diffuse through the system at different rates, with the inhibitor migrating faster. The result: local activationandlong-range inhibition

activation inhibition mechanism29
Activation-inhibition mechanism

Activation-inhibition and self-organization share a common mechanism

Starting point: a homogeneous substrate

(lacking pattern)

Positive feedback

(short-range activation, autocatalyzes)

Negative feedback

(long-range inhibition)

self organization in natural systems30
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems

Low dynamic

High dynamic

pattern formation in colonies activity
Pattern formation in colonies activity
  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ants
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide32

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide33

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide34

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide35

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide36

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
slide37

Pattern formation in colonies activity

  • Patterns resulting from the activity of a society of…

social insects

    • Ant
    • Bees
    • Wasps
    • Termites

Mammalians

    • African Mole-rats
    • Humans
  • Several orders of size magnitude difference
  • Those patterns result of the permanent activity of society’s elements…

Causality and mechanisms ?

slide38

Pattern formation in colonies activity

Environmental constraints

Openess

Heterogeneity…

Template

Gradients

Grids…

Stigmergy [Grassé 1959] Indirect interactions between animals

Local environmental changes (pheromones, mud pellets…)

pattern formation in biological systems39
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems40
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems41
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems42
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems43
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems44
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems45
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems46
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems47
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems48
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems49
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems50
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems51
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems52
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems53
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems54
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems55
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems56
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems57
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems58
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

pattern formation in biological systems59
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

Those patterns result from a permanent reorganization…

…mechanisms ?

Alignment -attraction

  • No leader
  • No preexisting tracks
  • High sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Based on the nearest neighbor perception
pattern formation in biological systems60
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

Those patterns results from a permanent reorganization…

…mechanisms ?

  • No leader
  • No preexisting tracks
  • High sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Based on the nearest neighbor perception
pattern formation in biological systems61
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

Those patterns results from a permanent reorganization…

…mechanisms ?

  • No leader
  • No preexisting tracks
  • High sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Based on the nearest neighbor perception
pattern formation in biological systems62
Pattern formation in biological systems
  • Patterns occurring during collective movement

Microorganisms

Insects and Crustaceans

Social insects

Fishes

Birds

Mammalians

Those patterns results from a permanent reorganization…

…mechanisms ?

  • No leader
  • No preexisting tracks
  • High sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Based on the nearest neighbor perception
attraction repulsion mechanisms
Attraction-repulsion mechanisms

Relations between Activation-inhibition mechanisms and attraction-repulsion mechanisms

They share a common mechanism

Starting point: a homogeneous substrate (lacking or different pattern)

Positive feedback (local activation or attraction rate to aggregates size)

Negative feedback (long-range inhibition, depletion in individuals)

Degradation

Degradation

Slow diffusion

ACTIVATOR

ACTIVATEUR

INHIBITOR

INHIBITEUR

Quick diffusion

+

+

+

+

-

-

Short range effect

ATTRACTION

STRENGTH

Long range effect

CONSUMPTION of FREEPARTICLE

self organization in natural systems64
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems
how cells build the animal
How cells build the animal ?
  • From one cell to the next generation…
  • From one cell to the thinking brain…
  • Planed mechanisms:
    • Expression of the genetic program
  • Scale changes
    • And long range communication
  • Self-organizing mechanisms
    • Reaction-diffusion (activation-inhibition)
    • Cells migrations (Aggregation-repulsion)
how cells build the animal66
How cells build the animal ?
  • Why has evolution “chosen” these types of solutions?
  • Biological Constraints
    • Physical – Energetical – Turn over – Replication -
  • Limited amount of genetic information
  • Enormous amount of
    • Morphogenic
    • Physiological
    • Behavioral
  • Self-organization is one solution to this problem

complexity

how cells build the animal67
How cells build the animal ?
  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential
how cells build the animal68
How cells build the animal ?

Strict genetic program

Complex triggering

  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential
how cells build the animal69
How cells build the animal ?

Amplification of a behaviour (metabolism)trigger: cell environment

  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential
how cells build the animal70
How cells build the animal ?

Contact

Mechanical

  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential

Direct

Indirect

Secretion diffusion

At different range and time

how cells build the animal71
How cells build the animal ?

Nucleus (DNA)

  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential

Cytoplasm

  • RNA
  • Proteins
  • toxins

Controled exchanges

Internal state, memoryof previous events (environments)

how cells build the animal72
How cells build the animal ?
  • Accidental changes in cell environment
    • Backward differentiation
  • Not all animals
    • Global communication (blood circulationand nervous system)
  • Not all cells
  • Wounds should respect
    • Gradients
    • Periods of sensibility
  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential
how cells build the animal73
How cells build the animal ?
  • Low dynamic : STRUCTURES
  • High dynamic : FUNCTIONING
    • Neural activity
    • Immune system answer
  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell differentiation
  • Cell communication
  • Cell memory
  • Regenerative potential
self organization in natural systems74
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Definitions
  • Pattern formation

In living and non-living systems

  • Social systems

Sociality and gregarism

  • Cellular systems

Cells build animals

  • Properties of self-organized systems
self organization in natural systems75
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • The modeling is relatively easy.
    • Environment
    • Time
    • Topology
  • Unraveling the real biological mechanisms remain extremely difficult
self organization in natural systems76
Self-Organization in Natural Systems

Many interactions

Many agents

Simples rules

Decentralization

Emergent properties

self organization in natural systems77
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Adaptive advantages of self-organized systems
    • Robustness
    • Error tolerance
    • Self-repair
    • Ease of implementation
    • Simple agents.
self organization in natural systems79
Self-Organization in Natural Systems
  • Why is all of this important?
    • Many biological systems have evolved decentralized solutions to their vital challenges.
    • Through self-organization, evolution has stumbled upon a wide range of extremely efficient, relatively simple solutions for solving very complex problems.
reference and further readings
Reference and further readings
  • Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. aldrop 1992.
  • Turtles, Termites and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds. Resnick 1994.
  • The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. Gell-Mann 1994.
  • The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. Ball 1999.
  • Emergence: From Chaos to Order. Holland 1998.
  • A brief history of stigmergy. Theraulaz, Bonabeau 1999 Artif. Life 5
  • The formation of spatial patterns in social insects: from simple behaviours to complex structures Theraulaz, Gautrais, Camazine, Deneubourg
  • Self-organization in Nature Deneubourg Camazine 2002
  • Comment les cellules construisent l’animal Chandebois 2003