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PSY 111AR Introduction to Psychology. Introduction and syllabus /intros01.htm Questions and discussion What is psychology? Where does it fit? Why do psychologists believe as they do?. What isn’t psychology. “Why is there rain?”

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psy 111ar introduction to psychology
PSY 111AR Introduction to Psychology
  • Introduction and syllabus
    • /intros01.htm
  • Questions and discussion
  • What is psychology?
  • Where does it fit?
  • Why do psychologists believe as they do?
what isn t psychology
What isn’t psychology
  • “Why is there rain?”
  • “How do bumblebees fly, anyway?”
  • “Is Kant’s categorical imperative an adequate basis for framing moral and ethical judgments in the 21st century?”
  • “Comment va dire, ‘The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain?”
what is psychology
What is psychology?
  • “Psychology is the field that studies behavior and mental processes.”
  • “Psychology is about life.”
  • “Psychology is about mental illness.”
  • “Psychology is about how we learn.”
  • “Psychology is about relationships…and sex.”
fields of psychology
Fields of Psychology

Academic Psychology

Applied Psychology

Biological Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology

Industrial/ Organizational/ Engineering, Educational, and Health Psychology

Cognitive Psych Memory Psycholinguistics Cross-cultural Psychology

Behavioral Psych Behavioral Analysis Behavior Genetics Behavioral Medicine

Mental health services: Counseling, Clinical, & Community Psych Clinical Social Work Psychiatry

where does psychology fit
Where does psychology fit?
  • Historical and philosophical roots
    • Ionian cosmologists and empiricism
    • Socratic philosophers and rationalism
    • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and dualism
    • John Locke (1632-1704) and environmentalism
    • George Berkeley (1685-1753) and rational inference
    • James Mill (1773-1836) and materialism
biological roots of psychology
Biological roots of psychology
  • Descartes’ hydraulic model
  • Luigi Galvani’s (1737-1798) electrical model
  • Johannes Muller (1801-1858) and experimental physiology
  • Pierre Flourens (1774-1867) and ablation
    • Paul Broca’s (1824-1880) human example
  • Helmholtz
the emergence of psychology
The emergence of psychology
  • Structuralism and experiment: Wundt
  • Functionalism: William James
  • Psychoanalysis: Freud
  • Behaviorism: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner
  • Reactions:
    • Cognitive psychology
    • Humanistic psychology
psychology s ongoing issues
Psychology’s ongoing issues
  • Stability vs. change
  • Rationality vs. irrationality
  • Nature vs. nurture
  • Perspectives of paradigms
critical thinking in psychology
Critical Thinking in Psychology
  • Cultivate skepticism and humility
  • Analyze the source of claims and beliefs
  • Beware biasing attitudes
    • Intuition
    • Hindsight bias
    • Overconfidence
research methods in psychology
Research methods in psychology
  • The scientific method
  • Research strategies
    • Description
    • Correlation
    • Experimentation
when i heard the learn d astronomer walt whitman
"When I Heard The Learn'dAstronomer” (Walt Whitman)

When I heard the learn'd astronomer,

When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me,

When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them,

When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured

With much applause in the lecture-room,

whitman continued
Whitman, continued...

How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick,

Till rising and gliding out I wander'd off by myself,

In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,

Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.

the scientific method
The scientific method
  • 1. Hypothesis formation:
    • Specify the research question or problem
    • Study the research literature
    • Formulate a hypothesis as a possible answer
  • 2. Design the research
    • Generate predictions
    • Select a method
scientific method
Scientific method...
  • 3. Conduct the study, collect the data
  • 4. Analyze the data to assess the predictions
  • 5. Explain what the assessment of the predictions says about the truth of the hypothesis. Communicate your study to the scientific community.
descriptive research
Descriptive research
  • The case study
    • Depth over breadth
    • Risk of overgeneralization
    • May disprove a hypothesis
  • The survey
    • Effects of wording and method
    • Sampling can overcome false consensus
  • Naturalistic observation
research methods in psychology16
Research methods in psychology
  • Research strategies
    • Description
    • Correlation
    • Experimentation
  • What does correlation mean?
  • Illusory correlation
    • Confirmation bias
    • Spurious correlations
  • Correlation and causation
research methods in psychology18
Research methods in psychology
  • Research strategies
    • Description
    • Correlation
    • Experimentation
  • Random selection for representative sample
  • Random assignment for equivalent groups
  • Control or comparison condition
  • Manipulation of independent variable
  • Measurement of dependent variable
making explanations
Making explanations
  • The nominal fallacy and circular explanation
  • Operational definition of variables
    • Independent variable: How is it manipulated?
    • Dependent variable: How is it measured?
    • Validity of operational definitions
  • Reliability of measurements
    • Interrater reliability
confounding variables reaction time to shapes
Confounding variables: Reaction time to shapes

How could we use counterbalancing to

remove the confounding in this study?

two experiments
Two experiments
  • Hypothesis one: Speaking out in class will kill you.
  • Hypothesis two: Men have faster reaction times than women.