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The Internet An Introduction. Prepared by Gena Casas. What is the Internet. A worldwide connection of interconnected computer networks. A network is a communications system on which computers share resources and information. More than 20 million computers and more than 45,000 networks.

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The Internet

An Introduction

Prepared by Gena Casas


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What is the Internet

  • A worldwide connection of interconnected computer networks.

  • A network is a communications system on which computers share resources and information.

  • More than 20 million computers and more than 45,000 networks.

  • Uses packet switching and the TCP/IP protocol.


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What is the World Wide Web

  • A part of the Internet.

  • Collection of hypertext Web documents that can be shared over the Internet.

  • Web documents contain links that lead to other Web pages and Internet resources.

  • Web documents contain graphics, sounds, animation, video, and other interesting ways to present information.


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Why is the Web Important?

  • The Internet is the newest medium for human interaction & communication.

  • The Web is the only part of the Internet which is graphical.

  • Electronic Commerce is conducted over the Web.

  • Electronic Publishing needs the Web.


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Why is the Web Important?

  • The Web is a new educational medium for instruction in the office, the home, and at school.

  • The Web is important for entertainment.

  • The Web is a major component of the Information Superhighway.

  • Corporate Intranets, Extranets depend on the Web.


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Why is the Web Important?

  • The Web, TV, Modem, Telephone, Fax, Radio will soon combine . Cable or Wireless.

  • The Web provides Worldwide Connectivity.


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What is a Web Site

  • A collection of one or more Web pages (HTML documents) viewable on the Internet.

  • Web pages are stored on computers called Web servers.

  • A Web browser such as: Netscape Navigator / Communicator, or Internet Explorer is used to access Web sites.

  • The relationship between browsers and Web servers is called a client/server relationship.


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Accessing Web Pages

  • Web pages accessed by their unique URL - (Uniform Resource Locator.

  • URLs - Four-part addressing scheme

    • Tells browser which transfer protocol to use

    • Contains the domain name of the computer where the document resides

    • Contains the pathname on the computer

    • Contains the filename of the document


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Format of URLs

  • URLs have the following format:

    • protocol://machine address/path/filename

  • Example:

    • http://www.udel.edu/interlit/chp1.html


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Protocol

  • The first part of the URL.

  • How the communication is handled.

    • http: for Web sites

    • ftp: for FTP sites

    • gopher:for gofer sites

    • telnet: for telnew sites

  • Followed by //


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Domain Names

  • Second part of the URL is the machine address which contains the following:

    • hostname.subdomain.top-level-domain name

  • Domain names appear in the right-most position in the machine address.

  • Each host on the Internet is assigned a domain name based on its usage:

    • .edu educational .gov government

    • .com commercial .org other organizations


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Path & Filename

  • Path - third part of the URL

    • Points to a specific site within the server.

    • Starts and ends with forward slashes.

  • Filename - fourth part of the URL

    • The name of the document

    • Web page filenames end with .htm or .html


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The W3 Consortium

  • Joint WWW project to help provide information and archives relating to WWW development.

  • Two sites - One in the United States, one in Europe.

  • The major players:

    • Tim Berners-Lee at MIT

    • CERN - European Particle Physics Lab

    • INRIA - French National Institute for Research in Computing and Automation


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The W3 Consortium

  • Goal - To provide the Web with the following:

    • A repository of information.

    • A reference code implementation to promote standards.

    • Various prototype and sample applications to show how new technology can be used.

  • Latest standards can be found at:

    • http://www.w3.org/