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The Internet An Introduction. Prepared by Gena Casas. What is the Internet. A worldwide connection of interconnected computer networks. A network is a communications system on which computers share resources and information. More than 20 million computers and more than 45,000 networks.

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prepared by gena casas

The Internet

An Introduction

Prepared by Gena Casas


What is the Internet

  • A worldwide connection of interconnected computer networks.
  • A network is a communications system on which computers share resources and information.
  • More than 20 million computers and more than 45,000 networks.
  • Uses packet switching and the TCP/IP protocol.

What is the World Wide Web

  • A part of the Internet.
  • Collection of hypertext Web documents that can be shared over the Internet.
  • Web documents contain links that lead to other Web pages and Internet resources.
  • Web documents contain graphics, sounds, animation, video, and other interesting ways to present information.

Why is the Web Important?

  • The Internet is the newest medium for human interaction & communication.
  • The Web is the only part of the Internet which is graphical.
  • Electronic Commerce is conducted over the Web.
  • Electronic Publishing needs the Web.

Why is the Web Important?

  • The Web is a new educational medium for instruction in the office, the home, and at school.
  • The Web is important for entertainment.
  • The Web is a major component of the Information Superhighway.
  • Corporate Intranets, Extranets depend on the Web.

Why is the Web Important?

  • The Web, TV, Modem, Telephone, Fax, Radio will soon combine . Cable or Wireless.
  • The Web provides Worldwide Connectivity.

What is a Web Site

  • A collection of one or more Web pages (HTML documents) viewable on the Internet.
  • Web pages are stored on computers called Web servers.
  • A Web browser such as: Netscape Navigator / Communicator, or Internet Explorer is used to access Web sites.
  • The relationship between browsers and Web servers is called a client/server relationship.

Accessing Web Pages

  • Web pages accessed by their unique URL - (Uniform Resource Locator.
  • URLs - Four-part addressing scheme
    • Tells browser which transfer protocol to use
    • Contains the domain name of the computer where the document resides
    • Contains the pathname on the computer
    • Contains the filename of the document

Format of URLs

  • URLs have the following format:
    • protocol://machine address/path/filename
  • Example:


  • The first part of the URL.
  • How the communication is handled.
    • http: for Web sites
    • ftp: for FTP sites
    • gopher:for gofer sites
    • telnet: for telnew sites
  • Followed by //

Domain Names

  • Second part of the URL is the machine address which contains the following:
    • name
  • Domain names appear in the right-most position in the machine address.
  • Each host on the Internet is assigned a domain name based on its usage:
    • .edu educational .gov government
    • .com commercial .org other organizations

Path & Filename

  • Path - third part of the URL
    • Points to a specific site within the server.
    • Starts and ends with forward slashes.
  • Filename - fourth part of the URL
    • The name of the document
    • Web page filenames end with .htm or .html

The W3 Consortium

  • Joint WWW project to help provide information and archives relating to WWW development.
  • Two sites - One in the United States, one in Europe.
  • The major players:
    • Tim Berners-Lee at MIT
    • CERN - European Particle Physics Lab
    • INRIA - French National Institute for Research in Computing and Automation

The W3 Consortium

  • Goal - To provide the Web with the following:
    • A repository of information.
    • A reference code implementation to promote standards.
    • Various prototype and sample applications to show how new technology can be used.
  • Latest standards can be found at: