North Korea in Northeast Asia. Lecture Note for Pease Studies II November 24, 2004 Sung Chull Kim Hiroshima Peace institute. Preliminary questions. What is the origin of North Korean problem, such as nuclear weapon development, famine, abduction issue, and so one?
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Lecture Note for Pease Studies II
November 24, 2004
Sung Chull Kim
Hiroshima Peace institute
- defeated South-origin communists right after the war broke out.
- expelled Soviet and Chinese factions from the party in the mid-1950s.
- Juche means self-reliance or independence.
- political skills plus preparation of power succession for twenty years
- party secretary in charge of Organization, Propaganda and Agitation Affairs in 1973
- authoritative interpreter of the Juche ideology
- Kim Il Sung’ idea as Kimilsungism
- Ten Principles for the Establishment of the Monolithic Idea in 1974
- In the preface of the new constitution of 1998, Kim Il Sung is named as “eternal president” of North Korea.
- The office of state president was abolished.
- The NDC became “the highest guiding organ of the military and the managing organ of the military affairs.”
- The Chairman of the NDC, Kim Jong-il, is in firm control of all the armed forces and in charge of all political economic matters as well.
- Kim, in December 1996, was quoted as saying that: “The party’s morale is so degraded that party cadres would benefit from getting an ideological education from political officers of the military.”
- Also military’s role in the economic affairs is distinctive, especially in the fields of construction and agriculture, as well as in military industry.
- the Korean War
- Nov. 29, 1987, bombing of Korean Airline
- veto to international financial institutions, such as World Bank and IMF
- suspension of most-favored-nation (MFN) status
- now normal trade relations (NTR) status
- minus growth since 1991 for ten years
- Agreed Framework
- General Secretary of the Korean Workers’ Party
- Chairman of the Defense Committee
- Pyongyang Declaration
- abduction issue
- China’s active role for moderating especially the differences between North Korea and Japan
- existence of enriched uranium program
- US demand of compliance first and negotiation later
- US stance of complete, verifiable, irreversible, dismantlement (CVID)
- NK demand of economic incentive and negotiation (KEDO’s heavy oil shipment stopped)
- NK demand of withdrawal of US ”hostile policy”
- NK skepticism on US strategy of dialogue and shaking North Korea
- security guarantee of Kim Jong-il regime
- The price increased by 30 times in average than before the reform measure.
- before reform: rice procured in 0.08 won from farmers -> sold in 0.8 won to city dwellers
- after reform: procured in 40 won -> sold in 44 won
- bus and subway in Pyongyang: 0.02 -> 2 won
- principle of “distribution based on consequence of labor” instead of traditional rule of “labor contribution based on capability, distribution based on need”
- manual and clerical workers: 18 times
- mine workers: 25 times
- reflection of economic reality: no capacity of distributing daily necessities as well as food
- declaration of discarding egalitarianism per se
- Price of rice has been increased from 44 won in July 2002 to above 200 won in late 2003.
- It is said that in some areas, the price reached to 700-800 won most recently.
- more responsibility for the salary of employees
- more leeway and flexibility of labor assignment
- changes in manager’s authority vs. party cadre
- local government- or enterprise-managed
- in food and light industries and in the service sector.
- farmer’s market: exchange, sell, and purchase agricultural products cultivated in the private plot.
- general market: sell, purchase industrial products, daily necessities, as well as agricultural Products.
- They pay fees to the local governments.
- sensitivity of the issue because of security of specific people
- more sensitive than nuclear issue, according to survey analysis*
- domestic dimension of interfering progress of bilateral relations
- The abduction issue shows North Korea’s inability of managing documentations as well as inhumanity.
- containment by economic sanction: immediate negative response from NK, without providing any clue of its solution
- engagement: no immediate effect, but gradual cultivation of systemic transition