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Management for Water Yield. Basic treatments Removal of woody vegetation Weather modification Construction of “catchments”. Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone. Alpine zone Region above tree line Snowpack zone Area immediately below alpine zone. Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone.

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management for water yield
Management for Water Yield
  • Basic treatments
    • Removal of woody vegetation
    • Weather modification
    • Construction of “catchments”
mgt treatments vary by zone
Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone
  • Alpine zone
    • Region above tree line
  • Snowpack zone
    • Area immediately below alpine zone
mgt treatments vary by zone3
Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone
  • Forests outside snowpack zone
  • Woodland and brushy zone
    • Chaparral,
    • Oak savanna,
    • Pinon-Juniper woodland
mgt treatments vary by zone4
Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone
  • Phreatophyte zone
    • Plants that obtain moisture primarily from ground water or capillary fringe just above ground water.
    • Occur along stream bank and in flood plain
mgt treatments vary by zone5
Mgt. Treatments Vary by Zone
  • Low shrub and grassland zone
alpine zone
Alpine Zone
  • Characteristics of zone
    • Snow persists well into summer
    • Summer snow fields almost immune to net evaporation
    • Major contributor to summer runoff
  • Mgt. Options
    • Snow fences and tree planting used to strategically place snow banks relative to sun
snowpack zone
Snowpack Zone
  • Covers largest land area
  • Mostly coniferous and in western U.S., but some in East
  • Mgt. Options
    • Clear-cut – In Arizona this increased stream flow from equivalent of 0.6 to 13.5 inches of precipitation
forests outside snowpack zone
Forests Outside Snowpack Zone
  • Many vegetative manipulation options
    • Reduce woody cover
    • Coweeta, NC
      • Increase after clearcutting was 11 to 16 inches on north slopes, much less on south slopes
    • Cascade Mt., OR
      • Increase after was clearcutting 18 to 21 inches
woodland and brushy zone
Woodland and Brushy Zone
  • Vegetative manipulation less effective
    • Removal increased yield from 0 to 7 inches depending on rainfall and cover type

Oak Savanna

phreatophyte
Phreatophyte
  • Very high evapo-transpiration losses
  • Manipulation studies inconclusive
  • Catchment areas main tool
low shrub and grassland zone
Low Shrub and Grassland Zone
  • Drier sites
  • Few if any management options
  • Use catchments to retain runoff
control of stream flow regimen
Control of Stream Flow Regimen
  • Objectives
    • Prevent deterioration of regimen because of altered land uses
  • Improve natural stream flow regime by management of hydrology
  • Rehabilitate deteriorated watersheds

Stable banks, woody vegetation

primary considerations
Primary considerations
  • Irregular flow
    • Volume of high and low flows
    • Duration of high and low flows
  • Capacity of structures to handle high flows
  • Management of aquatic ecosystems

Hyetograph

influencing factors and controls
Influencing Factors and Controls
  • Flow of water from disturbed areas
    • Route runoff into percolation area, not directly into channel
    • Reduce runoff by maintaining permeability
  • Timing of runoff
    • Limited possibilities
    • Some control of snow storage and melt
influencing factors and controls16
Influencing Factors and Controls
  • Modify timing and amount of evaporation
  • Synchronize inflows to channels by modifying watershed characteristics, e.g. catchments
management in alpine zone
Management in Alpine Zone
  • Modify snow melt – concentrate drifts at higher elevations
  • Control route of melt water to maximize infiltration, use earthworks to catch runoff from damaged areas
management in forest snow pack zone
Management in Forest Snow Pack Zone
  • Modify snow melt by managing forest cover, e.g. smaller openings reduce melt rate
  • Route runoff to infiltration areas
  • Modify synchronization of inflows to channels by varying cover among units
forests outside snow pack zone
Forests Outside Snow Pack Zone
  • Winter operations possible but soil damage likely
  • Abused soil leads to rapid runoff, erosion and low summer flows
  • Restoration of forest cover is usual treatment
woodland and brushy zone20
Woodland and Brushy Zone
  • Limited options
  • Control wildfires that expose soil
phreatophyte zone
Phreatophyte Zone
  • Removal of vegetation may reduce diurnal variation
low shrub and grassland zone22
Low Shrub and Grassland Zone
  • Maintaining or restoring native vegetation critical
control of water quality
Control of Water Quality
  • Surface erosion control
  • Timber harvesting
  • Grazing
  • Mining

Acid Mine Drainage, Clearfield, PA

surface erosion control
Surface Erosion Control
  • Avoid critical point in erosion –revegetation cycle
  • Revegetate exposed soil as soon as possible
surface erosion control25
Surface Erosion Control
  • Control mass movement
surface erosion control26
Surface Erosion Control
  • Prevent channel cutting by controlling streamflow energy
timber harvesting
Timber Harvesting
  • Major factor in control of water quality
  • Felling, limbing and bucking – avoid riparian zones and exclude slash from channel
timber harvesting28
Timber Harvesting
  • Skidding and yarding – minimize soil compaction and disturbance
  • Use high lead systems in sensitive and steep areas
timber harvesting29
Timber Harvesting
  • Roads and skid trails – layout and construct according to BMP’s
grazing
Grazing
  • Grazed land usually easily damaged
    • Removes organic matter
    • Compacts soil
  • Balance forage growth and consumption