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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David. David’s Discipline, 2 Sam 21:1-14 After 3 years of famine, David sought the presence of the L ORD , the famine was a result of Saul putting to death the Gibeonites, this had polluted the land, 2 Sam 21:1-2; Num 35:33

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Discipline, 2 Sam 21:1-14

    • After 3 years of famine, David sought the presence of the LORD, the famine was a result of Saul putting to death the Gibeonites, this had polluted the land, 2 Sam 21:1-2; Num 35:33

    • The Gibeonites had deceived Joshua, Joshua and the leaders of the congregation did not ask for the counsel of the LORD and subsequently made a covenant with them to let them live, as punishment the Gibeonites became hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and for the altar of the LORD, Josh 9

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Discipline, 2 Sam 21:1-14

    • David asked the Gibeonites how he could make atonement for Saul’s putting the Gibeonites to death, they asked that 7 sons of Saul be given to them for execution (cf. Num 35:33; Deut 24:16), David spared Mephibosheth, gave them 2 sons of Rizpah and 5 sons of Merab, 2 Sam 21:3-9

    • Rizpah kept the birds and beasts away from the corpses, David gathered the bones of Saul, Jonathan, and the 7 corpses and buried them in Kish’s grave, God ended the famine, 2 Sam 21:9-14

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • A List of David’s Heroes, 2 Sam 21:15-22; 1 Chr 20:4-8

    • Four giants who fought for the Philistines were killed by the hand of David and the hand of his servants.

      • Abishai the son of Zeruiah killed Ishbi-benob, saving David.

      • Sibbecai the Hushathite killed Saph.

      • Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim killed Goliath (Lahmi, the brother of Goliath).

      • Jonathan the son of Shimei killed a giant who had defied Israel and who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • A Song of Deliverance, 2 Sam 22:1-51; Ps 18

    • David spoke the words of this song in the day the LORD delivered him from his enemies and from Saul.

      • Various figures are used to describe David’s dependence on God (e.g., rock, fortress, shield), 2 Sam 22:2-4.

      • David describes his need for the LORD’s help, the LORD answered David by scattering his enemies with His divine power, 2 Sam 22:5-20.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • A Song of Deliverance, 2 Sam 22:1-51; Ps 18

    • The LORD rewarded David according to his righteousness, 2 Sam 22:21-25

    • David states a general principle that God treats everyone in accordance with that person’s conduct toward Him, 2 Sam 22:26-28.

    • David describes what God had done for him in battle and in delivering him from his own people, 2 Sam 22:29-46.

    • David concluded his song with praise for the LORD, 2 Sam 22:47-51.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • A Song of Anticipation, 2 Sam 23:1-7

    • David describes himself as of lowly origin, but exalted by God, v. 1.

    • He acknowledges that the Spirit of the LORD spoke by him, vv. 2-3

    • David refers to the everlasting covenant the LORD made with him, vv. 4-5.

    • The worthless will be burned as thorns, v. 6-7

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Another List of David’s Heroes, 2 Sam 23:8-39; 1 Chr 11:10-12:22

    • Josheb-basshebeth (Adino the Eznite), chief of the captains killed 800 (300) at one time, 2 Sam 23:8; 1 Chr 11:10-11.

    • Eleazar struck the Philistines until his hand was weary and clung to the sword, 2 Sam 23:9-10; 1 Chr 11:12-14

    • Shammah took his stand in a field of lentils, and the LORD brought about a great victory, 2Sam 23:11-12

    • Three of the 30 chief men brought David water from the well at Bethlehem, 2 Sam 23:13-17; 1 Chr 11:15-19

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Another List of David’s Heroes, 2 Sam 23:8-39; 1 Chr 11:10-12:22

    • Abishai, the brother of Joab and Asahel, was chief of the 30, 2 Sam 23:18-19; 1 Chr 11:20-21

    • Benaiah had done mighty deeds (later executed Adonijah, Joab, Shimei and became commander of Solomon’s army, 1 Kgs 2), 2 Sam 23:20-23; 1 Chr 11:22-25

    • Other notables among the 30 (37 listed) were, 2 Sam 23:24-39; 1 Chr 11:26-47:

      • Asahel (killed by Abner, 2 Sam 2) the brother of Joab and Abishai

      • Uriah the Hittite

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Discipline: The Census, , 2 Sam 24:1-25; 1 Chr 21:1-30

    • The anger of the LORD burned against Israel, [Satan] incited David to number Israel, Joab objected, but obeyed, 2 Sam 24:1-4; 1 Chr 21:1-4.

    • After 9 months and 20 days, Joab reported 800,000 (1,100,000) in Israel and 500,000 (470,000) in Judah, Benjamin and Levi were not counted, 2 Sam 24:5-9; 1 Chr 21:5-6.

    • David realized his sin and asked the LORD to take away his iniquity, 2 Sam 24:10; 1 Chr 21:8

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Discipline: The Census, , 2 Sam 24:1-25; 1 Chr 21:1-30

    • Through Gad, the LORD offered David three choices, David chose to fall into the hand of the LORD , 2 Sam 24:11-14; 1 Chr 21:9-13

    • 70,000 men died, David asked that the “sheep” be spared and that God’s hand be against him and his father’s house, 2 Sam 24:15-17;1 Chr 21:14-17

    • Gad told David to erect an altar on the threshing floor of Araunah (Mt Moriah, 2 Chr 3:1; cf. Gen 22:2), David bought the threshing floor and oxen for 50 shekels of silver (600 shekels of gold for the site), offered peace offerings and burnt offerings, the plague was held back, 2 Sam 24:18-25; 1 Chr 21:18-30.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Temple Preparation, 1 Chr 22:1-19

    • David identified the threshing floor of Araunah to be the location for the house of the LORD, 1 Chr 22:1 (Cf. Deut 12:5, 11, 14)

    • David made ample preparations for the house of God by gathering foreigners, stone cutters, iron, bronze, and cedar logs, 1 Chr 22:2-5.

    • Because David had shed much blood, his son Solomon was identified as the one to build the LORD’s house, 1 Chr 22:6-10

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Temple Preparation, 1 Chr 22:1-19

    • David charged Solomon to keep the statutes and ordinances of the LORD and to build the LORD’s house, 1 Chr 22:11-13

    • For the LORD’s house David had gathered 100,000 talents of gold, 1,000,000 talents of silver, bronze and iron beyond weight, and a great quantity of timber, stone masons and carpenters, 1 Chr 22:14-16

      • One talent is about 75.5 pounds.

    • David commanded the elders of Israel to help Solomon so that they might bring the ark and the holy vessels of God into the temple, 1 Chr 22:17-19

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Adonijah’s Rebellion, 1 Kings 1:1-53, 1 Chr 29:22-25

    • When David was old and could not keep warm Abishag the Shunammite was selected to lie in his bosom, the king did not cohabit with her, 1 Kgs 1:1-4

    • Adonijah said, “I will be king,” Joab and Abiathar helped him, but Zadok, Benaiah, Nathan, and the mighty men belonged to David, 1 Kgs 1:5-10

    • Nathan and Bathsheba developed a plan in response to Adonijah’s actions, 1 Kgs 1:11-27

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Adonijah’s Rebellion, 1 Kings 1:1-53, 1 Chr 29:22-25

    • David told Zadok, Nathan, and Benaiah to have Solomon ride on David’s mule to Gihon and anoint Solomon as king over Israel, then have Solomon sit on David’s throne, 1 Kgs 1:28-37

    • Upon learning of David’s actions, Adonijah took hold of the horns of the altar, they brought Adonijah to Solomon, Adonijah prostrated himself before Solomon, Solomon told him to go to his house, 1 Kgs 1:38-53

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • Of the Levites 30 years old and older, 1 Chr 23:1-5

      • 24,000 were to oversee the work of the house of the LORD

      • 6,000 were officers and judges

      • 4,000 were gatekeepers

      • 4,000 praised the LORD with instruments

    • David divided the Levites into divisions according to the 3 sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, 1 Chr 23:6-23

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • David lowered the age of service of the Levites from 30 to 20, 1 Chr 23:24

    • Because the Levites no longer carried the tabernacle and its utensils, they were assigned to assist the sons of Aaron with the service of the temple by doing the following, 1 Chr 23:25-32:

      • Maintaining the purity of the ground and utensils

      • Maintaining the bread and flour for baking and mixing

      • Leading praise at the daily sacrifices and appointed feasts.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • David, with Zadok (of Eleazar) and Ahimelech (of Ithamar), divided by lot the descendants of Aaron according to their offices for their ministry, 1 Chr 24:1-19

      • There were 16 divisions of Eleazar and 8 divisions of Ithamar

        • Zacharias was of the division of Abijah , the 8th division, (1 Chr 24:10; cf. Lk 1:5)

    • Other sons of Levi were assigned unspecified duties by lot, 1 Chr 24:20-31

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • David and the commanders of the army [probably Levitical officials] set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun to prophesy with musical instruments and to sing [288 were to sing], 1 Chr 25:1-7.

      • Lots were cast 24 times for their duties, 1 Chr 25:8-31

    • Gatekeepers of Korah (from Asaph), of Oded-Edom, and of Merari were also assigned their duties by lot, 1 Chr 26:1-19

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • Of the Levites in charge of the treasuries, 1 Chr 26:20-28:

      • The Gershonites were in charge of the treasuries of the temple.

      • Shelomoth and his relatives were in charge of the things dedicated by David and others.

    • David also assigned to Levites duties as officers and judges, 1 Chr 26:29-32.

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Levi Days of David

1 Chr 6:1

Kohath

1 Chr 6:2

Gershom

1 Chr 6:17

Merari

1 Chr 6:19, 29

Libni

Mahli

Mushi

Amminadab

1 Chr 6:22

Izhar

1 Chr 6:2

Shimei

Amram

1 Chr 6:3

Aaron

1 Chr 6:3

Samuel

1Chr 6:31-38

Eleazar

1 Chr 6:4

Ithamar

Ethan

1 Chr 6:44

(Jeduthun

1 Chr 25:3)

Heman

1Chr 6:33

Priests

1 Chr 24:2

Priests

1 Chr 24:2

Asaph

1Chr 6:39-43

Singers

Levites

Singers

Levites

Levites

Singers

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Personnel Organization, 1 Chr 23:1-27:34

    • Within David’s army he had 12 divisions of 24,000, each division served for 1 month on a rotating basis, 1 Chr 27:1-15.

    • David had chief officers in charge of the tribes (Gad and Asher are omitted, Levi, Aaron, and 2 half tribes of Manasseh are included) 1 Chr 27:16-24 [cf. Rev 7:5-8, Dan is omitted, Levi is included].

    • David had overseers in charge of his store houses, workers, vineyards, herds, etc. 1 Chr 27:25-31.

    • David also had counselors, tutors, priests, and a commander of his army, 1 Chr 27:32-34.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Final Public Acts, 1 Chr 28:1-29:22

    • David assembled all the officials of Israel, exhorted them to observe and seek after all the commandments of the LORD, charged Solomon to know and serve God and to be courageous and act, 1 Chr 28:1-10.

    • David gave Solomon the plan for the temple, the divisions of the Levites, the gold and silver utensils, the furnishings which the LORD made him understand in writing, 1 Chr 28:11-19.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Final Public Acts, 1 Chr 28:1-29:22

    • David encouraged Solomon to be strong, courageous and act because the LORD was with him, 1 Chr 28:20-21

    • David and the people willingly offered gold, silver, bronze, brass, iron, wood, precious stones, and alabaster for the construction of the temple, 1 Chr 29:1-9

    • David acknowledged the LORD is the source of all they offered and prayed that Solomon would keep the LORD’s commandments, 1 Char 29:10-19

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Final Public Acts, 1 Chr 28:1-29:22

    • David and the assembly blessed the LORD, the next day they offered burnt offerings and drink offerings in abundance with great gladness, 1 Chr 29:20-22.

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Final Counsel, 1 Kings 2:1-9

    • As David drew near death, he charged Solomon to keep the charge of the LORD according to what is written in the Law of Moses (cf. Deut 5:33-6:10; 17:14-20) so that the LORD would carry out his promise to David (cf. 2 Sam 7:8-17), 1 Kgs 2:1-4

    • David gave Solomon instructions regarding Joab, the sons of Barzillai, and Shimei, 1 Kgs 2:5-9

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Lesson 8 Overview, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • David’s Death, 1 Kings 2:10-12; 1 Chr 29:23-30

    • David was buried in Jerusalem, he had reigned over Israel 40 years, Solomon sat on David’s throne and his kingdom was firmly established, 1 Kgs 2:10-12; 1 Chr 29:23-30.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss the reason for the famine, 2 Sam 21:1-14.

    • After 3 years, David sought the presence of the LORD to determine the cause of the famine.

    • The famine was because Saul had put the Gibeonites to death.

      • The Gibeonites had deceived Joshua and the leaders of the congregation, Josh 9.

      • Saul had polluted the land by blood, requiring his blood be shed for its expiation, Num 35:33-34

  • Application: There are consequences of sin.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss the appropriateness of David’s actions in stopping the famine, 2 Sam 21:3-14.

    • David asked the Gibeonites how he could atone for Saul’s genocide.

    • The Gibeonites asked that 7 of Saul’s sons be given to them for execution.

      • David spared Mephibosheth.

      • Two sons of Rizpah and 5 sons of Merab were given to the Gibeonites.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss the appropriateness of David’s actions in stopping the famine, 2 Sam 21:3-14.

    • After the bones of Saul, Jonathan, and the 7 descendants of Saul had been buried, God was moved by entreaty for the land.

    • The son will not bear the punishment for his father’s iniquity (2 Kgs 14:6; Ezek 18:20), therefore these 7 descendants were to some degree guilty of genocide.

    • The leaders of the congregation had sworn to the Gibeonites by the LORD, therefore a national treaty had been broken, and the nation was punished.

  • Application: There are consequences to sin.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss David’s response to Araunah’s offer, 2 Sam 24:18-25.

    • David was told to erect an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor of Araunah.

      • David first offered to buy the threshing floor.

      • However, Araunah offered the threshing floor, his oxen and threshing sledges as a gift.

      • David responded that he would not offer the LORD burnt offerings which cost him nothing.

  • Application: Our offering to the LORD must cost us something.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss David’s final public and private charges to Solomon

    • Public charges:

      • Know the God of your father, and serve Him with a whole heart and a willing mind, 1 Chr 28:9.

      • Be strong and courageous, and act; do not fear nor be dismayed, for the LORD God, my God is with you, 1 Chr 28:20.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss David’s final public and private charges to Solomon

    • Private charges:

      • Be strong, show yourself a man, 1 Kgs 2:2.

      • Keep the charge of the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, His commandments, His ordinances, and His testimonies, according to what is written in the Law of Moses, 1 Kgs 2:3 (Cf. Deut 5:33-6:5; 10:12-13; 17:14-20).

  • Application: A model for us to give our children.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss that the account of Israel from the united kingdom through the divided kingdom is fundamentally a chronicle of the failure of kingship.

    • The conditional result of David’s charge to Solomon was: “that you may succeed in all that you do and wherever you turn, so that the LORD may carry out His promise which He spoke concerning me, saying, if your sons are careful of their way, to walk before Me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, you shall not lack a man on the throne of Israel,” 1 Kgs 2:3-4 (cf. 2 Sam 7; Ps 132:12).

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss that the account of Israel from the united kingdom through the divided kingdom is fundamentally a chronicle of the failure of kingship.

    • The account of kingship in Israel is about how David’s descendants did not faithfully “walk in His ways.”

      • Hezekiah (cf. 2 Kgs 18:3, 7) and Josiah (cf. 2 Kgs 23:25) are the most notable exceptions.

      • By 586 BC, the temple was destroyed, David’s son was exiled to Babylon.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss that the account of Israel from the united kingdom through the divided kingdom is fundamentally a chronicle of the failure of kingship.

    • None of the kings of the northern tribes complied with Deut 5:33-6:5; 10:12-13; 17:14-20.

      • The northern kingdom went into Assyrian exile ca. 722 BC.

    • The unconditional part of the promise to David was fulfilled in the Messiah, son of David, cf. Mt 1:1 plus 13 other times in the gospels.

  • Application: The conditional part of God’s promise involves man’s free will. God is faithful to keep any unconditional part.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss how God shows Himself to be shrewd, 2 Sam 22:27

    • “…with the pure You will show Yourself pure; and with the devious You will show Yourself shrewd. (NKJV)

      • Shrewd: cunning, to be insightful and understanding about things, i.e., God outsmarts the devious every time.

  • Application: We may can fool people, but we can never fool God!

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss how the duties of the Levites had changed from the time of Moses to the latter days of David, 1 Chr 23-26.

    • Previously their primary work was to carry the tabernacle and all its utensils, Num 3; 4; 1 Chr 23:26.

    • After the LORD selected Jerusalem as the location to establish His Name for His dwelling (cf. Deut 12:5, 11; 14:23; 16:2; 26:2) and the temple was built, the Levites’ primary work was no longer required.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss how the duties of the Levites had changed from the time of Moses to the latter days of David, 1 Chr 23-26.

    • Under David, of the Levites over 30 (later lowered to 20)

      • 24,000 were to oversee the temple work, 16 divisions from Eleazar, 8 from Ithamar.

      • 6000 served as officers and judges

      • 4000 served as gatekeepers

      • 4000 served as musicians (288 were singers divided into 24 divisions).

  • Application: When the need for a specific task no longer exists, those previously responsible for the task are no longer responsible for it.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss in what way Solomon’s kingdom was “firmly established,” 1 Kgs 2:12.

    • This echoes the language of 2 Sam 7:12, 13, 16, 26.

      • At this time, the LORD was with Solomon.

      • Subsequently, because of Solomon’s free will choices, “the LORD will tear the kingdom from you, and will give it to your servant,” 1 Kgs 11:1-13

  • Application: God’s conditional promises are fulfilled based on man’s free will choices.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss the morality of David’s instruction to Solomon concerning Shimei and Joab, 1Kgs 2:5-9.

    • Shimei had cursed David when he fled Jerusalem from Absalom (2 Sam 16:5-13; 19:19-23).

      • David told Solomon, “you will know what you ought to do to him.”

      • Solomon later executed Shimei for the evil he had done to David (1 Kgs 2:44) and specifically for violating a prohibition he had agreed to, 1 Kgs 2:36-46.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss the morality of David’s instruction to Solomon concerning Shimei and Joab, 1Kgs 2:5-9.

    • Joab had killed Abner for the blood of Asahel (2 Sam 3:27) and had killed Amasa perhaps because David replaced Joab with Amasa (2 Sam 19:13).

      • David’s instructions were to, “act according to your wisdom.”

      • Solomon executed Joab because he had killed Abner and Amasa (1 Kgs 2:31-33) and specifically for his conspiracy with Adonijah, 1 Kgs 2:28-36.

  • Application: The executions of Shimei and Joab were appropriate. We reap what we sow.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss what David did about Adonijah’s rebellion, 1 Kgs 1.

    • Adonijah wanted to be king, was helped by Joab and Abiathar, and proclaimed himself king.

    • Zadok, Nathan, Benaiah, others were not with Adonijah.

    • Nathan and Bathsheba develop a plan to have David install Solomon as king.

    • David gave orders to have Solomon ride on his mule, to anoint Solomon as king, to blow the trumpet and say “Long live king Solomon,” and to have him sit on David’s throne.

  • Application: Accomplishing God’s desired will requires action by man.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss David’s preparation for building the temple.

    • Araunah’s threshing floor was the site of the temple.

    • Foreigners within Israel were used as laborers.

    • There were skillful stonecutters, stone masons and carpenters.

    • David provided gold, silver, iron, bronze, cedar timber, stone.

  • Application: It’s important to work together to accomplish a task.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss Uriah’s name being included in the list of “the thirty,” 2 Sam 23:38

    • 37 are mentioned in 2 Sam 23:39 and 16 names are listed in 1 Chr 26-47 following Uriah.

    • The list names many from Judah, some from Benjamin, Ephraim, Dan, Naphtali, and several foreigners (Ammonite, Hittite).

    • Apparently Uriah had distinguished himself either before the battle at Rabbah or at that battle.

    • The authors of 2 Sam and 1 Chr gave credit to whom credit was due.

  • Application: “You will know them by their fruits,” Mt 7:16, 20.

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Lesson 8, The Testimonies of David and the Last Days of David

  • Discuss what David’s heroes had done.

    • Each of the 4 heroes listed in 2 Sam 21:15-22 had individually defeated a giant employed by the Philistines.

    • The 12 fingered man had defied Israel, 2 Sam 21:21.

    • It was God’s desire that these giants be defeated.

  • Application: When man uses his free will to accomplish God’s desired will, he will be successful.

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