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Experience of Implemented CAMP and Suggestions for the Future . CAMP “Syria” prepared by: Eng. Firas Asfour Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs Syrian Arab Republic. Introduction:. The government of Syria proposed the Syrian coastal region for a pilot project ( CAMP ).

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experience of implemented camp and suggestions for the future

Experience of Implemented CAMP and Suggestions for the Future

CAMP “Syria”

prepared by:

Eng. Firas Asfour

Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs

Syrian Arab Republic

  • The government of Syria proposed the Syrian coastal region for a pilot project (CAMP).

Syrian CAMP consists of two phases:

1.The PAP launched in 1989 the preparation of the preliminary study of the (Integrated Plan of the Syrian Coastal Region) ICAM 1989-1990

2. The PAP launched in 1991 the preparation of the 2ed phase of Syrian CAMP (Coastal Resources Management Plan)CRMP 1991-1992.

icam objectives
ICAM objectives

The main objectives of ICAM were to indicate:

  • Resources of Syrian Coastal region (natural, economic, social...) to bring into focus the existing conflicts with regard to the use of it.
  • Type of pressures in the coastal region which illustrated that most of it was concentrated in coastal zone (15 Km in depth).
  • The opportunities and constraints of an environmentally sustainable pattern of regional growth and development
  • Suggesting immediate & long-term measures in conformity with integrated planning concepts
crmp objectives
CRMP objectives
  • To prepare an action plan for coastal zone resources management taking into consideration to develop and protect the natural, environmental, and human resources
  • To train the national and local experts in applying of integrated planning and management
  • To recommend forms of implementing relevant legal instruments and existing institutional arrangement
  • To contribute introducing and adopting the modern tools and techniques of coastal zone management
  • To identify the proposed land use for the coastal region
  • The process of integrated planning is an action-oriented process. Focused on the most crucial problems of the planning area.
  • The study has provided a comprehensive insight into the problems of the coastal region.
  • The first part of the study paid a special attention of environmental impact of development. There were:
    • unmistakable signs of a growing concentration of people and activities in the coastal zone.
    • The coastal region faces growing environmental problems, which threaten to destroy the very basis of its development
    • Many of development problems result from institutional drawbacks, insufficient coordination and integration of activities.
  • The second part of ICAM presented projections of the region's possible development paths. Two options for the future have been chosen:
    • The continuation of existing trends.
    • Moderate growth of major development policy measures to be implemented
  • According to the first option a very rapid growth should be expected: of deterioration of the environment and massive degradation of the physical basis of development.
  • The second option suggested a moderate development with balanced distribution of the population throughout the region.
measures of immediate action
Measures of immediate action
  • Urgent measures: the aim of which is to stop the processes which are most harmful to the environment in the coastal region
  • The interim measures: which are meant to be an input for the integrated plan, and to secure a long-term, environmentally sound development of the region
the urgent measures
The urgent measures
  • Determine the protected coastal strip and forbidding any construction in it.
  • Start the action to prepare a protection & management plan.
  • Improving the control over illegal construction
  • Determine the areas around water springs and lakes for strict protection and preventing any activity in those areas.
  • Enforce monitoring of the water quality.
  • Prepare an oil spillage contingency plan.
  • Stop the wetland drying
  • Stop the sand extraction in the area of the dune chain.
the interim measures
The interim measures
  • A legal and administrative:
    • Setup fiscal measures to discourage further irrational use of water, increase of water services fees, and improve the maintenance of water supply networks.
    • Setup restrictive standards for issuing buildings permits in the areas of intensive agricultural production
    • Apply the Environmentally Quality Criteria adopted by the Syrian government
    • Prepare a legal basis for establishing specially protected areas
    • Setup a legal basis for the application of EIA for all major projects
the interim measures11
The interim measures
  • Institutional measures:
    • Setup the institutional framework for the introducing of the integrated planning and an environmental management at regional and governorates levels
    • Studying the ability to establish “Development Bank” as a mean of mobilizing private saving and capital for future investment in tourism,...
the interim measures12
The interim measures
  • Planning measures:
    • Re-examine the proposed designs of the Lattakia & Tartous wastewater treatment plants projects.
    • Studying the impact of solid waste dumping sites on water resources.
    • Re-examine some plans of future tourism development.
    • Prepare a study on the problems of soil erosion in the region
    • Develop information and educational programs on environmental issues, particularly for students.
    • Prepare a development/environment scenario (together with PAP/RAC and BP/RAC) at the regional level
    • enhance the monitoring capabilities of the central laboratory in Lattakia, and update the coastal water pollution maps
    • prepare a study on the impacts of the expected climatic change
brief description
Brief description
  • Area: Syrian Coastal region, covers only 2% of the total area, 11% of the total population, coastline 183 Km long, it contains:
    • The mountainous area: population and economic activities, traditional agriculture, and tourism.
    • The hilly area:agriculture, high population density, medium-intensity environmental problems.
    • The coastal plain: concentrated population and activities, facing a considerable environmental problems.
  • Period: (1989-1993)
brief description 2
Brief description (2)
  • Main issues:
    • High population growth.
    • Sea water pollution.
    • Potable water pollution.
    • Illegal housing.
    • Degradation and overuse of the natural resources.
    • Agricultural soil pollution.
    • Deforestation and soil erosion.
    • Intrusion the sea water into the groundwater.
    • Illegal disposal of solid waste.
    • Air pollution resulted from cement factory and oil refinery.
other activities
Other activities
  • The Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM).
  • National Monitoring Program for Marine Environment.
  • Effects of Climate Changes on the Syrian Coastal Zone.
  • Coastal Resources Management Plan (CRMP).
  • Sea Pollution from Land-Based Sources.
  • The future planning for the Syrian coastal region.
  • National System for the Preparedness for and Response to Accidental Marine Pollution in the Syrian Arab republic.
  • Protection of the Ports of Banias and Tartous against Oil Pollution.
achievements of camp
Achievements of CAMP

Influence of CAMP to the solution of priority environment-development problems:

  • CAMP was oriented towards the local authorities and concerned institutions that enable them to joint in the process of formulating a National Environment Action Plan (NEAP).
  • The project was very useful in drawing attention of officials and decision-makers towards environment of the region.
  • Industrial zone had created in Lattakia and Tartous the main cities in coastal region regarding to the land use map, which resulted from Syrian CAMP study.
achievements of camp 2
Achievements of CAMP (2)

Improvement of institutional capacities of ICAM:

  • Establishing the Environmental Directorates in Lattakia and Tartous.
  • Creating an EIA unit.
  • Forming a special committee to identify proposals locations for quarry.
  • Establishing an environmental department in each coastal governorate.
achievements of camp 3
Achievements of CAMP (3)

Training and capacity building:

  • Training courses in the field of GIS.
  • Short&medium training courses in the field of EIA on two levels:
    • National level: from concerning sectors in the country;
    • Local level: MSEA members
  • Training courses in the field of DSS.
main actors and donors
Main actors and donors
  • Main actors:
    • MSEA - MOC
    • SPC - Governorates of Lattakia and Tartous
    • MOHU - Municipalities of Jableh and Banias
    • MOI - Damascus and Tishreen University
    • MAAR - GORS
    • MOT
  • Donors:
    • Blue Plan
assessment of the management of camp
Assessment of the management of CAMP
  • The creation of multi-technical national teamwork for CAMP study in Syrian coastal region had formed from all related sectors in order to enable them to share in integrated environmental planning. They worked with a close cooperation among them and each member in that team became as a focal point for MSEA, and some of them became as a decision-maker in his sector.
  • Proposals for short, medium and long-term procedures had been laid down in order to implement the plans and recommendations of CAMP study, but it still need for donors’ support.
  • Since it needs a great finance for implementing the proposals, it needs the support of regional and international donors.
lessons learned
Lessons learned
  • the integrated plan of the Syrian coastal region isn’t a “panacea” for the problems that mentioned. It is just a tool which will help resolve the problems;
  • creation of a multi-technical teamwork from all related sectors in the country, that encourage the MSEA
  • the study showed the magnitude of the env. problems, and identified the quality and quantity need for such investments and procedures for solving and rehabilitation of it;
  • the study illustrated the importance of pollution prevention as precautionary measures is more effective policy than rehabilitation.
recommendations for the improvement
Recommendations for the improvement
  • Elaborating of pre-investment studies for the most important cases in the coastal zone, which identified in CAMP are the Hotspots.
  • Following up the Syrian CAMP study, which is consider as a preliminary stage, in order to evaluate the progress of coastal zone management, and if it is directed towards positive or negative direction.
  • Transferring towards strategic action plans for integrated environmental planning at regional level.