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Experience of Implemented CAMP and Suggestions for the Future . CAMP “Syria” prepared by: Eng. Firas Asfour Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs Syrian Arab Republic. Introduction:. The government of Syria proposed the Syrian coastal region for a pilot project ( CAMP ).

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Experience of implemented camp and suggestions for the future l.jpg

Experience of Implemented CAMP and Suggestions for the Future

CAMP “Syria”

prepared by:

Eng. Firas Asfour

Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs

Syrian Arab Republic


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction: Future

  • The government of Syria proposed the Syrian coastal region for a pilot project (CAMP).

    Syrian CAMP consists of two phases:

    1.The PAP launched in 1989 the preparation of the preliminary study of the (Integrated Plan of the Syrian Coastal Region) ICAM 1989-1990

    2. The PAP launched in 1991 the preparation of the 2ed phase of Syrian CAMP (Coastal Resources Management Plan)CRMP 1991-1992.


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ICAM objectives Future

The main objectives of ICAM were to indicate:

  • Resources of Syrian Coastal region (natural, economic, social...) to bring into focus the existing conflicts with regard to the use of it.

  • Type of pressures in the coastal region which illustrated that most of it was concentrated in coastal zone (15 Km in depth).

  • The opportunities and constraints of an environmentally sustainable pattern of regional growth and development

  • Suggesting immediate & long-term measures in conformity with integrated planning concepts


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CRMP objectives Future

  • To prepare an action plan for coastal zone resources management taking into consideration to develop and protect the natural, environmental, and human resources

  • To train the national and local experts in applying of integrated planning and management

  • To recommend forms of implementing relevant legal instruments and existing institutional arrangement

  • To contribute introducing and adopting the modern tools and techniques of coastal zone management

  • To identify the proposed land use for the coastal region


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ICAM Future

  • The process of integrated planning is an action-oriented process. Focused on the most crucial problems of the planning area.

  • The study has provided a comprehensive insight into the problems of the coastal region.


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ICAM Future

  • The first part of the study paid a special attention of environmental impact of development. There were:

    • unmistakable signs of a growing concentration of people and activities in the coastal zone.

    • The coastal region faces growing environmental problems, which threaten to destroy the very basis of its development

    • Many of development problems result from institutional drawbacks, insufficient coordination and integration of activities.


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ICAM Future

  • The second part of ICAM presented projections of the region's possible development paths. Two options for the future have been chosen:

    • The continuation of existing trends.

    • Moderate growth of major development policy measures to be implemented

  • According to the first option a very rapid growth should be expected: of deterioration of the environment and massive degradation of the physical basis of development.

  • The second option suggested a moderate development with balanced distribution of the population throughout the region.


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Measures of immediate action Future

  • Urgent measures: the aim of which is to stop the processes which are most harmful to the environment in the coastal region

  • The interim measures: which are meant to be an input for the integrated plan, and to secure a long-term, environmentally sound development of the region


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The urgent measures Future

  • Determine the protected coastal strip and forbidding any construction in it.

  • Start the action to prepare a protection & management plan.

  • Improving the control over illegal construction

  • Determine the areas around water springs and lakes for strict protection and preventing any activity in those areas.

  • Enforce monitoring of the water quality.

  • Prepare an oil spillage contingency plan.

  • Stop the wetland drying

  • Stop the sand extraction in the area of the dune chain.


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The Future interim measures

  • A legal and administrative:

    • Setup fiscal measures to discourage further irrational use of water, increase of water services fees, and improve the maintenance of water supply networks.

    • Setup restrictive standards for issuing buildings permits in the areas of intensive agricultural production

    • Apply the Environmentally Quality Criteria adopted by the Syrian government

    • Prepare a legal basis for establishing specially protected areas

    • Setup a legal basis for the application of EIA for all major projects


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The Future interim measures

  • Institutional measures:

    • Setup the institutional framework for the introducing of the integrated planning and an environmental management at regional and governorates levels

    • Studying the ability to establish “Development Bank” as a mean of mobilizing private saving and capital for future investment in tourism,...


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The Future interim measures

  • Planning measures:

    • Re-examine the proposed designs of the Lattakia & Tartous wastewater treatment plants projects.

    • Studying the impact of solid waste dumping sites on water resources.

    • Re-examine some plans of future tourism development.

    • Prepare a study on the problems of soil erosion in the region

    • Develop information and educational programs on environmental issues, particularly for students.

    • Prepare a development/environment scenario (together with PAP/RAC and BP/RAC) at the regional level

    • enhance the monitoring capabilities of the central laboratory in Lattakia, and update the coastal water pollution maps

    • prepare a study on the impacts of the expected climatic change


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Brief description Future

  • Area: Syrian Coastal region, covers only 2% of the total area, 11% of the total population, coastline 183 Km long, it contains:

    • The mountainous area: population and economic activities, traditional agriculture, and tourism.

    • The hilly area:agriculture, high population density, medium-intensity environmental problems.

    • The coastal plain: concentrated population and activities, facing a considerable environmental problems.

  • Period: (1989-1993)


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Brief description (2) Future

  • Main issues:

    • High population growth.

    • Sea water pollution.

    • Potable water pollution.

    • Illegal housing.

    • Degradation and overuse of the natural resources.

    • Agricultural soil pollution.

    • Deforestation and soil erosion.

    • Intrusion the sea water into the groundwater.

    • Illegal disposal of solid waste.

    • Air pollution resulted from cement factory and oil refinery.


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Other activities Future

  • The Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM).

  • National Monitoring Program for Marine Environment.

  • Effects of Climate Changes on the Syrian Coastal Zone.

  • Coastal Resources Management Plan (CRMP).

  • Sea Pollution from Land-Based Sources.

  • The future planning for the Syrian coastal region.

  • National System for the Preparedness for and Response to Accidental Marine Pollution in the Syrian Arab republic.

  • Protection of the Ports of Banias and Tartous against Oil Pollution.


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Achievements of CAMP Future

Influence of CAMP to the solution of priority environment-development problems:

  • CAMP was oriented towards the local authorities and concerned institutions that enable them to joint in the process of formulating a National Environment Action Plan (NEAP).

  • The project was very useful in drawing attention of officials and decision-makers towards environment of the region.

  • Industrial zone had created in Lattakia and Tartous the main cities in coastal region regarding to the land use map, which resulted from Syrian CAMP study.


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Achievements of CAMP (2) Future

Improvement of institutional capacities of ICAM:

  • Establishing the Environmental Directorates in Lattakia and Tartous.

  • Creating an EIA unit.

  • Forming a special committee to identify proposals locations for quarry.

  • Establishing an environmental department in each coastal governorate.


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Achievements of CAMP (3) Future

Training and capacity building:

  • Training courses in the field of GIS.

  • Short&medium training courses in the field of EIA on two levels:

    • National level: from concerning sectors in the country;

    • Local level: MSEA members

  • Training courses in the field of DSS.


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Main actors and donors Future

  • Main actors:

    • MSEA - MOC

    • SPC - Governorates of Lattakia and Tartous

    • MOHU - Municipalities of Jableh and Banias

    • MOI - Damascus and Tishreen University

    • MAAR - GORS

    • MOT

  • Donors:

    • PAP/RAC of MAP, METAP,WB

    • MED-POL,SMAP,LIFE

    • Blue Plan


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Assessment of the management of CAMP Future

  • The creation of multi-technical national teamwork for CAMP study in Syrian coastal region had formed from all related sectors in order to enable them to share in integrated environmental planning. They worked with a close cooperation among them and each member in that team became as a focal point for MSEA, and some of them became as a decision-maker in his sector.

  • Proposals for short, medium and long-term procedures had been laid down in order to implement the plans and recommendations of CAMP study, but it still need for donors’ support.

  • Since it needs a great finance for implementing the proposals, it needs the support of regional and international donors.


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Lessons learned Future

  • the integrated plan of the Syrian coastal region isn’t a “panacea” for the problems that mentioned. It is just a tool which will help resolve the problems;

  • creation of a multi-technical teamwork from all related sectors in the country, that encourage the MSEA

  • the study showed the magnitude of the env. problems, and identified the quality and quantity need for such investments and procedures for solving and rehabilitation of it;

  • the study illustrated the importance of pollution prevention as precautionary measures is more effective policy than rehabilitation.


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Recommendations for the improvement Future

  • Elaborating of pre-investment studies for the most important cases in the coastal zone, which identified in CAMP are the Hotspots.

  • Following up the Syrian CAMP study, which is consider as a preliminary stage, in order to evaluate the progress of coastal zone management, and if it is directed towards positive or negative direction.

  • Transferring towards strategic action plans for integrated environmental planning at regional level.


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