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Distillation. Ring stand. Beaker. Wire gauze. Ring. Bunsen burner. Setup to heat a solution. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 42. A Hero’s Fountain. Glass retort. mixture for distillation placed in here. long spout helps vapors to condense.

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    1. Distillation

    2. Ring stand Beaker Wire gauze Ring Bunsen burner Setup to heat a solution Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 42

    3. A Hero’s Fountain Glass retort mixture for distillation placed in here long spout helps vapors to condense Furnace Eyewitness Science “Chemistry” , Dr. Ann Newmark, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993, pg 13

    4. thermometer liquid with a solid dissolved in it condenser tube distilling flask receiving flask pure liquid hose connected to cold water faucet A Distillation Apparatus Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 282

    5. The solution is boiled and steam is driven off. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 39

    6. Salt remains after all water is boiled off. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 39

    7. No chemical change occurs when salt water is distilled. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 40

    8. Separation of a sand-saltwater mixture. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 40

    9. Separation of Sand from Salt • Gently break up your salt-crusted sand with a plastic spoon. • Follow this flowchart to make a complete separation. Salt- crusted sand. Weigh the mixture. Pour into heat-resistant container. Fill with water. Stir and let settle 1 minute. Dry sand. Calculate weight of salt. Weigh sand. Decant clear liquid. No • How does this flow • chart insure a complete • separation? Wet sand. Evaporate to dryness. Repeat 3 times? Yes

    10. Four-stroke Internal Combustion Engine

    11. Different Types of FuelCombustion Gasoline (octane) 2 C8H18 + 25 O2  16 CO2+ 18 H2O Methanol (in racing fuel) __CH3OH +__O2 __CO2 +__H2O

    12. Combustion Chamber • The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. • Gasoline and air must be mixed in the correct ratio.

    13. The Advantages of Methanol - Burning Engines • Methanol can run at much higher compression ratios, meaning that you can get more power from the engine on each piston stroke. • Methanol provides significant cooling when it evaporates in the cylinder, helping to keep the high-revving, high-compression engine from overheating. • Methanol, unlike gasoline, can be extinguished with water if there is a fire. This is an important safety feature. • The ignition temperature for methanol (the temperature at which it starts burning) is much higher than that for gasoline, so the risk of an accidental fire is lower.

    14. A Race Car - Basic Information • At 900 hp, it has about two to three times the horsepower of a "high-performance" automotive engine. For example, Corvettes or Vipers might have 350- to 400-horsepower engines. • At 15,000 rpm, it runs at about twice the rpm of a normal automotive engine. Compared to a normal engine, an methanol engine has larger pistons and the pistons travel a shorter distance up and down on each stroke. • The motor is lighter. This lowers their inertia and is another factor in the high rpm.