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Chapter 3. Hardware Basics: Peripherals. Chapter Outline. Input: From Person to Processor Output: From Pulses to People Storage Devices: Input meets Output Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts. “We swim in a sea of information.” Gary Snyder, poet. Input: From Person to Processor.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Hardware Basics: Peripherals

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Input: From Person to Processor
  • Output: From Pulses to People
  • Storage Devices: Input meets Output
  • Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

“We swim in a sea of information.”

Gary Snyder, poet

the keyboard
The Keyboard

The most common input device is the keyboard, which is used to enter letters, numbers and special characters.

working with the keyboard
Working with the Keyboard
  • Function keysare special purpose keys whose function depends on the software being used.
  • Cursor keysare used to move the cursor up, down, left, or right.
variations on keyboard design
Variations on Keyboard Design
  • Ergonomic
    • to address repetitive stress injuries
  • Wireless
  • Folding
  • Half
  • Vertical
  • Chording
pointing devices9
Pointing Devices

Head Controlled Mouse

Sip and Puff Mouse

reading tools
Reading Tools

Input devices “read” directly from paper and convert printed information into bit patterns that can be processed by the computer.

  • Optical-mark readers
  • Bar-code readers
  • Magnetic-ink character readers
  • Wand readers
  • Pen scanners
digitizing the real world
Digitizing the Real World
  • Scanner
  • Digital camera
  • Speech recognition
  • Sensing devices
  • Audio and video digitizers
  • Scanners capture and digitize printed images. There are several types of scanners:
    • Flatbed scanners
    • Handheld scanners
    • Sheet-fed scanners
digital cameras
Digital Cameras

Digital cameras capture snapshots and store them as bit patterns on disks or other storage media.

video digitizers
Video Digitizers

Video digitizers capture input from video sources such as video camera and convert it to a digital signal that can be stored in memory and displayed on a computer screen.

audio digitizers
Audio Digitizers
  • Audio digitizers capture spoken words, music and sound effects and convert them to digitized sounds.
  • These sounds can be stored in a computer’s memory and modified with computer software.
sensing devices
Sensing Devices
  • Sensing devices are used to monitor temperature, humidity, pressure and other physical quantities.
  • The data collected provides data for use in robotics, environmental climate control, weather forecasting and other applications.
output from pulses to people
Output: From Pulses to People
  • Screen Output
  • Paper Output
  • Sound Output
  • Controlling Other Machines
screen output
Screen Output
  • A monitor or video display terminal (VDT) displays characters, graphics, photographic images, animation and video.
    • Video adapter—connects the monitor to the computer
    • VRAM or video memory—a special portion of RAM to hold video images (the more video memory, the more detail of a picture displayed)
screen talk
Screen Talk
  • Monitor size - measured as a diagonal line across the screen.
  • Pixels (or picture element) - tiny dots that compose a picture
  • Resolution- the number of pixels displayed on the screen (the higher the resolution, the closer together the dots)
image quality
Image Quality
  • Image quality is affected by resolution and color depth (or bit depth)
  • Color depth refers to the number of different colors a monitor displays at the same time
examples of color depth

4-bit depth

1-bit depth

8-bit depth

16-bit depth

Examples of Color Depth
monitor classes
Monitor Classes

CRT (cathode ray tube)

LCD (liquid crystal display)

cathode ray tube crt
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
  • The cathode ray tube has the following characteristics:
    • Low cost
    • Speedy response time
    • Clear image
liquid crystal display lcd
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
  • Light-weight
  • Compact
  • Flat-panel
  • Used in overhead projection panels and video projectors to project computer images
  • More expensive than CRTs
  • Increasingly being seen with desktop computers
paper output
Paper Output
  • Printers produce paper output or hard copy
  • 2 kinds of printers:
    • Impact printers
    • Non-impact printers
impact printers
Impact Printers
  • Line printer
    • Used by mainframes to produce massive printouts
    • Limited to printing characters
  • Dot matrix printer
    • Images created by a matrix of tiny dots
    • Low print quality
    • Low cost
non impact printers
Non-impact Printers
  • A laser beam reflected off a rotating drum to create patterns of electrical charges
  • Faster and more expensive than dot matrix printer
  • High-resolution output

Laser Printer

more on non impact printers
More on Non-impact Printers
  • Sprays ink onto paper to produce printed text and graphic images
  • Prints fewer pages/minute than laser printer
  • High-quality color costing less than laser printer

Ink-jet Printer

additional output devices
Additional Output Devices
  • Multifunction peripheral or MFP combines a scanner, printer and a fax modem.
  • A plotter is an automated drawing tool that can produce large, finely scaled engineering blueprints and maps.
output you can hear
Output You Can Hear
  • Asound card allows the PC to accept microphone input, play music and other sounds through speakers or headphones.
  • Synthesizersare included in sound cards and have specialized circuitry designed to generate sounds electronically.
controlling other machines
Controlling Other Machines
  • Robot arms
  • Telephone switchboards
  • Transportation devices
  • Automated factory equipment
  • Spacecraft
  • Digiscents

Output devices take bit patterns and turn them into non-digital movements.

rules of thumb ergonomics health
Rules of Thumb: Ergonomics & Health
  • Choose equipment that’s ergonomically designed
  • Create a healthy workspace
  • Build flexibility into your work environment
  • Rest your eyes
  • Stretch to loosen tight muscles
  • Listen to your body
storage devices input meets output
Storage Devices: Input Meets Output
  • Secondary storage devices are computer peripherals capable of performing both input and output functions
  • Information is stored semi-permanently on tape and disk drives
  • Examples of storage devices
    • Magnetic tapes and disks
    • Zip, Jaz and SuperDisks
    • Optical disks
magnetic media
Magnetic Media
  • Magnetic tapes
    • Sequential access
    • Can store large amounts of information in a small space at a relatively low cost
    • Limitation: sequential access
    • Used mainly for backup purposes
magnetic media35
Magnetic Media
  • Magnetic drives
    • Random access
    • Floppy disks for inexpensive, portable storage
    • Hard disks are non-removable, rigid disks that spin continuously and rapidly thus providing much faster access than a floppy disk.
    • Removable media (Zip & Jaz disks) provide high-capacity portable storage.
optical media
Optical Media
  • Not as fast as magnetic hard disks
  • Massive storage capacity and reliability

Optical disk drive uses laser beams to read and write bits of information on the disk surface.

types of optical media
Types of Optical Media
  • CD-ROM drives are optical drives that read CD-ROMs.
  • CD-R are WORM media (write-once, read many).
  • CD-RW can read CD-ROMs and write, erase and rewrite data onto CD-R & CD-RW disks.
  • DVD (digital versatile disks) store & distribute all kinds of data. They hold between 3.8 and 17 gigabytes of information.
solid state storage devices
Solid-state Storage Devices
  • Compact alternative
  • No moving parts
  • Designed for specific applications such as storing pictures in digital cameras
  • Likely to replace disk and tape storage

Flash memory is an erasable memory chip.

ports and slots revisited
Ports and Slots Revisited
  • The system or motherboard includes several standard ports:
    • Serial Portfor attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems)
    • Parallel Portfor attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers)
    • Keyboard/Mouse Portfor attaching a keyboard and a mouse
more on ports and slots
More on Ports and Slots
  • Other ports are typically included on expansion boards rather than the system board:
    • Video Portused to plug in a color monitor into the video board
    • Microphone, speaker, headphone, MIDI portsused to attach sound equipment
    • SCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port
expansion made easy
Expansion Made Easy
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port
  • Firewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second
    • high speed makes it ideal for data-intensive work like digital video

With the open architecture of the PC and the introduction of new interfaces, you can hot swap devices.