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AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY A guide for A level students. 2008 SPECIFICATIONS. KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING. KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. INTRODUCTION

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slide1

AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

A guide for A level students

2008 SPECIFICATIONS

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

slide2

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION

This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards.

Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available.

Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci.htm

Navigation is achieved by...

either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page

or using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard

slide3

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  • CONTENTS
  • Scope of organic chemistry
  • Special nature of carbon
  • Types of formulae
  • Homologous series
  • Functional groups
  • Nomenclature
  • Investigating molecules
  • Revision check list
slide4

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  • Before you start it would be helpful to…
  • Recall how covalent bonding arises
  • Recall simple electron pair repulsion theory
slide5

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. It is such a complex branch of chemistry because...

• CARBON ATOMS FORM STRONG COVALENT BONDS TO EACH OTHER

• THE CARBON-CARBON BONDS CAN BE SINGLE, DOUBLE OR TRIPLE

• CARBON ATOMS CAN BE ARRANGED IN STRAIGHT CHAINS

BRANCHED CHAINS

and RINGS

• OTHER ATOMS/GROUPS OF ATOMS CAN BE PLACED ON THE CARBON ATOMS

• GROUPS CAN BE PLACED IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS ON A CARBON SKELETON

slide6

SPECIAL NATURE OF CARBON - CATENATION

CATENATION is the ability to form bonds between atoms of the same element.

Carbon forms chains and rings, with single, double and triple covalent bonds, becauseit is able toFORM STRONG COVALENT BONDS WITH OTHER CARBON ATOMS

Carbon forms a vast number of carbon compounds because of the strength of the C-C covalent bond. Other Group IV elements can do it but their chemistry is limited due to the weaker bond strength.

BOND ATOMIC RADIUS BOND ENTHALPY

C-C 0.077 nm +348 kJmol-1

Si-Si 0.117 nm +176 kJmol-1

The larger the atoms, the weaker the bond. Shielding due to filled inner orbitals and greater distance from the nucleus means that the shared electron pair is held less strongly.

slide7

THE SPECIAL NATURE OF CARBON

CHAINSANDRINGS

CARBON ATOMS CAN BE ARRANGED IN

STRAIGHT CHAINS

BRANCHED CHAINS

andRINGS

You can also get a combination of rings and chains

slide8

THE SPECIAL NATURE OF CARBON

MULTIPLE BONDING AND SUBSTITUENTS

CARBON-CARBON COVALENT BONDS CAN BE SINGLE, DOUBLE OR TRIPLE

slide9

THE SPECIAL NATURE OF CARBON

MULTIPLE BONDING AND SUBSTITUENTS

CARBON-CARBON COVALENT BONDS CAN BE SINGLE, DOUBLE OR TRIPLE

DIFFERENT ATOMS / GROUPS OF ATOMS CAN BE PLACED ON THE CARBONS

The basic atom is HYDROGEN but groups containing OXYGEN, NITROGEN, HALOGENS and SULPHUR are very common.

CARBON SKELETON FUNCTIONAL CARBON SKELETON FUNCTIONAL

GROUP GROUP

The chemistry of an organic compound is determined by its FUNCTIONAL GROUP

slide10

THE SPECIAL NATURE OF CARBON

MULTIPLE BONDING AND SUBSTITUENTS

ATOMS/GROUPS CAN BE PLACED IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS ON A CARBON SKELETON

THE C=C DOUBLE BOND IS IN A DIFFERENT POSITION

PENT-1-ENE PENT-2-ENE

THE CHLORINE ATOM IS IN A DIFFERENT POSITION

1-CHLOROBUTANE 2-CHLOROBUTANE

slide11

TYPES OF FORMULAE - 1

MOLECULAR FORMULA C4H10

The exact number of atoms of each

element present in the molecule

EMPIRICAL FORMULAC2H5

The simplest whole numberratio

of atoms in the molecule

STRUCTURAL FORMULACH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH(CH3)CH3

The minimal detail using conventional

groups, for an unambiguous structurethere are two possible structures

DISPLAYED FORMULA

Shows both the relative placing of atoms

and the number of bonds between them

THE EXAMPLE BEING USED IS...BUTANE

slide12

TYPES OF FORMULAE - 2

SKELETAL FORMULA

A skeletal formula is used to show a simplified organic formula by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups

for

CYCLOHEXANE

THALIDOMIDE

slide13

TYPES OF FORMULAE - 2

SKELETAL FORMULA

A skeletal formula is used to show a simplified organic formula by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups

GENERAL FORMULA

Represents any member of for alkanes it is... CnH2n+2

a homologous seriespossibleformulae... CH4,C2H6....C99H200

The formula does not apply to cyclic compounds such as cyclohexane is C6H12

- by joining the atoms in a ring you need fewer H’s

for

CYCLOHEXANE

THALIDOMIDE

slide14

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

  • A series of compounds of similar structure in which each member differs from the next by a common repeating unit, CH2. Series members are calledhomologuesand...
  • all share the same general formula.
  • formula of a homologue differs from its neighbour by CH2. (e.g. CH4, C2H6, ... etc )
  • contain the same functional group
  • have similar chemical properties.
  • show a gradual change in physical properties as molar mass increases.
  • can usually be prepared by similar methods.

ALCOHOLS - FIRST THREE MEMBERS OF THE SERIES

CH3OH C2H5OH C3H7OH

METHANOL ETHANOL PROPAN-1-OL

slide15

H H H H H

H C C C C C OH

H H H H H

H H H H H

H C C C C C NH2

H H H H H

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Organic chemistry is a vast subject so it is easier to split it into small sections for study. This is done by studying compounds which behave in a similar way because they have a particular atom, or group of atoms, FUNCTIONAL GROUP, in their structure.

Functional groups can consist of one atom, a group of atoms or multiple bonds between carbon atoms.

Each functional group has its own distinctive properties which means that the properties of a compound are governed by the functional group(s) in it.

Carbon Functional Carbon Functional

skeleton Group = AMINE skeleton Group = ALCOHOL

slide16

COMMON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

GROUP ENDING GENERAL FORMULA EXAMPLE

ALKANE - ane RH C2H6 ethane

ALKENE - ene C2H4ethene

ALKYNE - yne C2H2ethyne

HALOALKANE halo - RX C2H5Cl chloroethane

ALCOHOL - ol ROH C2H5OH ethanol

ALDEHYDE -al RCHO CH3CHO ethanal

KETONE - one RCOR CH3COCH3propanone

CARBOXYLIC ACID - oic acid RCOOH CH3COOH ethanoicacid

ACYL CHLORIDE - oyl chloride RCOCl CH3COCl ethanoylchloride

AMIDE - amide RCONH2 CH3CONH2ethanamide

ESTER - yl - oate RCOOR CH3COOCH3methylethanoate

NITRILE - nitrile RCN CH3CN ethanenitrile

AMINE - amine RNH2 CH3NH2 methylamine

NITRO nitro- RNO2 CH3NO2nitromethane

SULPHONIC ACID - sulphonic acid RSO3H C6H5SO3H benzenesulphonic acid

ETHER - oxy - ane ROR C2H5OC2H5ethoxyethane

slide17

COMMON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

ALKANE

ALKENE

ALKYNE

HALOALKANE

AMINE

NITRILE

ALCOHOL

ETHER

ALDEHYDE

KETONE

CARBOXYLIC ACID

ESTER

ACYL CHLORIDE

AMIDE

NITRO

SULPHONIC ACID

slide18

HOW MANY STRUCTURES?

Draw legitimate structures for each molecular formula and classify each one according to the functional group present. Not all the structures represent stable compounds.

carbon atoms have 4 covalent bonds surrounding them

oxygen atoms 2

nitrogen atoms 3

hydrogen 1

halogen atoms 1

C2H6 ONE

C3H7Br TWO

C4H8 FIVE -3 with C=C and 2 ring compounds with all C-C’s

C2H6O TWO - 1 with C-O-C and 1 with C-O-H

C3H6O SIX - 2 with C=O, 2 with C=C and 2 with rings

C2H7N TWO

C2H4O2 SEVERAL - Only 2 are stable

C2H3N TWO

slide19

HOW MANY STRUCTURES?

Draw legitimate structures for each molecular formula and classify each one according to the functional group present. Not all the structures represent stable compounds.

carbon atoms have 4 covalent bonds surrounding them

oxygen atoms 2

nitrogen atoms 3

hydrogen 1

halogen atoms 1

C2H6 ONE

C3H7Br TWO

C4H8 FIVE -3 with C=C and 2 ring compounds with all C-C’s

C2H6O TWO - 1 with C-O-C and 1 with C-O-H

C3H6O SIX - 2 with C=O, 2 with C=C and 2 with rings

C2H7N TWO

C2H4O2 SEVERAL - Only 2 are stable

C2H3N TWO

slide20

NOMENCLATURE

Ideally a naming system should tell you everything about a structure without ambiguity. There are two types of naming system commonly found in organic chemistry;

Trivial: based on some property or historical aspect;

the name tells you little about the structure

Systematic : based on an agreed set of rules (I.U.P.A.C);

exact structure can be found from the name (and vice-versa).

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

trivial name systematic name example(s)

paraffin alkane methane, butane

olefin alkene ethene, butene

fatty acid alkanoic (carboxylic) acid ethanoic acid

INDIVIDUAL COMPOUNDS

trivial name derivation systematic name

methane methu = wine (Gk.) methane (CH4)

butane butyrum = butter (Lat.) butane (C4H10)

acetic acid acetum = vinegar (Lat.) ethanoic acid (CH3COOH)

slide21

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

A systematic name has two main parts.

STEMnumber of carbon atoms in longest chain bearing the functional group +

a prefix showing the position and identity of any side-chain substituents.

Apart from the first four, which have trivial names, the number of carbons atoms is indicated by a prefix derived from the Greek numbering system.

The list of alkanes demonstrate the use of prefixes.

The ending -ane is the same as they are all alkanes.

Prefix C atoms Alkane

meth- 1 methane

eth- 2 ethane

prop- 3 propane

but- 4 butane

pent- 5 pentane

hex- 6 hexane

hept- 7 heptane

oct- 8 octane

non- 9 nonane

dec- 10 decane

Working out which is the longest chain can pose a problem with larger molecules.

slide22

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

How long is a chain?

Because organic molecules are three dimensional and paper is two dimensional it can confusing when comparing molecules. This is because...

1. It is too complicated to draw molecules with the correct bond angles

2. Single covalent bonds are free to rotate

All the following written structures are of the same molecule - PENTANE C5H12

A simple way to check is to run a finger along the chain and see how many carbon atoms can be covered without reversing direction or taking the finger off the page. In all the above there are... FIVE CARBON ATOMS IN A LINE.

slide23

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

How long is the longest chain?

Look at the structures and work out how many carbon atoms are in the longest chain.

THE ANSWERS ARE

ON THE NEXT SLIDE

slide24

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

How long is the longest chain?

Look at the structures and work out how many carbon atoms are in the longest chain.

LONGEST CHAIN = 5

LONGEST CHAIN = 6

LONGEST CHAIN = 6

slide25

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

A systematic name has two main parts.

SUFFIXAn ending that tells you which functional group is present

See if any functional groups are present.

Add relevant ending to the basic stem.

In many cases the position of the functional group must be given to avoid any ambiguity

Functional group Suffix

ALKANE - ANE

ALKENE - ENE

ALKYNE - YNE

ALCOHOL - OL

ALDEHYDE - AL

KETONE - ONE

ACID - OIC ACID

1-CHLOROBUTANE 2-CHLOROBUTANE

SUBSTITUENTSMany compounds have substituents (additional atoms, or groups)

attached to the chain. Their position is numbered.

slide26

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

SIDE-CHAINcarbon based substituents are named before the chain name.

they have the prefix -yl added to the basic stem (e.g. CH3 is methyl).

Number the principal chain from one end to give the lowest numbers.

Side-chain names appear in alphabetical order butyl, ethyl, methyl, propyl

Eachside-chain is given its own number.

If identical side-chains appear more than once, prefix with di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa

Numbers are separated from names by a HYPHEN e.g. 2-methylheptane

Numbers are separated from numbers by a COMMA e.g. 2,3-dimethylbutane

Alkyl radicals methyl CH3 - CH3

ethyl CH3- CH2- C2H5

propyl CH3- CH2- CH2- C3H7

slide27

CH3

CH3

CH

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

SIDE-CHAINcarbon based substituents are named before the chain name.

they have the prefix -yl added to the basic stem (e.g. CH3 is methyl).

Number the principal chain from one end to give the lowest numbers.

Side-chain names appear in alphabetical order butyl, ethyl, methyl, propyl

Eachside-chain is given its own number.

If identical side-chains appear more than once, prefix with di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa

Numbers are separated from names by a HYPHEN e.g. 2-methylheptane

Numbers are separated from numbers by a COMMA e.g. 2,3-dimethylbutane

Example longest chain 8 (it is an octane)

3,4,6 are the numbers NOT 3,5,6

order is ethyl, methyl, propyl

3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-propyloctane

Alkyl radicals methyl CH3 - CH3

ethyl CH3- CH2- C2H5

propyl CH3- CH2- CH2- C3H7

slide28

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

Apply the rules and name these alkanes

THE ANSWERS ARE ON THE NEXT SLIDE

slide29

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

Apply the rules and name these alkanes

slide30

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

Apply the rules and name these alkanes

Longest chain = 5 so it is a pentane

A CH3, methyl, group is attached to the third carbon from one end...

3-methylpentane

slide31

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

Apply the rules and name these alkanes

Longest chain = 5 so it is a pentane

A CH3, methyl, group is attached to the third carbon from one end...

3-methylpentane

Longest chain = 6 so it is a hexane

A CH3, methyl, group is attached to the second carbon from one end...

2-methylhexane

slide32

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH3

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

I.U.P.A.C. NOMENCLATURE

Apply the rules and name these alkanes

Longest chain = 5 so it is a pentane

A CH3, methyl, group is attached to the third carbon from one end...

3-methylpentane

Longest chain = 6 so it is a hexane

A CH3, methyl, group is attached to the second carbon from one end...

2-methylhexane

Longest chain = 6 so it is a hexane

CH3, methyl, groups are attached to the third and fourth carbon atoms (whichever end you count from).

3,4-dimethylhexane

slide33

NAMING ALKENES

LengthIn alkenes the principal chain is not always the longest chain

It must contain the double bond

the name ends in -ENE

PositionCount from one end as with alkanes.

Indicated by the lower numbered carbon atom on one end of the C=C bond

5 4 3 2 1

CH3CH2CH=CHCH3 is pent-2-ene (NOT pent-3-ene)

Side-chain Similar to alkanes

position is based on the number allocated to the double bond

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

CH2 = CH(CH3)CH2CH3CH2 = CHCH(CH3)CH3

2-methylbut-1-ene3-methylbut-1-ene

slide34

WHICH COMPOUND IS IT?

Elucidation of the structures of organic compounds - a brief summary

Organic chemistry is so vast that the identification of a compound can be involved. The characterisation takes place in a series of stages (see below). Relatively large amounts of substance were required to elucidate the structure but, with modern technology and the use of electronic instrumentation, very small amounts are now required.

Elemental composition

One assumes that organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen but it can be proved by letting the compound undergo combustion. Carbon is converted to carbon dioxide and hydrogen is converted to water.

Percentage composition by mass

Found by dividing the mass of an element present by the mass of the compound present, then multiplying by 100. Elemental mass of C and H can be found by allowing the substance to undergo complete combustion. From this one can find...

mass of carbon = 12/44 of the mass of CO2 produced

mass of hydrogen = 2/18 of the mass of H2O produced

slide35

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of elements present in the substance. It is calculated by dividing the mass or percentage mass of each element by its molar mass and finding the simplest ratio between the answers. Empirical formula is converted to the molecular formula using molecular mass.

slide36

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of elements present in the substance. It is calculated by dividing the mass or percentage mass of each element by its molar mass and finding the simplest ratio between the answers. Empirical formula is converted to the molecular formula using molecular mass.

Molecular mass

Traditionally found out using a variety of techniques such as ... volumetric analysis or molar volume methods (Dumas, Victor-Meyer or gas syringe experiments). Mass spectrometry is now used. The m/z value of the molecular ion and gives the molecular mass. The fragmentation pattern gives information about the compound.

slide37

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of elements present in the substance. It is calculated by dividing the mass or percentage mass of each element by its molar mass and finding the simplest ratio between the answers. Empirical formula is converted to the molecular formula using molecular mass.

Molecular mass

Traditionally found out using a variety of techniques such as ... volumetric analysis or molar volume methods (Dumas, Victor-Meyer or gas syringe experiments). Mass spectrometry is now used. The m/z value of the molecular ion and gives the molecular mass. The fragmentation pattern gives information about the compound.

Molecular formula

The molecular formula is an exact multiple of the empirical formula. Comparing the molecular mass with the empirical mass allows one to find the true formula. e.g.

if the empirical formula is CH (relative mass = 13) and the molecular mass is 78

the molecular formula will be 78/13 or 6 times the empirical formula i.e. C6H6 .

slide38

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of elements present in the substance. It is calculated by dividing the mass or percentage mass of each element by its molar mass and finding the simplest ratio between the answers. Empirical formula is converted to the molecular formula using molecular mass.

Molecular mass

Traditionally found out using a variety of techniques such as ... volumetric analysis or molar volume methods (Dumas, Victor-Meyer or gas syringe experiments). Mass spectrometry is now used. The m/z value of the molecular ion and gives the molecular mass. The fragmentation pattern gives information about the compound.

Molecular formula

The molecular formula is an exact multiple of the empirical formula. Comparing the molecular mass with the empirical mass allows one to find the true formula. e.g.

if the empirical formula is CH (relative mass = 13) and the molecular mass is 78

the molecular formula will be 78/13 or 6 times the empirical formula i.e. C6H6 .

Structural formula

Because of the complexity of organic molecules, there can be more than one structure for a given molecular formula. To work out the structure, different tests are carried out.

slide39

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of elements present in the substance. It is calculated by dividing the mass or percentage mass of each element by its molar mass and finding the simplest ratio between the answers. Empirical formula is converted to the molecular formula using molecular mass.

Molecular mass

Traditionally found out using a variety of techniques such as ... volumetric analysis or molar volume methods (Dumas, Victor-Meyer or gas syringe experiments). Mass spectrometry is now used. The m/z value of the molecular ion and gives the molecular mass. The fragmentation pattern gives information about the compound.

Molecular formula

The molecular formula is an exact multiple of the empirical formula. Comparing the molecular mass with the empirical mass allows one to find the true formula. e.g.

if the empirical formula is CH (relative mass = 13) and the molecular mass is 78

the molecular formula will be 78/13 or 6 times the empirical formula i.e. C6H6 .

Structural formula

Because of the complexity of organic molecules, there can be more than one structure for a given molecular formula. To work out the structure, different tests are carried out.

slide40

INVESTIGATING MOLECULES

ChemicalChemical reactions can identify the functional group(s) present.

SpectroscopyIR detects bond types due to absorbance of i.r. radiation

NMR gives information about the position and relative

numbers of hydrogen atoms present in a molecule

ConfirmationBy comparison of IR or NMR spectra and

mass spectrometry

slide41

REVISION CHECK

What should you be able to do?

Recall and explain the reasons for the large number of carbon based compounds

Be able to write out possible structures for a given molecular formula

Recognize the presence of a particular functional group in a structure

Know the IUPAC rules for naming alkanes and alkenes

Be able to name given alkanes and alkenes when given the structure

Be able to write out the structure of an alkane or alkene when given its name

Recall themethodsusedtocharacteriseorganicmolecules

CAN YOU DO ALL OF THESE? YES NO

slide42

You need to go over the relevant topic(s) again

Click on the button to

return to the menu

slide43

WELL DONE!

Try some past paper questions

slide44

AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

THE END

© 2008 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING