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Notes. Return to slide. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week Va. News in Preliterate Societies. News of the Day…. NYT-Crime Of Editing Armies of Consumers: 1776’s Secret Weapon. News in Preliterate Societies. Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/horse.html.

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notes
Notes

Return to slide

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news of the day
News of the Day….
  • NYT-Crime Of Editing
  • Armies of Consumers: 1776’s Secret Weapon

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news in preliterate societies
News in Preliterate Societies

Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/horse.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

data info timeline
Data/info timeline
  • 75,000: Estimated date of geometric carvings found on rocks in South African cave.
  • 45,000: Neanderthal carvings on Wooly Mammoth tooth, discovered near Tata, Hungary
  • 30,000: Ivory horse, oldest known animal carving, from mammoth ivory, discovered near Vogelherd, Germany

Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

data info timeline6
Data/info timeline
  • 28,000: Cro-Magnon notation, possibly of phases of the moon, carved onto bone, discovered at Blanchard, France
  • 10,000: Engraved antler baton, with seal, salmon and plants portrayed, discovered at Montgaudier, France
  • 8,000 -- 3100 BCE: In Mesopotamia, tokens used for accounting and record-keeping

Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news in preliterate societies7
News in Preliterate Societies

Newspaper Rock, Utah

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

slide8
1720-58Anonymous artists create the earliest surviving paintings on hide from New Mexico, known as Segesser I and Segesser II.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

mayan hieroglyphic writing 1
Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing 1

Source: http://www.halfmoon.org/syllabary.html 10/02

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

pre industrial communication
Pre-industrial communication
  • Dead Media Projecthttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html
  • Pre-industrial-age communicationhttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html#pi

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

definition of news
Definition of News
  • “New data about a subject of some public interest that is shared with some portion of the public.” –M. Stephens
  • News/publishing does NOT equal journalism
  • Definition/purpose of journalism:

“The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable data/information they need to function in a free society.” -- Bill Kovach

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

early news
Early News

Enlighten me now, o Muses

Tenants of Olympian homes,

For you are goddesses, inside on everything, know everything.

But we mortals hear only the news, and know nothing at all.

-- The Illiad

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

early news13
Early News
  • “Humanity does not pass through phases as a train passes through stations.”-- C. S. Lewis
  • I.e. The coffeehouse flourishes in England after the development of newspapers
  • Some media more likely to leave behind record (e.g. no archive for word-of mouth news)

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news in preliterate societies14
News in Preliterate Societies
  • Market places:
    • Verbal exchange
    • Relationship btwn news and economy
  • “Welcome traveler. Tell me of the news”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news in preliterate societies15
News in Preliterate Societies
  • China. 3500 BCE
    • Horse become first “technology” to speed the flow of news
  • Lack of organized, systematic dissemination. To the public.
  • Was the public without news?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

news in preliterate societies16
News in Preliterate Societies
  • Ibo (Nigeria): drums of death
  • Toradja (Celebes Islands): fire a gun; close village to hear drum
  • Zulu: “Tell me the news of the country”
  • Notk (Vancouver Island): visitors at feast expected to recount “all the latest novelties.”
  • Jamaica (c. 1960s): “higglers” – who bought food from farmers – shared news of the city.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

so why this thing for news
So why this thing for news?
  • Stephens: “the furious itch of novelty”
  • Why do we care?
    • Anthropologist view
    • Biologist’s evolutionary view
    • Survival and….

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Source: http://www.cre8pc.com/images/judi_2.gif

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

from stone to papyrus c 3000 2500bce
From Stone to Papyrus (c. 3000-2500BCE)
  • Egypt: shift from absolute monarch to more “democratic” organization
  • Shift from stone/clay as medium of communication (or prestige) to
    • Emphasis on papyrus (2750-2540 BCE)

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

c uneiform
Cuneiform

http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/cuniform.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

c uneiform cylinder
Cuneiform Cylinder

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1b.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1.html&h=439&w=264&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcuneiform%2Bcylinder%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

egyptian hieroglyphic
Egyptian hieroglyphic

Source: http://www.fnspo.cz/mmm/egypt/hiero/11.htm

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

egyptian hieroglyphic23
Egyptian hieroglyphic
  • Beginning of “grammar” i.e. “rules” that would be commonly understood by those other than the creator of the communication
  • Growth of “knowledge worker” class
    • “education” and skills become valued
    • Society supports those who do more than just provide for the base levels of Maslow’s needs
    • “Expected” and “Shared” communication

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

significance of egyptian alphabet
Significance of Egyptian Alphabet
  • By 2900 BCE, for of script and use of signs fully developed
  • By 2825 BCE, direction of writing and arrang. of words in “logical” position in sentences.
  • Communication over long distances emphasized uniformity in writing.
  • On large tablets, writing ran from let to right. Why?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

clay and social organization
Clay and Social Organization
  • Commercial activity required many scribes
    • Same as the digital revolution required code jockeys ( programmers )
    • Hard to learn so that meant schools necessary
    • Used temple accounts and “sign lists” by priests as first “schoolbooks”
    • Schools built in connection with temples, emphasis on grammar and math

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

clay and social organization26
Clay and Social Organization
  • Art of writing basis of education
    • Controlled by priest, scribes, teachers, judges
    • Every act of civic life is a matter of law (seals, contracting parties and witnesses)
  • City courts developed
    • Court decision become basis of civil law.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

papyrus and crocks
Papyrus and Crocks
  • Perlman: “Ancient Egyptians Wrapped Crocodiles in Good Reading”
  • The Contents of The Tebtunis Papyri
  • http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/APIS/Images/index.html
  • The Media History Project Connections Pages: Oral & Scribal Culturehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/oral.html
  • Duke Papyrus Archivehttp://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

papyrus technology
Papyrus Technology
  • Made from Cyperus papyrus only found in Nile Delta
  • Extremely light (significance?)
  • Brushes, also from plant
  • Black and red inks (same colors as Maya)
  • Wrote from right to left, kept rolling papyrus scroll in left hand. Why?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

organization of scribes
Organization of Scribes
  • Writing had been restricted to gov’t., fiscal, magical and religious purposes
  • Papyrus and simpler hieroglyphic script into characters leads to more efficient administration
  • Scribes/officials respon. for collecting and spending $$$ organized as a civil service.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

organization of scribes30
Organization of Scribes
  • After 2,000 BCE, new class of scribes
  • Literacy becomes stepping store to prosperity and social rank.
    • “The scribe comes to sit among the member of the assemblies … no scribe fails to eat the victuals of the king’s house.”
    • “Put writing in your heart that you may protect yourself from hard labor of any kind and be a magistrate of high repute. The scribe is released from manual tasks.”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

effects of writing and equality
Effects of Writing and Equality
  • Redistribution of Power
    • King gains from revolution as incarnation of the king gods
    • Ritual enables king to appoint proxy as prophet
    • Power delegated to professional priests

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

chinese literacy
Chinese literacy
  • 4,000 years old
  • Began as picture writing; phonic elements added gradually
  • Relatively minor changes in script
  • Until 3rd Century BCE, wrote on bone, stone, wood, metal and bamboo

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

chinese writing 3rd century to 0 century
Chinese Writing - 3rd Century to 0 Century
  • Bristle brush developed
  • Ink of pine soot or black earth
  • Paper: -- cheap, convenient, portable
    • Tsai-Lun, super. of weapons factory, invesnts in 105 A.D.
    • Cooked mush of plant fibers, bark, hemp, rags and water
    • Poured onto screens of bamboo strips.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

chinese writing
Chinese Writing
  • 600 A.D. -- Papermaking to Korea and Japan
  • 751 A.D. -- Paper mills in Baghdad, Damascus and Egypt
  • 11th/12 Cent. -- technology to Europe via Spain

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

chinese writing35
Chinese Writing
  • Early on, discovered block printing. Same basics as today
    • Reverse image
    • Press
    • Paper
    • Ink
  • 1045: Pi Shang, metalworker, invents press with movable characters of metal clay and wood. 40,000 characters.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

chinese news gathering
Chinese News Gathering
  • 206 B.C. -- Han dynasty sets up postal network throughout empire
    • Used only to provide info to the imperials courts, not masses
  • 618-907 A.D. -- Handwritten official news paper, ti pao, published. News to gov’t officials.
  • 960-1278 -- Sung dynasty, ti pao, disseminated among intellectuals
  • 1367-1844 -- Ming period. Wider distribution of ti pao

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

movable type
Movable Type

1450: all essential ingredients for mass production of printed thoughts at hand:

  • Paper has replaced vellum in manuscripts
  • Codex has replaced the scroll as preferred form for books
  • Experiments in metalographic printing underway in France, Holland, Germany:
    • 1430 - metal letters as dies, pressed into clay
    • Lead printing block cast from clay mold
    • Plate inked and pressed to paper
    • Usually poor reproduction

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

movable type38
Movable Type
  • Gutenberg employs individual metal letters; reusable
  • Type set in equal lines
  • Thin pieces of led placed between lines
  • Columns locking to a “matrix,” which is inked
  • Paper pressed against matrix with “grape crusher” of winemaker

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

1550 printing studio
1550 Printing Studio

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

gutenberg s bible
Gutenberg’s Bible
  • Produced in 1455 or 1456
  • Press run of between 70 and 270 copies
  • Within 50 years, press runs in the thousands become the norm
  • Book production up; prices fall
  • Book publishing become profitable, international business

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

post invention of moveable type
Post-invention of moveable type
  • Media History timelinehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/1400s.html
  • By 1492, there are 90+ publishers scattered around Europe. Publish C. Columbus’s report before he returned to Spain.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

post invention of moveable type42
Post-invention of moveable type
  • Printing ends monopoly of church-produced books
    • Histories
    • Geographies
    • Biographies
    • Observations of physical world; beginning of “science”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

post invention of moveable type43
Post-invention of moveable type
  • Growth of literacy
    • Widespread availability of cheaper literature
    • Clear glass windows allow illumination of interiors
    • Invention of eyeglasses in 17th Century

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

post invention of moveable type44
Post-invention of moveable type
  • Accelerates Protestant revolution/ Reformation
  • Martin Luther nails Ninety-five Theses to university church door in Wittenberg. Then prints them for distribution
  • Luther and evangelical associates become first true mass communicators

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

post invention of moveable type45
Post-invention of moveable type
  • Cost of printing still dropping
  • Reformers start printing Bible in common languages
  • Catholic church attempts to keep faithful from reading
  • 1564: Catholic church issues Index of Prohibited Books
    • Updated every 50 years. Includes works of Galileo and Kepler
    • Index exists until 1966.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

english news ballad c 1586
English “news” ballad c. 1586

But now beholde my great decay;

Which on a sodaine come;

My sumptuous buildings burned beBy force of fires flame:

A careless wretch, most rude in life,

His chymney set on fire,

The instrument, I must confess,

Of God’s most heavie ire

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

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