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  1. Notes Return to slide J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  2. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week Va News in Preliterate Societies

  3. News of the Day…. • NYT-Crime Of Editing • Armies of Consumers: 1776’s Secret Weapon J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  4. News in Preliterate Societies Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/horse.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  5. Data/info timeline • 75,000: Estimated date of geometric carvings found on rocks in South African cave. • 45,000: Neanderthal carvings on Wooly Mammoth tooth, discovered near Tata, Hungary • 30,000: Ivory horse, oldest known animal carving, from mammoth ivory, discovered near Vogelherd, Germany Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  6. Data/info timeline • 28,000: Cro-Magnon notation, possibly of phases of the moon, carved onto bone, discovered at Blanchard, France • 10,000: Engraved antler baton, with seal, salmon and plants portrayed, discovered at Montgaudier, France • 8,000 -- 3100 BCE: In Mesopotamia, tokens used for accounting and record-keeping Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  7. News in Preliterate Societies Newspaper Rock, Utah J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  8. 1720-58Anonymous artists create the earliest surviving paintings on hide from New Mexico, known as Segesser I and Segesser II. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  9. Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing 1 Source: http://www.halfmoon.org/syllabary.html 10/02 J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  10. Pre-industrial communication • Dead Media Projecthttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html • Pre-industrial-age communicationhttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html#pi J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  11. Definition of News • “New data about a subject of some public interest that is shared with some portion of the public.” –M. Stephens • News/publishing does NOT equal journalism • Definition/purpose of journalism: “The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable data/information they need to function in a free society.” -- Bill Kovach J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  12. Early News Enlighten me now, o Muses Tenants of Olympian homes, For you are goddesses, inside on everything, know everything. But we mortals hear only the news, and know nothing at all. -- The Illiad J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  13. Early News • “Humanity does not pass through phases as a train passes through stations.”-- C. S. Lewis • I.e. The coffeehouse flourishes in England after the development of newspapers • Some media more likely to leave behind record (e.g. no archive for word-of mouth news) J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  14. News in Preliterate Societies • Market places: • Verbal exchange • Relationship btwn news and economy • “Welcome traveler. Tell me of the news” J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  15. News in Preliterate Societies • China. 3500 BCE • Horse become first “technology” to speed the flow of news • Lack of organized, systematic dissemination. To the public. • Was the public without news? J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  16. News in Preliterate Societies • Ibo (Nigeria): drums of death • Toradja (Celebes Islands): fire a gun; close village to hear drum • Zulu: “Tell me the news of the country” • Notk (Vancouver Island): visitors at feast expected to recount “all the latest novelties.” • Jamaica (c. 1960s): “higglers” – who bought food from farmers – shared news of the city. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  17. So why this thing for news? • Stephens: “the furious itch of novelty” • Why do we care? • Anthropologist view • Biologist’s evolutionary view • Survival and…. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: http://www.cre8pc.com/images/judi_2.gif J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  19. From Stone to Papyrus (c. 3000-2500BCE) • Egypt: shift from absolute monarch to more “democratic” organization • Shift from stone/clay as medium of communication (or prestige) to • Emphasis on papyrus (2750-2540 BCE) J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  20. Cuneiform http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/cuniform.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  21. Cuneiform Cylinder Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1b.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1.html&h=439&w=264&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcuneiform%2Bcylinder%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  22. Egyptian hieroglyphic Source: http://www.fnspo.cz/mmm/egypt/hiero/11.htm J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  23. Egyptian hieroglyphic • Beginning of “grammar” i.e. “rules” that would be commonly understood by those other than the creator of the communication • Growth of “knowledge worker” class • “education” and skills become valued • Society supports those who do more than just provide for the base levels of Maslow’s needs • “Expected” and “Shared” communication J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  24. Significance of Egyptian Alphabet • By 2900 BCE, for of script and use of signs fully developed • By 2825 BCE, direction of writing and arrang. of words in “logical” position in sentences. • Communication over long distances emphasized uniformity in writing. • On large tablets, writing ran from let to right. Why? J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  25. Clay and Social Organization • Commercial activity required many scribes • Same as the digital revolution required code jockeys ( programmers ) • Hard to learn so that meant schools necessary • Used temple accounts and “sign lists” by priests as first “schoolbooks” • Schools built in connection with temples, emphasis on grammar and math J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  26. Clay and Social Organization • Art of writing basis of education • Controlled by priest, scribes, teachers, judges • Every act of civic life is a matter of law (seals, contracting parties and witnesses) • City courts developed • Court decision become basis of civil law. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  27. Papyrus and Crocks • Perlman: “Ancient Egyptians Wrapped Crocodiles in Good Reading” • The Contents of The Tebtunis Papyri • http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/APIS/Images/index.html • The Media History Project Connections Pages: Oral & Scribal Culturehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/oral.html • Duke Papyrus Archivehttp://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/ J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  28. Papyrus Technology • Made from Cyperus papyrus only found in Nile Delta • Extremely light (significance?) • Brushes, also from plant • Black and red inks (same colors as Maya) • Wrote from right to left, kept rolling papyrus scroll in left hand. Why? J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  29. Organization of Scribes • Writing had been restricted to gov’t., fiscal, magical and religious purposes • Papyrus and simpler hieroglyphic script into characters leads to more efficient administration • Scribes/officials respon. for collecting and spending $$$ organized as a civil service. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  30. Organization of Scribes • After 2,000 BCE, new class of scribes • Literacy becomes stepping store to prosperity and social rank. • “The scribe comes to sit among the member of the assemblies … no scribe fails to eat the victuals of the king’s house.” • “Put writing in your heart that you may protect yourself from hard labor of any kind and be a magistrate of high repute. The scribe is released from manual tasks.” J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  31. Effects of Writing and Equality • Redistribution of Power • King gains from revolution as incarnation of the king gods • Ritual enables king to appoint proxy as prophet • Power delegated to professional priests J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  32. Chinese literacy • 4,000 years old • Began as picture writing; phonic elements added gradually • Relatively minor changes in script • Until 3rd Century BCE, wrote on bone, stone, wood, metal and bamboo J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  33. Chinese Writing - 3rd Century to 0 Century • Bristle brush developed • Ink of pine soot or black earth • Paper: -- cheap, convenient, portable • Tsai-Lun, super. of weapons factory, invesnts in 105 A.D. • Cooked mush of plant fibers, bark, hemp, rags and water • Poured onto screens of bamboo strips. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  34. Chinese Writing • 600 A.D. -- Papermaking to Korea and Japan • 751 A.D. -- Paper mills in Baghdad, Damascus and Egypt • 11th/12 Cent. -- technology to Europe via Spain J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  35. Chinese Writing • Early on, discovered block printing. Same basics as today • Reverse image • Press • Paper • Ink • 1045: Pi Shang, metalworker, invents press with movable characters of metal clay and wood. 40,000 characters. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  36. Chinese News Gathering • 206 B.C. -- Han dynasty sets up postal network throughout empire • Used only to provide info to the imperials courts, not masses • 618-907 A.D. -- Handwritten official news paper, ti pao, published. News to gov’t officials. • 960-1278 -- Sung dynasty, ti pao, disseminated among intellectuals • 1367-1844 -- Ming period. Wider distribution of ti pao J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  37. Movable Type 1450: all essential ingredients for mass production of printed thoughts at hand: • Paper has replaced vellum in manuscripts • Codex has replaced the scroll as preferred form for books • Experiments in metalographic printing underway in France, Holland, Germany: • 1430 - metal letters as dies, pressed into clay • Lead printing block cast from clay mold • Plate inked and pressed to paper • Usually poor reproduction J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  38. Movable Type • Gutenberg employs individual metal letters; reusable • Type set in equal lines • Thin pieces of led placed between lines • Columns locking to a “matrix,” which is inked • Paper pressed against matrix with “grape crusher” of winemaker J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  39. 1550 Printing Studio J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  40. Gutenberg’s Bible • Produced in 1455 or 1456 • Press run of between 70 and 270 copies • Within 50 years, press runs in the thousands become the norm • Book production up; prices fall • Book publishing become profitable, international business J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  41. Post-invention of moveable type • Media History timelinehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/1400s.html • By 1492, there are 90+ publishers scattered around Europe. Publish C. Columbus’s report before he returned to Spain. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  42. Post-invention of moveable type • Printing ends monopoly of church-produced books • Histories • Geographies • Biographies • Observations of physical world; beginning of “science” J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  43. Post-invention of moveable type • Growth of literacy • Widespread availability of cheaper literature • Clear glass windows allow illumination of interiors • Invention of eyeglasses in 17th Century J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  44. Post-invention of moveable type • Accelerates Protestant revolution/ Reformation • Martin Luther nails Ninety-five Theses to university church door in Wittenberg. Then prints them for distribution • Luther and evangelical associates become first true mass communicators J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  45. Post-invention of moveable type • Cost of printing still dropping • Reformers start printing Bible in common languages • Catholic church attempts to keep faithful from reading • 1564: Catholic church issues Index of Prohibited Books • Updated every 50 years. Includes works of Galileo and Kepler • Index exists until 1966. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003

  46. English “news” ballad c. 1586 But now beholde my great decay; Which on a sodaine come; My sumptuous buildings burned beBy force of fires flame: A careless wretch, most rude in life, His chymney set on fire, The instrument, I must confess, Of God’s most heavie ire J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003