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Food Safety. Foodservice Workers Prepared: August 2008. Prepared by:. Angela M. Fraser, Ph.D. Food Safety Specialist Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634. Foodborne illness. Foodborne illness Caused by eating contaminated foods or beverages.  Each year there are:

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Food Safety

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food safety

Food Safety

Foodservice Workers

Prepared: August 2008

prepared by
Prepared by:

Angela M. Fraser, Ph.D.

Food Safety Specialist

Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634

foodborne illness
Foodborne illness

Foodborne illness

  • Caused by eating contaminated foods or beverages. 

Each year there are:

  • 76 million cases of foodborne illness
  • 323,914 hospitalizations
  • 5,194 deaths


who is at risk
Who is at risk?
  • Infants
  • Toddlers
  • Pregnant women
  • Elderly – 65 years and older
  • Immunocompromised
  • Taking specific medications


what food causes illness
What food causes illness?
  • Any food can cause foodborne illness -- even non-potentially hazardous foods.
  • Potentially hazardous foods are:
    • Low acid
    • Moist
    • Contains protein

Keep potentially hazardous food out of the temperature danger zone!





basics of handwashing
Basics of Handwashing

1. Handwashing sink – water at 100oF

2. Hand soap -- liquid, powder, or bar and does not have to be antibacterial

3. Way to dry hands --disposable towels, continuous towel system, or a hand dryer

4. Instant hand antiseptic --

not required

Safe Food Handler

proper handwashing
Proper Handwashing

Safe Food Handler

always wash hands
After using the bathroom

After coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, or drinking

After bussing a table

Before putting on gloves

After handling animals

When switching between raw and ready-to-eat food

After handling garbage or trash

After handling dirty equipment or utensils;

During food preparation.

Always wash hands:

Safe Food Handler

  • Fingernails (real or artificial) and nail polish can be physical hazards.
  • Keep nails trimmed and filed.
  • Workers cannot wear fingernail polish or artificial fingernails.

Safe Food Handler

cover cuts wounds and sores
Cover cuts, wounds, and sores
  • Do not handle food if you have a sore that contains pus or that is infected.
  • Cover affected area with a bandage, a finger cot, and then a single-use glove.

Safe Food Handler

single use gloves
Single-use Gloves
  • Wear non-latex gloves because latex gloves might cause allergic reactions in some workers.
  • Change gloves:
    • when they tear
    • before beginning a new task
    • every four hours when doing the same task and
    • after handling raw meat, fish, or poultry

Safe Food Handler

worker clothing
Worker Clothing

Clothing can be a source of contamination so wear:

  • an appropriate hair restraint
  • clean clothing

While preparing food, do not wear jewelry

  • This includes medical information jewelry on arms and hands.
  • The only exception is a plain wedding band.

Safe Food Handler

bare hand contact
Bare-hand Contact
  • No bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food
  • Ready-to-eat food(RTE) includes:
    • Cooked food
    • Raw fruits and vegetables
    • Baked goods
    • Dried sausages
    • Canned food
    • Snack foods
    • Beverages

Safe Food Handler

reporting foodborne illness
Reporting Foodborne Illness

If you have been diagnosed with one of the following foodborne illnesses, report it to your manager:

  • Hepatitis A virus
  • E. coli 0157:H7
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Shigella spp.
  • Norovirus

Safe Food Handler

other policies
Other Policies

When handling food, never:

  • smoke
  • chew gum
  • eat food

You can drink from a covered container with a straw.

Safe Food Handler



Food Handler -- Right or Wrong?



checking your thermometer
Checking Your Thermometer

Check the accuracy of all food thermometers:

  • at least once a day
  • every time it is dropped
  • after being exposed to extreme temperatures

Methods to check the accuracy:

  • Boiling water method
  • Ice-point method

If not correct, calibrate.


ice point method
Ice-Point Method


looking does not guarantee proper cooking

“Looking does not guarantee proper cooking.”

Measure the temperatures of food during storage, cooking, and holding


measuring food temperatures
Measuring Food Temperatures
  • Use an approved thermometer.
  • Locate the sensing portion of the thermometer.
  • Clean and sanitize the probe before use.
  • Insert the sensing portion of the thermometer into the thickest part or into the center of the food.


cleaning and sanitizing thermometers
Cleaning and Sanitizing Thermometers
  • The probe or stem of a thermometer must be cleaned and sanitized before it is used.
  • If only measuring the temperature of ready-to-eat food, the probe or stem only needs to be cleaned between uses.


inspect before you accept
Inspect before You Accept

Spot check delivery vehicles for cleanliness and proper temperature control.

Inspect foods to minimize the risk for foodborne illness and liability.

Purchasing and Receiving

types of storage
Types of Storage
  • Refrigeration
  • Freezer
  • Dry storage
    • Food
    • Cleaned and sanitized equipment
    • Chemicals


first in first out fifo
First In, First Out (FIFO)
  • Past-dated foods will lose their quality and sometimes become unsafe.
  • FIFO ensures proper rotation of foods in storage.
  • When foods are received, put the oldest in the front and the newest in the back.
  • Identify package date, preparation date, or date of purchase.


cross contamination in storage
Cross-contamination in Storage
  • Bacteria can be transferred from one food to another if food is not properly stored.
  • Properly cover foods except while hot food is being cooled.
  • Store raw food below cooked or ready-to-eat food.




Storage – Right or Wrong?

temperature of storage units
Temperature of Storage Units


  • Must keep food at 41oF or colder
  • Air temperature should be 39oF or colder


  • Must keep food at 0oF or colder
  • Air temperature should be 0oF or colder

Dry storage

  • Best if temperature is between 50oF and 70oF
  • Humidity level should be between 50% and 60%


storage containers
Storage Containers
  • Food that is removed from its original package must be stored in a durable storage container.
  • All containers must be food-grade.
  • The container must be identified with the common name of the food except if it is unmistakably recognized.


  • Improperly thawed food can support the growth of bacteria.
  • Safe methods of thawing are:
    • in the refrigerator (best way)
    • during cooking
    • in the microwave oven followed by cooking
    • under cold, running water


washing produce
Washing Produce

Wash raw fruits and vegetables in warm water before:

  • Cutting
  • Combining with other ingredients
  • Cooking
  • Serving
  • Offering for immediate consumption


microwave cooking
Microwave Cooking

All raw animal foods must be:

  • rotated or stirred during cooking;
  • covered to retain surface moisture;
  • heated to at least 165oF; and
  • allowed to stand covered for two minutes after cooking.

Raw animal foods include:

  • meat, fish, poultry, and eggs that have not been processed.


cooling potentially hazardous foods
Cooling Potentially Hazardous Foods

Properly cool potentially hazardous food by:

  • reducing quantity to smaller container
  • using an ice water bath
  • putting food into a blast chiller
  • stirring

Cool cooked food within four hours from 135oF to 41oF or colder.


cooling room temperature foods
Cooling – Room Temperature Foods

Cool food made from ingredients that are at room temperature (such as canned tuna or dried food) within 4 hours to 41oF or colder.


reheating foods
Reheating Foods
  • Reheat all food that is cooked and cooled to at least 165oF for 15 seconds.
  • Reheat potentially hazardous food in a microwave oven for hot holding to at least 165oF.
  • The total time to reheat a food must not be more than two hours.


holding temperatures
Holding Temperatures
  • Keep food at proper temperatures
  • Improper holding of food can cause foodborne illness.
    • Cold-holding – 41oF or colder
    • Hot-holding – 135oF or hotter




Service – Right or Wrong?

re serving food
Re-serving Food
  • Once food served to a customer, it cannot be re-served.
  • Only non-potentially hazardous packaged foods can be reserved, such as:  
    • packaged cookies
    • packaged chips
    • juice boxes.  



Cleaning is the process of removing food and other soils.

Cleaning Agents:

  • Detergents
  • Solvent cleaners
  • Acid cleaners
  • Abrasive cleaners

Cleaning and Sanitizing

  • Sanitizing is the process of reducing the number of microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned surface to a safe level.
  • Sanitizing agents only work on properly cleaned and rinsed surfaces.

Cleaning and Sanitizing

methods for sanitizing
Methods for Sanitizing


  • Hot water


  • Chlorine – 50 ppm
  • Quaternary Ammonia – per manufacturer instructions
  • Iodine – 12.5 ppm

Cleaning and Sanitizing

dish machines
Dish machines

High temperature machines

  • Final sanitizing rinse must be 180oF or hotter
  • Measure water temperature at the manifold

Chemical sanitizing machines

  • Wash water 120oF or hotter
  • Rinse water 75oF to 120oF
  • Use the recommended sanitizer
  • Follow the manufacturers instructions

Cleaning and Sanitizing

three compartment sink
Three-compartment sink

1. Wash -- Water temperature at least 110oF

  • Rinse -- Water temperature at least 110oF
  • Sanitize -- Hot water temperature of 171oF to 180oF or chemical solution of 50 ppm

4. Air-dry -- Do not hand dry

Never mix chemical sanitizers with washing water detergents

Cleaning and Sanitizing

measuring sanitizer strength
Measuring Sanitizer Strength

A test kit that accurately measures the concentration of sanitizing solutions must be available.

The strength of sanitizing solutions must be measured frequently during use.

Cleaning and Sanitizing

food contact surface
Food-Contact Surface

A food-contact surface is:

  • a surface that food normally touches or
  • a surface where food might drain, drip, or splash into a food or onto a surface that normally touches food


  • Utensils, cutting boards, slicers, countertops, storage bins, baking sheets, refrigerator shelves

Cleaning and Sanitizing

cleaning food contact surfaces
Cleaning Food-Contact Surfaces


  • Wash with detergent
  • Rinse thoroughly
  • Immerse in a properly prepared sanitizing solution.

In-place sanitizing

  • Spray solution

Cleaning and Sanitizing

cleaning non food contact surfaces
Cleaning Non-Food Contact Surfaces
  • Non-food contact surfaces:
    • exterior of refrigerator, stovetops, and refrigerator gaskets.
  • Wash with detergent and rinse but do not need to sanitize.
  • Keep free of dirt, dust, and debris.

Cleaning and Sanitizing



Food-contact Surface or Not?

food contact surface or not
Food-contact Surface or Not?

Cleaning and Sanitizing

food contact surface or not74
Food-contact Surface or Not?

Cleaning and Sanitizing

food contact surface or not75
Food-contact Surface or Not?

Cleaning and Sanitizing

food contact surface or not76
Food-contact Surface or Not?

Cleaning and Sanitizing

storing cleaned and sanitized items
Storing Cleaned and Sanitized Items
  • In clean, dry location
  • Not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination
  • At least 6 inches above the floor
  • In a self-draining position
  • Covered or inverted

Cleaning and Sanitizing

  • Improperly stored chemicals can possibly contaminate food.
  • Store separate from food, equipment, utensils, linen, and single-service and single-use items.
  • If removed from their original package, label the container in which they are stored.

Cleaning and Sanitizing

material safety data sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet

Cleaning and Sanitizing

integrated pest management

Integrated Pest Management

Prepared by:

Michael Waldvogel, Ph.D.

NC Cooperative Extension Service

North Carolina State University

  • Deny pests access to:
  • food
  • shelter

Integrated Pest Management

insecticide application
Insecticide Application
  • Leave the job to the professionals
  • Avoid contaminating food and equipment

Integrated Pest Management


Keep areas clean and dry

Look for signs of rodents and cockroaches

Integrated Pest Management

pest management




Pest Management
  • Inspect and label all deliveries
  • Discard or return infested or expired products
  • Clean up spills as soon as possible.
storage areas
Storage Areas
  • Keep storage areas well organized, accessible
  • Store flour and similar products in sealable containers

Integrated Pest Management

dumpsters trash and recycle cans
Dumpsters, Trash, and Recycle Cans
  • Keep pads/area clean.
  • Keep lids closed.
  • Use trashcan liners
  • Empty and clean trash frequently

Integrated Pest Management