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What’s the difference between sensation and perception?. Do We have 5 senses?. Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell What about… temperature? Balance? Movement?. How does it work?.
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Sense receptors (specialized cells – some in the ears, some in the eyes, some on the tongue…) FIRE to stimulate sensory NEURONS which stimulate specialized paths to specialized areas of the brain (visual cortex, auditory cortex, etc) so….
Sense receptors convert physical energy (touch, heat, light) to electrical energy
…if we could stimulate the visual cortex of a blind person, would they be able to see?
Well… probably, yes.
Ptito (2005) – connects pattern detector to electrodes on tongue which stimulate visual areas of brain.
Something similar happens naturally to some people.
Sounds have taste or color.
Colors have scents or tastes.
One synesthete who attended an orchestra concert as a child thought the lights were lowered so the audience could see the colors better!!!!!!!!!
*A fun and interesting paper topic!!
No, and no.
We “ build” perceptions from our sensations.
Once in the cortex, we construct what we’re seeing.
A few years ago, neurologists demonstrated the existence of a Halle Berry neuron.
Many years ago, Huble & Wiesel (1968) paved the way for this work: showing that particular cells they termed “feature detectors” fired for particular patterns, such as a line at a particular angle.
Binocular cues: visual cues that require the use of both eyes
Turning inward of the eyes, which occurs when they focus on a nearby object
The slight difference in lateral separation between two objects as seen by the right and left eyes
Monocular cues: visual cues that require just one eye
Interposition: If you are blocking my view of the car, you must be closer
Linear perspective: We are fooled by this in the Muller-Lyer Illusion
Size constancy: Why does the moon appear so much larger when it’s near the horizon?
The accurate perception of objects as stable or unchanged despite changes in the sensory patterns they produce
Shape constancy: A pie is always round even when it’s an arc on the retina
Location constancy: We see objects as still even though their image on the retina moves as we move
Size constancy: We see objects as staying the same size even though they grow smaller on the retina
Brightness constancy: We see snow as white on a cloudy day when the waves’ amplitude may send a different message
Color constancy: We see an object’s color as the same in different light, even though the reflected wavelength changes
All help us know what sounds go together, and which sounds are the ‘background noise’
How might taste help us survive?
Where are the sense receptors for taste?
Many foods (chocolate, for one!) have almost no distinguishable taste without smell.
Smell is a much more sensitive sense.
Do we feel only the pain we need to feel?
What might be the benefit to the brain of “controlling” pain?
All influence what we “see”