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C. 18. hapter. Accounting for Income Taxes. Objectives. 1. Understand permanent and temporary differences. 2. Explain the conceptual issues regarding interperiod tax allocation. 3. Record and report deferred tax liabilities. 4 . Record and report deferred tax assets.

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C

18

hapter

Accounting for Income Taxes


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Objectives

1. Understand permanent and temporary differences.

2. Explain the conceptual issues regarding interperiod tax allocation.

3. Record and report deferred tax liabilities.

4. Record and report deferred tax assets.

5. Explain an operating loss carryback and carryforward.


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Objectives

6. Account for an operating loss carryback.

7. Account for an operating loss carryforward.

8. Apply intraperiod tax allocation.

9. Classify deferred tax liabilities and assets.

10. Discuss the additional conceptual issues concerning interperiod income tax allocation (Appendix).


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Income Tax Return

Income State-ment

Overview and Definitions

The objective of financial reporting is to provide useful information about companies to decision makers.


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Frees Corporation

Income Statement

For Year Ended 12/31/00

Revenues $180,000

Cost of goods sold (78,000)

Gross profit $105,000

Other expenses (60,000)

Pretax income from

continuing operations $ 45,000

Income taxes (11,000)

Net income $ 34,000

Income Tax Return

Income State-ment

Overview and Definitions


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Frees Corporation

Income Tax Return

For Year Ended 12/31/00

Revenues $170,000

Cost of goods sold (70,000)

Gross profit $100,000

Other expenses (60,000)

Pretax income from

continuing operations $ 40,000

Income taxes ( 9,200)

Net income $ 30,800

Income Tax Return

Income State-ment

Overview and Definitions


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Causes of Differences

  • Permanent differences.

  • Temporary differences.

  • Operating loss carrybacks and carryforwards.

  • Tax credits.

  • Intraperiod tax allocations.


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Permanent Differences

Some items of revenue and expense that a corporation reports for financial accounting purposes are never reported for income tax purposes. These permanent differences never reverse in a later accounting period.


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Permanent Differences

  • Revenues that are recognized for financialreporting purposes but are never taxable (e.g., interest on municipal bonds, life insurance proceeds payable to a corporation upon death of insured).

  • Expenses that are recognized for financial reporting purposes but are never deductible forincome tax purposes(e.g., life insurance premiums on officers, amortization of goodwill acquired before August 11, 1993).

Continued


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Permanent Differences

  • Deductions that are allowed for income tax purposes but do not qualify as expenses under generally accepted accounting principles (e.g., percentage depletion in excess of cost depletion, special dividend deduction).

Permanent differences affect either a corporation’s reported pretax financial income or its taxable income, but not both.


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Temporary Differences

A temporary difference causes a difference between a corporation’s pretax financial income and taxable income that “originates” in one or more years and “reverses” in later years.


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Temporary Differences

Future Taxable Income Will Be More Than Future Pretax Financial Income

  • Revenues or gains are included in pretax financial income prior to the time they are included intaxable income. For example, gross profit on installment sales normally is recognized at the point of sale for financial reporting purposes, but for income tax purposes, in certain situations it is recognized as cash is collected.

Continued


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Temporary Differences

Future Taxable Income Will Be More Than Future Pretax Financial Income

  • Expenses and losses are deducted to compute taxable income prior to the time they are subtracted to compute pretax financial income. For example, a depreciable asset may be depreciated using MACRS over the prescribed tax life for income purposes, but using straight-line depreciation over a longer life for financial reporting purposes.

Continued


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Temporary Differences

Future Taxable Income Will Be Less Than Future Pretax Financial Income

  • Revenue or gains are included in taxable income prior to the time they are included in pretax financial income. For example, items such as rent, interest, and royalties received in advance are taxable when received but are not reported for financial reporting purposes until the service actually has been provided.

Continued


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Temporary Differences

Future Taxable Income Will Be Less Than Future Pretax Financial Income

  • Expenses or losses are subtracted to compute pretax financial income prior to the time they are deducted to compute taxable income. For example, product warranty costs may be estimated and recorded as expenses in the current year for financial reporting purposes but deducted, as actually incurred, for the determination of taxable income.


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Conceptual Issues

  • Should corporations be required to make interperiod income tax allocations for temporary differences, or should there be no interperiod tax allocation?

  • If interperiod tax allocation is required, should it be based on a comprehensive approach for all temporary differences or on a partial approach for certain temporary differences?

  • Should interperiod tax allocation be applied using the asset/liability method, the deferred method, or the net-of-tax method?


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Conceptual Issues

The FASB concluded that--

  • Interperiod income tax allocation of temporary differences is appropriate.

  • The comprehensive allocation approach is to be applied.

  • The asset/liability method of income tax allocation is to be used.


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The FASB established four basic principles that a corporation is to apply in accounting for its income taxes at the date of its financial statements.

Conceptual Issues


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Conceptual Issues corporation is to apply in accounting for its income taxes at the date of its financial statements.

  • A current tax liability or asset is recognized for the estimated income tax obligation or refund on its income tax return for the current year.

  • A deferred tax liability or asset is recognized for the estimated future tax effects of each temporary difference.

  • The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets is based on provisions of the enacted tax law; the effects of future changes in tax law or rates are not anticipated.

  • The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that are not expected to be realized.


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Interperiod Tax Allocation (temporary differences) corporation is to apply in accounting for its income taxes at the date of its financial statements.

Interperiod Tax Allocation (Income tax expense = Current income tax obligation)

Comprehensive Allocation

Partial Allocation

Conceptual Alternatives

Current GAAP (FASB Statement No. 109)

Deferred Method (using originating tax rates)

Net-of-Tax Method

Asset/Liability Method (using enacted future tax rates)

Conceptual Issues

Income Taxes


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Measurement corporation is to apply in accounting for its income taxes at the date of its financial statements.

The FASB addressed two issues regarding the measurement of deferred tax liabilities or deferred tax asset in its financial statements.

1. The applicable income tax rates.

2. Whether a valuation allowance should be established for deferred tax assets.


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Steps in Recording and Reporting of Current and Deferred Taxes

Step 1.Measure the income tax obligation by applying the applicable tax rate to the current taxable income.

Step 2. Identify the temporary differences and classify each as either“taxable” or “deductible.”

Step 3.Measure the deferred tax liability for each taxable temporary difference using the applicable tax rate.

Continued


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Steps in Recording and Reporting of Current and Deferred Taxes

Step 4. Measure the deferred tax asset for each deductible temporary difference using the applicable tax rate.

Step 5.Reduce deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if, based on available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Step 6. Record the income tax expense income tax obligation, change in deferred tax liabilities and/or deferred tax assets, and change in valuation allowance (if any).


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Basic Entries Taxes

In 2000 Track Company purchased an asset at a cost of $6,000. For financial reporting purposes, the asset has a 4-year life, no residual value, and is depreciated by the units-of-output method over 6,000 units (2000: 1,600 units). For income tax purposes the asset is depreciated under MACRS using the 3-year life (33.33% for 2000). The taxable income is $7,500 and the income tax rate for 2000 is 30%.


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Basic Entries Taxes

Step 1. $7,500 (taxable income) x 30%

Step 2. The depreciation difference is identified as the only taxable temporary difference.

Step 3. The $120 total deferred tax liability is calculated by multiplying the total taxable temporary difference ($400) times the future tax rate (30%).

Steps 4 and 5. No deferred tax asset, so not required.

Step 6. A journal entry is made.

Continued


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$2,250 + $120 Taxes

Basic Entries

Income Tax Expense 2,370

Income Taxes Payable 2,250

Deferred Tax Liability 120


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Financial Income Tax Taxes

Year Depreciation Depreciation

2001 $2,800 $2,667

2002 1,100 889

2003 500 444

Deferred Tax Liability

Assume the same facts as in Slide 24, except that the income tax rate for 2000 for 40%, but Congress has enacted tax rates of 35% for 2001, 33% for 2002, and 30% for 2003 and beyond.

Click here to review Slide 24, then click the button on Slide 24 to return.


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Deferred Tax Liability Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability

2001 2002 2003

Financial depreciation $2,800 $1,100 $500

Income tax depreciation (2,667) (889) (444)

Taxable amount $ 133 $ 211 $ 56 = $400

Income tax rate 0.35 0.330.30

Deferred tax liability $ 47 $ 70 $ 17 = $134

Income Tax Expense 3,134

Income Taxes Payable 3,000

Deferred Tax Liability 134


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Deferred Tax Asset Taxes

Klemper Company sells a product on which it provides a 3-year warranty. For financial reporting purposes, the company estimates its future warranty costs and records a warranty expense/liability at year-end. For income tax purposes the company deducts its warranty costs when paid.


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Deferred Tax Asset Taxes

At the beginning of 2000, the company had a deferred tax asset of $330 related to its warranty plan. At the end of 2000, the company estimates that its ending warranty liability is $1,400. In 2000 the company has taxable income of $5,000 and a tax rate of 30%.

Income Tax Expense ($1,500 - $90) $1,410

Deferred Tax Asset ($420 - $330) 90

Income Taxes Payable ($5,000 x 30%) 1,500


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Carryback Taxes

Operating Loss Carrybacks and Carryforwards

Carryback Period (2 years)

1998 1999

Previous Previous

Taxable Taxable

Income Income

2000 Operating Loss


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Carryforward Taxes

Operating Loss Carrybacks and Carryforwards

Carryforward Period (20 years)

2001 2002 …2020

Future Future Future

Taxable Taxable Taxable

Income Income Income

2000 Operating Loss


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FASB concluded in TaxesFASB Statement No. 109 that GAAP for operating carrybacks and carryforwards are...

Conceptual Issues

1. A corporation must recognize the tax benefit of an operating loss carryback in the period of the loss as an asset on its balance sheet and as a reduction of the operating loss on its income statement.

2. A corporation must recognize the tax benefit of an operating loss carryforward in the period of the loss as a deferred tax asset. However, it must reduce the deferred tax asset by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that the corporation will not realize some or all of the deferred tax asset.


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1999 $40,000 x 0.25 = $10,000 Taxes

2000 $50,000 x 0.30 = 15,000

$25,000

Operating Loss Carryback Example

Monk Company reports a pretax operating loss of $90,000 in 2001 for both financial reporting and income tax purposes, and that reported pretax financial income and taxable income for the previous 2 years had been: 1999--$40,000 (tax rate 25%); and 2000--$70,000 (tax rate 30%).

Income Tax Refund Receivable 25,000

Income Tax Benefit From

Operating Loss Carryback 25,000


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Operating Loss Carryforward Example Taxes

Lake Company reports a pretax operating loss of $60,000 in 2000 for both financial reporting and income tax purposes. The income tax rate is 30% and no change in the tax rate has been enacted for future years. The deferred tax asset is calculated to be $18,000 ($60,000 x 0.30).

Deferred Tax Asset 18,000

Income Tax Benefit From

Operating Loss Carryforward 18,000

Continued


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Operating Loss Carryforward Example Taxes

If the company establishes a valuation allowance for the entire amount of the deferred tax asset, it also makes the following journal entry at the end of 2000.

Income Tax Benefit From Operating

Loss Carryforward 18,000

Allowance to Reduce Deferred Tax

Asset to Realizable Value 18,000

Continued


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Operating Loss Carryforward Example Taxes

In 2001, Lake Company operates successfully and earns pretax operating income of $100,000 for both financial reporting and tax purposes.

Income Tax Expense 12,000

Allowance to Reduce Deferred Tax

Asset to Realizable Value 18,000

Income Taxes Payable 12,000

Deferred Tax Asset 18,000

$40,000 x 0.30


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Intraperiod Tax Allocation Taxes

Income tax allocation within a period is mandatory under GAAP.


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Income from continuing operations Taxes

[$270,000 (revenues) - $190,000 (expenses)] $80,000

Gain on disposal of discontinued Segment X 18,000

Loss from operations of discontinued Segment X (5,000)

Extraordinary loss on bond redemption (10,000)

Cumulative effect of change in accounting

principle (accelerated depreciation to S/L) 15,000

Prior period adjustment (error) (8,000)

Amount subject to income taxes $90,000

Intraperiod Tax Allocation

Kalloway Company reports the following items of pretax financial and taxable income for 2001:


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Intraperiod Tax Allocation Taxes

Kalloway Company is subject to income tax rates of 20% on the first $50,000 of income and 30% on all income in excess of $50,000.

Let’s take a look at Kalloway Company’s income statement.


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(0.20 x $50,000) + (0.30 x $30,000) Taxes

Income Statement

for Year Ended December 31, 2001

Revenues (listed separately) $270,000

Expenses (listed separately) (190,000)

Pretax income from continuing operations $ 80,000

Income tax expense (19,000)


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Income Statement Taxes

for Year Ended December 31, 2001

Revenues (listed separately) $270,000

Expenses (listed separately) (190,000)

Pretax income from continuing operations $ 80,000

Income tax expense (19,000)

Income from continuing operations $ 61,000

Results of discontinued operations:

Gain on disposal of discontinued

Segment X (net of $5,400 tax) $12,600

Loss from operations of discontinued

Segment X (net of $1,500 tax credit) (3,500) 9,100

Income before extraordinary item $ 70,100

$18,000 x 0.30

($5,000) x 0.30

Continued


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Prior period adjustments on the statement of retained earnings also would be shown net of tax.

Income before extraordinary item $70,100

Extraordinary loss on bond redemption

(net of $3,000 income tax credit) (7,000)

Cumulative effect of change in accounting

principle (net of $4,500 income taxes) 10,500

Net Income $73,600

($10,000) x 0.30

$15,000 x 0.30


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Balance Sheet Presentation earnings also would be shown net of tax.

A corporation must report its deferred tax liabilities and assets in two classifications...

…a net current amount and a net noncurrent amount.


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Balance Sheet Presentation earnings also would be shown net of tax.

Account Related Balance

Deferred Tax Accounts Balance Sheet Account

Deferred Tax Liabilities

Installment sales $ 6,000 credit Accounts receivable

Depreciation 12,000 credit Property, plant, and equipment

Deferred Tax Assets

Warranty costs $ 3,400 debit Warranty liability

Rent revenue $2,500 debit Unearned revenue

Current

Noncurrent

Current

Noncurrent


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C earnings also would be shown net of tax.

18

hapter

The End


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