Chapter 11 of Textbook. Books of the New Testament: An Overview. The New Testament : - See Table 11.3, “Approximate Order of Composition of New Testament Books,” p. 357 in Textbook (see also Box 11.1, “Organization of the Hebrew and Christian-Greek Scriptures,” p. 344 in Textbook .
Books of the New Testament: An Overview
- See Table 11.3, “Approximate Order of Composition of New Testament Books,” p. 357 in Textbook (see also Box 11.1, “Organization of the Hebrew and Christian-Greek Scriptures,” p. 344 in Textbook.
How the Written Gospels Came to Be - From Oral Preaching to Written Gospels:
Stage III: Period of Jewish Revolt against Rome and the appearance of The First Canonical Gospel (66-70 C.E.):
Stage IV: Period of The Production of New, Enlarged Editions of Mark (80-90 C.E.):
Stage V: Period of Production of New Gospels Promoting an Independent (Non-Synoptic) Tradition (90-100 C.E.):
- 1) the presentation of Jesus in Galilee (a person of authority in word and deed);
- 2) a helpless figure on the cross in Judea.
- Mark’s eschatological urgency;
- “The time has come, the kingdom of God is upon you; repent and believe the Gospel” (1.15);
- The eschaton is about to take place;
- A sense of urgency - the present tense used;
- The author uses the word “immediately” to connect pericopes;
- Jesus’ activity proclaims that history has reached its climactic moment;
- Jesus as “Son of Man” (see Box 9.6, p. 375 in textbook);
- Mark’s use of conflict stories;
- Jesus as healer
Jezreel Valley: To the West of the Sea of Galilee.
- Ch. 8 as pivotal to Mark’s account;
- Here Mark ties together several themes that deal with his vision of Jesus’ ministry; and
- what Jesus requires of those who follow him;
- Lack of understanding on the part of Jesus’ followers;
- The hidden quality of Jesus’ Messiahship;
- The necessity of suffering on the part of Jesus’ followers;
- Peter’s recognition of Jesus as the Messiah (8.29);
- Jesus tells his disciples to keep this a secret;
- Jesus’ reluctance to have news of his miracles spread abroad - the Messianic Secret;
- the setting is Caesarea Philippi/Banias.
- People could not know Jesus’ identity until after his mission was completed;
- Jesus had to be unappreciated in order to be rejected and killed (see 10.45);
- Jesus must suffer an unjust death to confirm and complete his Messiahship;
- This is the heart of mark’s Christology;
- Thus, the relationship between Peter’s confession that Jesus is the Messiah and Jesus’ prediction that he must go to Jerusalem to die (8.29-32).
- A third idea introduced:
- True disciples must expect to suffer as Jesus did (see 8.27-34 and 10.32-45: what is required of a true disciple);
- To reign with Jesus means to imitate his suffering.
The Journey To Jerusalem: Jesus’ Predestined Suffering (8.27-10.52) (contd.):
- Jesus travels to Jerusalem via Transjordan.
- For mark, Jesus makes only one visit to Jerusalem;
- Jesus is welcomed into Jerusalem (11.9-10);
- Jesus accepts a Messianic role;
- Jesus alienates himself from both the Roman and Jewish administrators;
- He arouses hostility;
- His actions in the temple (11.15-19);
- Confrontations and successes against the Pharisees, Herod’s party, and the Sadducees.
Outline of Old City.
- The first commandment of all (12.28-34);
- Jesus’ foretells the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple (Ch. 13 - The Little Apocalypse);
- Mark’s concern with predictions of Jesus’ return (13.5-6, 21-23);
- The tribulations of the disciples will be ended when the Son of Man returns to gather the faithful;
- In the meantime: “keep alert” (13.33); “be awake” (13.37).
- The Last Supper (14.12-25):
- Actually, a passover meal (see ex 11.1-13.16);
- Jesus gives the passover a new significance (14.22- 25);
- The origin of the Christian celebration of the Eucharist.
- Jesus’ Passion:
- Mark wishes his readers to see the disparity between Jesus’ appearance of vulnerability and the reality of his spiritual triumph;
- Jesus’ enemies are seemingly ridding the nation of a radical;
- In fact, they are making possible his saving death;
- All this is in accordance with God’s design.
- Mount of Olives;
- Caiaphas, the High Priest;
- Pontius Pilate;
- Simon of Cyrene.
- Mary of Magdala as the link between Jesus’ death and burial and the discovery that the tomb is empty (see 15.40-41, 47 and 16.1);
- Joseph of Arimathaea.
- The women flee in terror (16.8);
- They say nothing to anyone for they were afraid (16.8).
- Thus, Mark’s account of the Good News ends abruptly.
By not including resurrection appearances, is Mark expecting a parousia, that is, a second coming or appearance of Christ to judge the world, punish the wicked, and redeem the world?
- Does Mark wish to emphasize that Jesus is absent?:
- He is present neither in the grave; nor as yet triumphal son of man.
- Is Jesus present in memories, and
- In his enduring power over the lives of his disciples?
- Were many Christians unhappy with Mark’s inconclusiveness?
- If so, this could account for the heavy editing of Mark’s account;
- Some editors appended postresurrection appearances of Jesus;
- This made Mark’s account more consistent with Matthew and Luke (Mark 16.8b and 16.9-20).
Questions 1, 2, 3, and 5 (do not do the one on parables) on p. 380;
Questions for Discussion and Reflection on p. 380.