animal research act 20 years on l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ANIMAL RESEARCH ACT ……. 20 YEARS ON PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

ANIMAL RESEARCH ACT ……. 20 YEARS ON - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

ANIMAL RESEARCH ACT ……. 20 YEARS ON. the journey begins…. 1978 - Australian Veterinary Assoc receives brief from NSW government * Separate legislation * Comprehensive review of existing legislation * Ontario legislation as model * Extensive consultation.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ANIMAL RESEARCH ACT ……. 20 YEARS ON' - Philip

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
1978 - Australian Veterinary Assoc receives brief from NSW government

* Separate legislation

* Comprehensive review of existing legislation

* Ontario legislation as model

* Extensive consultation

1983- AVA submits proposal to government

1985- Animal Research Act passed

animal research act 1885
Animal Research Act 1885

An Act to protect the welfare of animals used in connection with animal research.

Guiding principle– to create legislation which takes into account the rights of opposing groups to hold and express differing views and which attempts to address and recognise issues on which opinions differ in such a way as to bring a degree of acceptance from all concerned.

Enforced self-regulation

Public participation in the decision-making process

key elements
Key Elements …..
  • Focus on ‘duty of care’
  • Central role for ACEC
    • approve and monitor all animal use
    • power to direct appropriate treatment
  • External membership of ACEC
  • ARRP overview of activities
    • animal welfare organsations
    • reports to Minister/Parliament
  • Linked to Code of Practice
  • Separate legislation /enforced self-regulation
ava proposal
AVA Proposal


  • Recognise need to use animals for scientific purposes but to do so is a privilege.
  • Recognise community concerns
  • International recognition of ethical responsibilities
  • Dual needs - scientific & social
  • Legislation to define minimum standards
  • Responsibility of institutions and investigators
ava proposal7
AVA Proposal…..

The proper management of animals used for scientific purposes is essential for their welfare and the validity of research data.

issues considered in development of legislation nsw submission sscaw
Issues considered in development of legislation -NSW Submission SSCAW
  • Changing community attitudes
  • Importance of human/animal bond
  • Moral standing of animals ?
    • relevant differences ?
    • setting limits and on what grounds?
  • Australian COP - already contained essential elements of legislation
  • Public perception of science
  • Public participation > undue controls
legislative framework
Legislative framework ….

1. Providing a balance between accountability for both the decision to use animals for scientific purposes and the conduct of those activities and the value of freedom of scientific enquiry.

2. Judgements need to reflect a balanced view especially where lack of community consensus.

the animal research act
The Animal Research Act ….
  • Style and purpose of Act reflects changing community attitudes
  • Mechanisms to ensure responsibility & accountability
  • Goal to extend legislation to promote 3Rs
  • External monitor of institutional activities
  • Public particpation at both levels of accountability
  • Code of Practice - principles to guide conduct
role of acec
Role of ACEC
  • Major social benefit by bringing together people of differing views
  • Serve to amplify awareness of scientists
  • Improved review - focus on animal concerns
  • Seek reconciliation of human needs and animal interests
  • Pivotal role for lay/non-scientific members
  • Knowledge basis for judgement also essential
  • Acknowledged critics of process

Institutionalcommitteeswill be effective by bringing considered, collective judgement to the decision to use animals for research and by the close supervision they can bring to the conduct of such research … they must be informed of issues, aware of community and scientific sensitivities and committed to the resolution of conflicts.

senate select committee on animal welfare report on animal experimentation 1989
Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare Report on Animal Experimentation 1989
  • Supported separate legislation based on duty of care and respect for animals
  • Supported model of enforced self-regulation
  • Supported primacy of responsibility of investigators
  • Noted benefits of accreditation vs licensing
  • Cautioned the need to balance between self-regulation by institution and government controls.
Ethics committees are the lynch pin in the system of responsibilty and accountability.

It is the collective wisdom of a committee, with each member bringing his or her own expertise to bear on the matter together with other members, that enables a collective judgement to be made.

foundations of legislation
Foundations of Legislation
  • Duty of care core value
  • Primacy of responsibility of investigator
  • Pivotal role for institutional ACEC
  • Participation of wider community
  • Institutions < > government
1986 - Animal Research Review Panel Appointed

- Code of Practice

- Accreditation process

1989 - Act amended LD 50 & Draize tests

1990 - Regulations proclaimed

1991 - Act introduced

1992 - Site Visit program

code of practice
Code of Practice
  • Incorporation of a code of practice into a legislative framework based on principles of good conduct rather than prescription of practices most effective way of promoting good practice and the 3Rs
  • Guidelines should clearly lay down general principles and criteria by which practices and procedures can be judged.

Aims to

  • emphasise responsibilities,
  • ensure animal welfare is always an essential factor,
  • ensure animal use is valid,
  • minimise numbers
  • limit pain and distress
  • promote replacement.


australian code of practice
Australian Code of Practice

#Self regulatory system

Responsibility & Accountability

#Ethical issues

Framework for Review

#Good Scientific Practice < > Animal Welfare

# Principles of Practice



In keeping with the notion of promotion of good practice - it incorporates peer review and mandates critical and informed review and appraisal.

To be effective the agency responsible must have sufficient knowledge to evaluate practices and procedures and be able to reflect in its judgement a balanced community view.

Assessment by a panel of persons , including community representatives, should achieve this.

scope of activities today
Scope of activities today
  • 103 accredited institutions
  • 24 licensed animal suppliers
  • 75 accredited schools
  • 2,315, 328 animals (2004)
  • monitored by AECs and ARRP
Outcomes …..
  • Robust processes
    • AECs
    • ARRP
    • Public involvement
    • Accountability
  • Identify animal welfare benefits
    • 3Rs
    • High standards of care
arrp annual reports
ARRP Annual Reports
  • Produced annually since 1987
  • Documents administrative arrangements
  • Panel Membership , meetings, attendance, site visits, subcommittee activities
  • Issues arising from site inspections and other ARRP activities and remedial actions
  • Statistics on animal use (since 1992)
  • Policies and guidelines
  • Initiatives to achieve 3Rs
  • Use of models, videos, interactive programs, abattoir specimens in teaching
  • Extensive use of in vitro systems before progress or animal studies
  • In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies
  • Development of in vitro methods to replace animals
  • Habitat assessment prior to trapping
  • Statistical assessment
  • Trials follow GLP or GCP - data quality
  • Review of breeding protocols - overbreeding
  • New analysis methods -dec. tissue sample
  • Sharing tissues
  • Wildlife studies - number of ways to dec samples reported
  • Collaborative projects eg antibody production
  • Use of chicken eggs to produce PABs
  • Setting early endpoints
  • Group housing / companions
  • Environmental enrichment
  • Education programs
  • Pain management esp. analgesics, monitoring
  • Baited hair tube traps/pitfalls modified
  • Alternative methods for identification
strategic plan goals
Strategic Plan -Goals
  • The principles, processes and responsibilities of the Code are actively embraced
  • All use of animals consistent with the Code & Act
  • Procedures regularly reviewed and refined to minimise numbers and reduce impact
  • Pain & distress promptly recognised & relieved
  • High standards of housing and care
  • Access to information about animal use
support for aec process
Support for AEC Process
  • Site inspection reports - detail, analysis, supportive evidence
  • Development of Policies (17) and Guidelines (21)
  • Meetings for AEC members
  • Meetings - special issues
  • Model Protocol Form
  • Animal Ethics Infolink
international developments
International Developments
  • Ethical principles
  • Criteria to assess animal welfare outcomes
  • Evidence-based guidelines to inform process
  • Harmonisation of guidelines
Commitment to and engagement with process by all involved
  • Acceptance of diversity of views
  • Good communication
  • Focus on core issues
  • On-going review and promotion of animal welfare standards
  • Education and evidence-based practice underpinactions
ongoing challenges
Ongoing Challenges
  • Identifying barriers to participation & developing strategies to respond
  • Development, implementation and promotion of the 3Rs
  • Effective pain management
  • Housing and care - species needs
  • Supporting evidence-based practice
  • Individual
  • Institution
  • Relationships
    • Individual < > AE Committee
    • Individual < > Institution
    • Institution < > Community
  • Members of Animal Ethics Committees
  • Members of ARRP
  • Researchers , Teachers
  • Animal Technicians
  • Animal Welfare Unit