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Asia and Pacific Transgender Network Development Conference, Bangkok, 13-16 Dec 2009 Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: what does the research tell us? Sam Winter, University of Hong Kong http://web.hku.hk/~sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/index.htm WHERE is the research?

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Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: what does the research tell us? Sam Winter, University of Hong Kong


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Asia and Pacific Transgender Network Development Conference, Bangkok, 13-16 Dec 2009

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: what does the research tell us? Sam Winter, University of Hong Kong

220 items listed in the tg asia bibliography

http://web.hku.hk/~sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/bibliography.htm

220 items listed in the TG-ASIA bibliography

NGO reports, books, chapters, research articles, research theses, encyclopedia entries, etc.

…plus 42 essays + country reports on TG-ASIA itself

….and ….

since 1990 only

…English language only

…social sciences only (not medical)

.. Asia only (not the Pacific)

large population clinic studies
Large population: CLINIC STUDIES

Iran:

1:2200 – 1:3300

(transpeople)

Taiwan:

1:1030

(transpeople)

Singapore:

1:2900 (transwomen)

1:8300 (transmen)

large population community estimates
Large population: COMMUNITY ESTIMATES

India:

1:600

(transwomen)

Thailand:

1:300

(transwomen)

Malaysia

1:75 to1:150

(transwomen)

transgender people in asia and the pacific what does the research tell us7

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us?

Large population

Deep cultural roots and old social roles

deep cultural roots a place in society for transpeople
Deep cultural roots:a place in society for transpeople

Japan;

China, Korea,

Myanmar, Laos, Thailand,

Indonesia, Oman, Pakistan, Bangladesh,

Aghanistan

India

Philippines

Siberia

Pacific

(Okinawa, Hawai’I,

Samoa, Tonga, Tuva etc)

.

Gender Identity Variance:

Universal,

Timeless.

A part of human experience.

transgender people in asia and the pacific what does the research tell us9

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us?

Large population

Deep cultural roots and old social roles

Local identities and genders

some local identities and genders modern or traditional affirming or offensive

Yirka-la-ul-va-irgin,

Ne-uchica

Khanith,

Xanith

Some local identities and genders (modern or traditional, affirming or offensive)

Hijra,

Kothi,

Meti,

Aravani,

Khusra,

Zanana

Mahu,

Fa’afafine

Fakaleiti

Pinapinaine

Bakla,

Transpinay

Bayot,

Bayog,

Asog,

Bantut,

Binabae

Apwint, Acault

Waria,

Banci,

Bencong,

Calabai,

Kedie,

Wandu

Maknyah

Kathoey

Pumia,

Pumae,

Phet thee sam,

Sao praphet song,

Phuying kham phet

transgender people in asia and the pacific what does the research tell us11

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us?

Large population

Deep cultural roots and old social roles

Local identities and genders

Modern stigma and prejudice

stigma and prejudice

A seven country study

  • of prejudice:
  • 841 university students.
  • A questionnaire:
    • on attitudes towards
    • transwomen

Stigma and Prejudice

Transpeople, transprejudice and pathologisation: a seven-country factor analytic study.

Winter,S., Chalungsooth,P., Teh,Y.K., Rojanalert,N., Maneerat, K., Wong, Y.W., Beaumont,A., Ho,M.W., Gomez,F., Macapagal,R.A.

International Journal of Sexual Health, 21, pp96-118

seven societies a range of prejudice
Seven societies: a range of prejudice

Transacceptance

United Kingdom

Philippines

Thailand

Hong Kong, Singapore

Malaysia – United States

Transprejudice

stigma and prejudice14

Stigma and prejudice

Trans-stigma and trans-prejudice clear in all 7 societies.

Some sample figures:

Rejecting transwomen’sright to marry a man:

63% Malaysians

53% Filipinos

Rejecting transwomen’sright to work with children

33% Malaysians

14% Filipinos

13% Thais

transgender people in asia and the pacific what does the research tell us15

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us?

Large population

Deep cultural roots and old social roles

Local identities and genders

Modern stigma and prejudice

Discrimination and marginalisation

(social, economic and legal)

discrimination and marginalisation
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
discrimination and marginalisation17
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment, housing, health services, access to public spaces
discrimination and marginalisation18
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment, housing, health services, , access to public spaces
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
discrimination and marginalisation19
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment, housing, health services, access to public spaces
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
  • Government
    • documentation: ID cards,
discrimination and marginalisation20
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment, housing, health services, access to public spaces
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
  • Government
    • documentation: ID cards,
    • documentation: legal gender status
discrimination and marginalisation21
Discrimination and marginalisation

Legal recognition of gender status:

as reflected in the right to marry:

only 7 countries in Asia?

  • Family and school
    • Dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment and housing
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
  • Government
    • documentation: ID cards,
    • documentation: legal gender status
discrimination and marginalisation22
Discrimination and marginalisation

Legal recognition of gender status:

as reflected in the right to marry:

only 7 countries in Asia?

  • Family and school
    • Dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment and housing
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
  • Government
    • documentation: ID cards,
    • documentation: legal gender status
discrimination and marginalisation23
Discrimination and marginalisation
  • Family and school
    • dropping out and leaving home
  • Wider society
    • employment, housing, health services, access to public spaces
    • drift towards ‘ghetto’ employment
  • Government
    • documentation: ID cards,
    • documentation: legal gender status
    • lack of protection against discrimination
      • despite widespread ratification or accession to:
        • ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)
        • ICESCR (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)
        • UNCRC (United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child)
    • police harassment, violence
transgender people in asia and the pacific what does the research tell us25

Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us?

Large population

Deep cultural roots and old social roles

Local identities and genders

Modern stigma and prejudice

Discrimination and marginalisation

(social, economic and legal)

 Vulnerability - risky situations and risky behaviours

(risks to mental and physical health)

risk mental health transgender women reporting ever attempting suicide

Thailand: 22%

(Winter and Vink,

unpublished report)

Risk: MENTAL HEALTH(% transgender women reporting ever attempting suicide)

Malaysia:

14%

(Teh, 2002)

Philippines: 16%

(Winter and Vink,

unpublished report)

slide27

Risk: PHYSICAL HEALTH

HIV prevalence among transgender people: some 1996-2007 studies

Mandalay:

1996: 33% (?)

Chiangmai

2005: 18%

2007: 17%

Pakistan various:

2006-7: 2%

(Larkana 14%)

Bangkok

2005: 12%

Lahore:

2005: 1%

Cambodia various:

2005: 10%

(Phnom Penh 17%)

Karachi

2005: 1.5%

Dhaka

2004-5: 0%

Jakarta:

2002: 22%

20009: 34%?

Chennai:

2001: 60%

Phuket

2005: 12%

Source: HIV and associated risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in the Asia and

Pacific region: implications for policy and programming. UNAIDS/APCOM 2008 (working draft)

slide28

The General Picture:

A chain,

from STIGMA to RISK

Stigma,

Prejudice

Much

current

research?

Discrimination,

Social/economic/legal marginalisation + exclusion

Vulnerability and increased

risks to mental / physical

health

slide29

The General Picture:

A chain,

from STIGMA to RISK

?

Religion?

Western

Medicine

?

?

Stigma,

Prejudice

Culture?

Discrimination,

Social/economic/legal marginalisation + exclusion

Vulnerability and increased

risks to mental / physical

health

seven countries study of trans stigma and trans prejudice
Seven countries study of trans-stigma and trans-prejudice

Trans-acceptance

Across the study, those who

BELIEVE transwomen ARE MENTALLY ILL

also

EXPRESS MORE STIGMA AND PREJUDICE towards them

United Kingdom

Philippines

So ideas about ‘MENTAL ILLNESS’ PROMPT OR SUPPORT STIGMA and PREJUDICE.

Thailand

Hong Kong, Singapore

Therefore,, it is important to push for REMOVAL of ‘Gender Identity Disorder’ AND ‘Transsexualism’ FROM THE MEDICAL MANUALS !!

Malaysia – United States

Trans-prejudice

seven countries study of trans stigma and trans prejudice31
Seven countries study of trans-stigma and trans-prejudice

Transacceptance

Across the study, those who

BELIEVE transwomen HAVE A MENTAL ILLNESS

also

REPORT MORE PREJUDICE towards them

United Kingdom

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

Philippines

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

THANK YOU !!!

So, ideas about ‘MENTAL ILLNESS’ PROMPT OR SUPPORT PREJUDICE.

Thailand

Hong Kong, Singapore

Therefore,, it is important to push for the REMOVAL of ‘Gender Identity Disorder’ AND ‘Transsexualism’ FROM THE MEDICAL MANUALS !!

Malaysia – United States

Transprejudice