chapter 2 the market system and the circular flow l.
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Chapter 2: The Market System and the Circular Flow. What, How, and Who?. In order to determine what goods are produced, how they are produced and who gets them, each society develops an economic system to respond to the economic problem.

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what how and who
What, How, and Who?
  • In order to determine what goods are produced, how they are produced and who gets them, each society develops an economic system to respond to the economic problem.
    • An economic system is a particular set of institutional arrangements and a coordinating mechanism.
economic systems
Economic Systems

There are two general types of economic systems:

  • the command system
  • the market system

They differ in terms of (1) who owns the factors of production and (2) the method used to motivate, coordinate, and direct economic activity.

the command system
The Command System

The command system is also known as socialism or communism.

  • Government owns most property resources and economic decisions are made by a central government body.
  • The government owns most of the business firms and a central planning board determines production goals and how resources will be allocated.
the market system
The Market System

The market system, or capitalism, is one in which property resources are privately owned and markets and prices are used to direct and coordinate economic activities.

  • Participants act in their own self-interest resulting in competition among independent buyers and sellers of each product and resource.
characteristics of the market system
Some of the key features of the market system include:

Private Property

Freedom of Enterprise and Choice

Self-Interest

Competition

Markets and Prices

Technology and Capital Goods

Specialization

Use of Money

Active, but Limited, Government

Characteristics ofthe Market System
characteristics of the market system7
Characteristics ofthe Market System

Private Property is the right of persons and firms to obtain, own, control, employ, dispose of, and bequeath land, capital, and other property.

Freedom of enterprise is the freedom of firms to obtain economic resources, to use those resources to produce products of the firms’ own choosing, and to sell their products in markets of their choice.

characteristics of the market system8
Characteristics ofthe Market System

Freedom of choice is the freedom of owners of resources to employ or dispose of them as they see fit, and the freedom of consumers to spend their incomes in a manner they think is appropriate.

Self-interest is the most advantageous outcome as viewed by each firm, property owner, worker, or consumer.

characteristics of the market system9
Characteristics ofthe Market System

Competition is the presence in a market or independent buyers and sellers vying with one another, and the freedom of buyers and sellers to have a market.

A market is an institution or mechanism that brings buyers and sellers together.

characteristics of the market system10
Characteristics ofthe Market System

Technology and capital goods promote efficiency and the ability to produce more goods and services.

Specialization is the use of resources of an individual, region, or nation to produce one or a few goods and services rather than the entire range of products.

characteristics of the market system11
Characteristics ofthe Market System

The use of money where money is any item that is generally acceptable to sellers in exchange for goods and services.

Active, but Limited, Government where government can sometimes increase the overall effectiveness of the economic system.

four fundamental questions
Four Fundamental Questions

The key features of the market system help explain how market economies respond to four fundamental questions:

  • What products will be produced?
  • How will the products be produced?
  • Who will get the goods and services?
  • How will the system promote progress?
what will be produced
What Will Be Produced?
  • The goods and services produced at a continuing profit will be produced. Those producing at a continuing loss will not.
  • In a market system, consumers are sovereign.
    • Consumer sovereignty is thedetermination by consumers of the types and quantities of goods and services that will be produced with the economy’s scarce resources.
how will they be produced
How Will They Be Produced?

The combination of resources and technologies that minimizes the cost per unit of output will be used to produce goods and services.

who will get the output
Who Will Get the Output?
  • The distribution of goods and services is determined by:
  • Consumers’ ability and willingness to pay its existing price
  • Amount of income that consumers have, in addition to the prices, and preferences for, various goods.
how will the system promote progress
How Will the SystemPromote Progress?
  • To achieve a higher standard of living and economic growth, or progress, the market system must promote:
    • technological improvements
    • capital accumulation