Solar voltaic energy
Download
1 / 95

Solar Voltaic Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 344 Views
  • Updated On :

Solar Voltaic Energy. Outline. Overview of Solar Power How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work How Solar PV Cells are Made Solar PV Applications Efficiencies Economics Facts & Trends Research. Solar Power Overview. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Sun_w920607.jpg. PV Solar Radiation.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Solar Voltaic Energy' - Patman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Overview of Solar Power

  • How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work

  • How Solar PV Cells are Made

  • Solar PV

    • Applications

    • Efficiencies

    • Economics

    • Facts & Trends

    • Research




Pv solar radiation l.jpg
PV Solar Radiation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells



Light the photovoltaic effect l.jpg
Light & the Photovoltaic Effect

  • Certain semiconductor materials absorb certain wavelengths

    • The shorter the wavelength the greater the energy

    • Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared light

  • Crystalline silicon

    • Utilizes all the visible spectrum plus some infrared radiation

  • Heat vs. electrical energy

    • Light frequencies that is too high or too low for the semiconductor to absorb turn into heat energy instead of electrical energy




Cross section of pv cell l.jpg
Cross Section of PV Cell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells



Solar cell construction l.jpg
Solar Cell Construction

  • Materials

    • Crystalline Silicon

    • Gallium Arsenide (more expensive)

  • Grown into large single-crystal ingots

  • Sawed into thin wafers

  • 2 wafers are bonded together (p-n junction)

  • Wafers grouped into panels or arrays

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel



Growing silicon ingots l.jpg
Growing Silicon Ingots

Czochralski Process

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czochralski_process


Drawing a silicon ingot l.jpg
Drawing a Silicon Ingot

http://www.answers.com/topic/silicon


Silicon ingots wafers l.jpg
Silicon Ingots & Wafers

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/products2.html



Computer chips on wafer l.jpg
Computer Chips on Wafer

http://d0server1.fnal.gov/projects/silicon/www/svxwafer.jpeg


Silicon solar cell l.jpg
Silicon Solar Cell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Solar_cell.png




Solar pv systems l.jpg

Cells are the building block of PV systems

Typically generate 1.5 - 3 watts of power

Modules or panels are made up of multiple cells

Arrays are made up of multiple modules

A typical array costs about $5 – $6/watt

Still need lots of other components to make this work

Typical systems cost about $8/watt

Solar PV Systems





Solar panel l.jpg
Solar Panel

Solar panel by BP Solar at a German autobahn bridge

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel







Spacecraft l.jpg

International Space Station

Hubble Telescope

Mars Rover

Spacecraft



Remote areas mexico l.jpg
Remote Areas (Mexico)

A solar panel in Marla, Cirque de Mafate, Réunion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel


Residential l.jpg
Residential

http://www.californiasolarco.com/photos_html/grid_tied/rootop_system/nevada-city-2-4.html


Commercial l.jpg
Commercial

Solar Centre at Baglan Energy Park in South Wales

http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.htm



Solar cell efficiencies l.jpg
Solar Cell Efficiencies

  • Typical module efficiencies ~12%

    • Screen printed multi-crystalline solar cells

  • Efficiency range is 6-30%

    • 6% for amorphous silicon-based PV cells

    • 20% for best commercial cells

    • 30% for multi-junction research cells

  • Typical power of 120W / m2

    • Mar/Sep equinox in full sun at equator

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells


Solar panel efficiency l.jpg
Solar Panel Efficiency

  • ~1 kW/m2 reaches the ground (sunny day)

  • ~20% efficiency  200W/m2 electricity

  • Daylight & weather in northern latitudes

    • 100 W/m2 in winter; 250 W/m2 in summer

    • Or 20 to 50 W/m2 from solar cells

  • Value of electricity generated at $0.08/kWh

    • $0.10 / m2 / day OR $83,000 km2 / day

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel



World largest pv solar plants l.jpg
World Largest PV Solar Plants

[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel


World solar power production l.jpg
World Solar Power Production

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel


Solar cell production volume l.jpg
Solar Cell Production Volume

Sharp Corporation

http://sharp-world.com/solar/generation/images/graph_2004.gif



Solar pv components l.jpg

Inverter

Converts DC power from solar array to AC for use in your home

Wiring

Connects the system components

Batteries

Used to store solar-produced electricity for nighttime or emergency use

Mainly used for remote sites that aren’t tied into the electrical grid

Charge controller

Prevents batteries from being over charged

Disconnect switches

Allows power from a PV system to be turned off

Electrical meter

Measures electrical production and use

Often runs backward if system is attached to the electrical grid

Solar PV Components

Total system cost = ~$8.00 / watt


Stand alone solar pv system l.jpg

BATTERY

Stand Alone Solar PV System




Net metering l.jpg
Net Metering

  • When your system produces more electricity than your home uses

    • electricity flows backward out to the grid

  • Meter runs backward and you get credit for the electricity you sell to the utility





Solar pv dependencies l.jpg
Solar PV Dependencies

  • Location, Location, Location !

  • Latitude

    • Lower latitudes better than higher latitudes

  • Weather

    • Clear sunny skies better than cloudy skies

    • Temperature not important

  • Direction solar arrays face

    • South preferred, east and west acceptable

  • Absence of shade

    • Trees, Flatirons, etc.


Solar pv design key factors l.jpg
Solar PV Design – Key Factors

  • Location

    • How much solar radiation does the system receive?

  • DC rating

    • How big is the system


Solar pv design module l.jpg
Solar PV Design – Module

  • Module Efficiency

    • How efficiently does the solar system convert solar radiation into DC power

    • Best retail systems approaching 17%

    • Holy Grail of solar PV research

  • DC to AC derate factor

    • How efficient is the system converting DC to AC power


Solar pv array design l.jpg
Solar PV Array Design

  • Array Flat Panel

    • Remains in a constant fixed position

  • Array tilt (equal to latitude best)

    • Increase solar radiation by 10-20% compared to 0% tilt

    • Sunnier locations benefit more

  • Array azimuth (180° best)

    • Directly south


Solar pv array tracking l.jpg
Solar PV Array Tracking

  • Array 1-axis tracking

    • Tracks sun across the sky during each day

    • Stays at a constant tilt

    • Increase solar radiation by 25-30% compared to no tracking

    • Sunnier locations benefit more

  • Array 2-axis tracking

    • Tracks sun across the sky during each day

    • Adjusts tilt – more in winter, less in summer

    • Increase solar radiation by 33-38%

    • Sunnier locations benefit more


Pv design website l.jpg
PV Design Website

  • National Renewable Energy Lab

  • PVWATTS

  • http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/

  • Examples

    • Portland (97229)

    • Phoenix (85034)

    • Boulder (80309)



Solar pv energy payback l.jpg
Solar PV Energy Payback

  • Expected lifetime of 40 years

  • Payback of 1-30 years

    • Typically < 5 years

  • Solar cells 6-30× energy required to make them

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells


Cost analysis l.jpg
Cost Analysis

  • US retail module price = ~$5.00 / W (2005)

  • Installations costs = ~$3.50 / W (2005)

  • Cost for a 4 kW system = ~$17,000 (2006)

    • Without subsidies

    • Typical payback period is ~24 years

  • Honda 4 kW system = ~$12,500 (2007)

  • With subsidies

    • Payback is ~12 years

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells


Economic example 1 3 l.jpg
Economic Example 1/3

  • 4000 watt system @ 40o fixed tilt

  • $32,000 initial cost

  • 4000 watt (4 kW) system is about 23.5 m2

    • Assume 5.5 kWh / m2/day

  • 23.5 x 5.5 = 129.25 DC kWh/day

    • hitting the solar modules


Economic example 2 3 l.jpg
Economic Example 2/3

  • Module Efficiency = 17%

    • 129.25 kWh/day x 0.17 = 21.97 DC kWh/day

  • Derate factor – 77%

    • Takes into account inefficiencies in the DC/AC conversion and internal module components

    • 21.97 DC kWh/day x 0.77 = 16.92 AC kWh/day

  • Output = ~17 kWh / day


Economic example 3 3 l.jpg
Economic Example 3/3

  • Pay $32,000, save $555/year

    • 16.92 kWh/day x $0.09/kWh x 365 days/year

  • 1.7% return

  • Over 20 years @ 6%

    • Cost of Energy = $0.452/kWh

    • Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel

    • EXPENSIVE!



Co amend 37 solar provision l.jpg
CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision

  • $4.50 rebate/watt up to 10 kW

  • Combination rebate/REC for larger systems

    • REC = “Renewable Energy Credits”

  • Funded by a $0.63/month surcharge on all Xcel customer bills

  • $20 million/year program for 10 years


Co amend 37 solar provision67 l.jpg
CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision

  • On-site solar requirement

    • 2007 – 2010: 0.06% of a retail electricity sales

    • 2011 – 2014: 0.12% of a retail electricity sales

    • 2015 – On: 0.2% of a retail electricity sales

    • Focus on Xcel

  • 44,000 kW of on-site solar by 2015

  • 1500 to 2000 new on-site solar installations

    • Depending on average size

    • $352 million in PV solar installation sales

    • $200 million in rebates


Federal tax credit l.jpg
Federal Tax Credit

  • 30% tax credit

    • Max of $2,000 for residential installations

    • No maximum for businesses


Co cost analysis l.jpg
CO Cost Analysis

  • 4,000 watt system

  • $32,000 initial cost

  • $18,000 Amendment 37 rebate

    • 4000 x $4.50

  • $2,000 Federal Tax Credit

    • ($32,000 - $18,000) x 0.30 = $4,200

    • However, maximum of $2,000

  • After rebate/tax credit cost

    • $32,000 - $18,000 - $2,000 = $12,000


Return on investment l.jpg
Return on Investment

  • For $12,000 you can save $555/year

    • 4.6% return

  • Over 20 years @ 6%

    • Cost of Energy = $0.169/kWh

    • Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel

    • Still EXPENSIVE! – $$$



Emerging pv techologies l.jpg
Emerging PV Techologies

  • Cells made from gallium arsenide

    • molecular beam epitaxy

    • 35% efficiencies have been achieved

  • Non-silicon panels using carbon nanotubes

    • Quantum dots embedded in special plastics

    • May achieve 30% efficiencies in time

  • Polymer (organic plastics) solar cells

    • Suffer rapid degradation to date

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells


Thin film solar cells l.jpg
Thin Film Solar Cells

  • Use less than 1% of silicon required for wafers

  • Silicon vapor deposited on a glass substrate

  • Amorphous crystalline structure

    • Many small crystals vs. one large crystal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells



Flexible pv cells l.jpg
Flexible PV Cells

http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/SolarCells/potential%20images/flexible_pv_cell.jpg


Slide76 l.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png


Benefits costs of solar pv l.jpg
Benefits/Costs of Solar PVhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

  • Reduces pollution

  • Stabilizes electricity costs

  • Lessens dependence on fossil fuels

  • Increases self-reliance

  • Can size for small, on-site installations

  • Not grid dependent

  • Currently expensive $$$$$


Solar thermal energy l.jpg

Solar Thermal Energyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png


Solar thermal collectors l.jpg
Solar Thermal Collectorshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

  • Focus the sun to create to create heat

    • Boil water

    • Heat liquid metals

  • Use heated fluid to turn a turbine

  • Generate electricity


Solar thermal dish collector l.jpg
Solar Thermal Dish Collectorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.html


Solar thermal dish schematic l.jpg
Solar Thermal Dish Schematichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png


Solar power towers l.jpg
Solar Power Towershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/re-kiosk/solar/solar-thermal/case-studies/central-receiver.shtml


Solar trough scheme l.jpg
Solar Trough Schemehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

http://solarbridge.org/pedestrians.html


Parabolic trough cross section l.jpg
Parabolic Trough Cross-Sectionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

http://www.irishsolar.com/howdoes/how_does_1.htm


Solar thermal collector trends l.jpg
Solar Thermal Collector Trendshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.html


Next week geothermal energy l.jpg
Next weekhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png:Geothermal Energy