120 MW geothermal power plant, Iceland RETScreen® Power Projects Photo credit: Gretar Ívarsson, Nesjavellir
Central grid (continent) Overview of Power Projects Isolated grid (community) Photo credit: Northwest Territories Power Corp Off-grid (single home) Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research
Technologies Renewable Technologies • Wind turbines • Hydroelectric • Geothermal power • Solar photovoltaics • Solar thermal power • Ocean current power • Tidal power • Wave power On-grid PV, Bavaria, Germany Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research
Technologies (continued) Conventional Combustion Technologies • Steam turbine • Gas turbine • Gas turbine - Combined cycle • Reciprocating engine Other technologies • Fuel cells • Microturbines
Power System Operation Gas turbine example • Fuel input • Combustion • Turbine • Generator • Waste heat stream Definitions • Heat rate: the amount of energy input (in kJ or Btu) from the fuel required to produce 1 kWh of electricity • Heat recovery efficiency: the fraction of the remaining energy input from fuel that can be used as heat
Types of Fuels Combustible Fuels • Fossil fuels: coal, diesel, natural gas, propane, oil, etc. • Biomass: bio-diesel, ethanol, bagasse, wood, bark, coconut fibre, straw, hemp, peat, willow, switch grass, etc. • Waste: tires, landfill gas, food waste, forest residue, coffee refuse, Christmas trees, poultry litter, packaging waste, etc. • Hydrogen Renewable Energy “Fuels” • Sunshine, wind, waves, tides, geothermal, water, etc.
Power Projects with RETScreen Steps: • Base case load and power system characteristics (for off-grid systems and internal loads) • Proposed case power system characteristics (energy + costs) • Operating strategy • Summary (energy) • Emission analysis • Financial analysis (including sensitivity and risk analysis)
Types of Analyses Project Types: • Power • Choose technology (steam turbine, geothermal, photovoltaic, wind, etc.) • Power-Multiple Technologies • Other project types: • Heating & Power • Cooling & Power • Heating, Cooling & Power • Project types unrelated to power
Grid Type For small power system technolgies
Operating Strategy • Full power capacity • Power load following • Heating load following
Emission & Financial Analysis Method 2 Method 1
1.3 MW Lean-Burn Engine Power plant in Bergen, Norway Project Example 1: Grid Projects Landfill gas fuelled power plant using a lean-burn engine • Bergen, Norway • 1.3 MW • US$ 0.03/kWh • 37% efficiency Photo credit: CADDET Centre for Renewable Energy Photo credit: CADDET Centre for Renewable Energy
Village PV System, Syria Project Example 2: Off-grid 3.6 kW Photovoltaic Power System • 6 households • Syrian Arab Republic • Peak load 2.4 kW • Average daily load 8.4 kWh • Installed cost of PV: US$ 6,500 per kWp for array plus US$ 17,000 forother equipment and installation • Competing genset: US$ 1,000 but consumes 13,400 L of diesel per year Photo credit: Binu Parthan, IT Power India Ltd.