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Prototypes and The Typicality Effect. Psychology 452-Senior Seminar Markieta Rose. Background-Prototypes. Prototypes are introduced in the world of Cognitive Science with The Network Approach Mind as a Web Focuses on principles of operation and organization within the brain. Prototypes.

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prototypes and the typicality effect

Prototypes and The Typicality Effect

Psychology 452-Senior Seminar

Markieta Rose

background prototypes
Background-Prototypes
  • Prototypes are introduced in the world of Cognitive Science with The Network Approach
  • Mind as a Web
  • Focuses on principles of operation and organization within the brain
prototypes
Prototypes
  • Are defined as a generic or idealized representation of a conceptual category.
  • Part of Collins and Quillian study (1969) focusing on a hierarchical semantic network
collins and quillian 1969
Collins and Quillian (1969)
  • Method: sentence variation task [T/F]
    • “A canary is a bird”
    • “A canary is a animal”
  • The answer was dependent upon activation of both “bird” nodes and “animal” nodes”
  • Activation radiates out through the network until the nodes overlap
  • Once the nodes overlap, the participant knows that the two are related
  • Reaction Time
prototypes ctd
Prototypes ctd.
  • Animal>Bird>Canary [Hierarchical]
  • Corresponding nodes may be:
    • Can sing
    • Can fly
    • Yellow
  • Canary=Bird is likely to be recognized faster than Canary=yellow
  • Thus the prototype (categorization) is Canary=Bird
prototypes ctd6
Prototypes ctd.
  • A bird such as a robin is though of as being more representative or prototypical of the category of birds than another type of bird, for example, the penguin. (247)
background the typicality effect
Background-The Typicality Effect
  • The Typicality Effect is introduced into the Cognitive World in the Evolutionary Approach
  • Evolution and Cognitive Processes
    • Categorization (The Typicality Effect)
    • Memory
    • Logical reasoning
    • Judgment under certainty
    • Language
categorization
Categorization
  • Mental categories as “either-or”
  • Categories are typically continuous
  • Can range from being very representative and prototypical to unrepresentative and being mixed up with a different category
typicality effect
Typicality Effect
  • The phenomenon that human participants are faster to judge stereotypical members as belonging to a category
  • A bird such as a canary is though of as being more representative or prototypical of the category of birds than another type of bird, for example, the penguin. (247)
    • Our typical idea of a bird is something that is small, sings, flies
    • Therefore, a canary is more typical of a bird than a penguin
what purpose do typicality based categories serve
What purpose do typicality-based categories serve?
  • There must have been a selective advantage
    • The Advantage: “if we know something about an item of which we have had experience, then it becomes possible to form judgments that have to do with related items” (248)
  • Past experiences are beneficial
  • Generalize from what we know to what we do not know
reference
Reference

Friedenberg, J. & Silverman, G. (2006) Cognitive Science: An Introduction to the Study of the Mind. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.