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Preparing Leadership for the 21 st Century. May 9, 2005 Michigan Education Policy Fellowship Program Learning Team Seminar. Team Members. Patricia Gilcrest-Frazier Beatrice Harrison Viola C. Hubbard Camille B. Jones Miguel L. Rodriguez Krafus Walker. Objectives.

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Preparing leadership for the 21 st century

Preparing Leadership for the 21st Century

May 9, 2005

Michigan Education Policy Fellowship Program

Learning Team Seminar


Team members
Team Members

  • Patricia Gilcrest-Frazier

  • Beatrice Harrison

  • Viola C. Hubbard

  • Camille B. Jones

  • Miguel L. Rodriguez

  • Krafus Walker


Objectives
Objectives

  • Participants will be able to distinguish the difference between leadership and management.

  • Participants will be able to identify influences on leadership as a result of changing demographics (i.e. Culture, Ethnicity, and Economics).

  • Participants will be able to identify how leaders lead and survive in dysfunctional work groups.

  • Participants will understand the challenges of leading in education, business, and non-profit organizations.


Agenda
Agenda

  • Opening Session 1:00 pm – 1:20 pm

  • Attitude Charades 1:20 pm – 1:30 pm

  • Leadership in Education 1:30 pm – 2:20 pm

  • Break 2:20 pm – 2:30 pm

  • Leadership in Non-Profits 2:30 pm – 3:20 pm

  • Break 3:20 pm – 3:30 pm

  • Leadership in Private Business 3:30 pm – 4:20 pm

  • Break 4:20 pm – 4:30 pm

  • Every Which Way to Lead 4:30 pm – 4:45 pm

  • Closing Session 4:45 pm – 5:00 pm


Opening session 20 minutes
Opening Session20 Minutes

  • Leadership Overview 10 Minutes

  • Five Dysfunctions 10 Minutes


Leadership overview

Leadership Overview

Pat Gilcrest-Frazier


Leadership is kouzes james m and posner barry z the leadership challenge pg 20
Leadership is…….Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z., The Leadership Challenge, pg.20

  • an identifiable set of skills and practices that are available to all of us.

  • is a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow.


Leadership framework

Leadership Framework

Fullan, Michael, Leading in a Culture of Change, pgs. 1-11.


The twentieth and twenty first century organization compared

The Twentieth and Twenty-first Century Organization compared

Kotter, John P, Leading Change, pg.172


Structure

Twentieth Century compared

Bureaucratic

Multileveled

Organized with the expectation that senior management will manage

Characterized by policies that create many complicated internal interdependencies

Twenty-First Century

Nonbureaucratic, with fewer rules and employees

Limited to fewer levels

Organized with the expectation that management will lead, lower-level employees will manage

Characterized by policies and procedures that produce the minimal internal interdependence needed to serve customers

Structure


Systems

Twentieth Century compared

Depend on few performance information systems

Distribute performance data to executives only

Offer management training and support systems to senior people only

Twenty-First Century

Depend on many performance information systems, providing data on customers especially

Distribute performance data widely

Offer management training and support systems to many people

Systems


Culture

Twentieth Century compared

Inwardly focused

Centralized

Slow to make decisions

Political

Risk averse

Twenty-First Century

Externally oriented

Empowering

Quick to make decisions

Open and Candid

More risk tolerant

Culture


Managers vs leaders

Managers vs. Leaders compared

Covey, Stephen R., The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, pg.101

Kotter, John P., Leading Change, pg.165


Managers vs leaders1

Managers know how to plan, budget, organize, staff, control, and problem solve

Managers deal mostly with the status quo

Management is a bottom line focus: How can I best accomplish certain things?

Management is doing things right

Leaders create and communicate visions and strategies

Leaders deal mostly with change

Leadership deals with the top line: What are the things I want to accomplish?

Leadership is doing the right things

Managers vs. Leaders


Leadership styles

Leadership Styles and problem solve

Fullan, Michael, Leading in a Culture of Change, pgs.35-49


Six leadership styles goleman 2000 pgs 82 83
Six Leadership Styles and problem solveGoleman (2000, pgs. 82-83)

  • Coercive-the leader demands compliance. (“Do what I tell you.”)

  • Authoritative-the leader mobilizes people toward a vision. (“Come with me.”)

  • Affiliative-the leader creates harmony and builds emotional bonds. (“People come first.”)

  • Democratic-the leader forges consenus through participation. (“What do you think?”)

  • Pacesetting-the leader sets high standards for performance. (“Do as I do, now.”)

  • Coaching-the leader develops people for the future. (“Try this.”)


Five practices of exemplary leadership

Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership and problem solve

Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z., The Leadership Challenge, pgs.13-20


Exemplary leadership
Exemplary Leadership and problem solve

  • Model the Way

  • Inspire a Shared Vision

  • Challenge the Process

  • Enable Others to Act

  • Encourage the Heart


Five dysfunctions leaders face

Five Dysfunctions Leaders Face and problem solve

Krafus Walker


5 dysfunctions leaders face

5 Dysfunctions Leaders Face and problem solve

Taken from “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team “

and “ Overcoming The Five Dysfunctions Of A Team”

by Patrick Lencioni


5 dysfunctions leaders face1
5 Dysfunctions Leaders Face and problem solve

  • The dysfunction

  • How teams operate with the dysfunction

  • How teams operate without the dysfunction

  • Suggestions for overcoming the dysfunction

  • The role of the leader


The 5 dysfunctions

Avoidance of ACCOUNTABILITY and problem solve

Lack of COMMITMENT

Fear of CONFLICT

Absence of TRUST

The 5 Dysfunctions

Inattention to

Results


1 the absence of trust
#1—the absence of TRUST and problem solve

  • “It simply makes no difference how good the rhetoric is or even how good the intentions are; if there is little or no trust, there is no foundation for permanent success.”

  • ~Stephen Covey


What is trust

What is TRUST? and problem solve

Think of two people: one that you trust and the other that you don’t.

In the context of team building, trust is the confidence among team members that their peers’ intentions are good, and that there is no reason to be careful around the group


Members of teams with an with absence of trust
Members of teams with an with absence of trust . . and problem solve

  • Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another

  • Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback

  • Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility

  • Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitudes of others without attempting to clarify then

  • Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills and experiences

  • Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect

  • Hold grudges

  • Dread meetings


Members of trusting teams
Members of trusting teams . . . and problem solve

  • Admit weakness and mistakes

  • Ask for help

  • Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility

  • Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving to a negative conclusion

  • Take risks in offering feedback and assistance

  • Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences

  • Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics

  • Offer and accept apologies without hesitation

  • Look forward to meetings and other opportunities to work as a group


Overcoming the absence of trust
Overcoming the Absence of Trust and problem solve

  • Personal History Exercise

    • Have team members to answer a short list of questions about themselves

  • Team effectiveness Exercise

    • Have team members to identify the single most important contribution that each of their peers makes to the team, as well as the one area that they must either improve upon or eliminate for the good of the team

  • Personality and Behavioral Preference Profiles

    • Myers Briggs Type Indicator


The role of the leader
The Role of the Leader and problem solve

  • Demonstrate Vulnerability


2 the fear of conflict
#2—the fear of CONFLICT and problem solve

  • “Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things left unsaid.”

  • ~Fyodor Dostoyevsky


Is conflict ever positive
Is conflict ever positive? and problem solve

  • What is an example of healthy conflict?

  • What happens to make it quality?

  • What doesn’t happen that keeps it good?

    Teams that engage in productive conflict know that the only purpose is to produce the best possible solution in the shortest period of time


Teams that fear conflict
Teams that fear conflict . . . and problem solve

  • Have boring meetings

  • Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive

  • Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success

  • Fail to tap into all the opinions and perspectives of team members

  • Waste time and energy with posturing and interpersonal risk management


Teams that engage in conflict
Teams that Engage in Conflict . . . and problem solve

  • Have lively interesting meetings

  • Extract and explore the ideas of all team members

  • Solve real problems quickly

  • Minimize politics

  • Put critical topics on the table for discussion


Suggestions for overcoming fear of conflict
Suggestions for overcoming fear of conflict and problem solve

  • Mining

    • Extracting buried disagreements within the team and sheds the light of day on them

  • Real Time Permission

    • Coaching one another not to retreat from healthy debate


Role of the leader
Role of the Leader and problem solve

  • Demonstrate restraint when team members engage in conflict

  • Personally model appropriate conflict behavior


3 the lack of commitment
#3— and problem solvethe lack of COMMITMENT

  • “Always remember the distinction between contribution and commitment. Take the matter of bacon and eggs. The chicken makes a contribution. The pig makes a commitment.”

  • ~John Mack Carter

In the context of a team, commitment is a function of two things: clarity and buy-in


Enemies of commitment

Enemies of Commitment: and problem solve


1 the need for consensus
1. The need for consensus and problem solve

  • sometimes in the pursuit of unanimity we seek artificial harmony, and that leads to low levels of commitment.


2 the fear of failure
2. The fear of failure and problem solve

  • this is the most common reason people do not commit. They would rather not ever take a stand on something than risk being “wrong.”


3 lack of communication
3. Lack of communication and problem solve

  • if someone is not being heard or listened to, they will not invest in any decisions or goals.


Mismatch
Mismatch and problem solve

  • a person who is in the wrong position for him or her will not contain the interest or passion necessary to achieve high levels of commitment.


A team that fails to commit
A team that fails to commit… and problem solve

  • Creates ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities

  • Watches windows of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay

  • Breeds lack of confidence and fear of failure

  • Revisits discussions and decisions again and again

  • Encourages second-guessing among team members


A team that commits
A team that commits… and problem solve

  • Creates clarity around direction and priorities

  • Aligns the entire team around common objectives

  • Develops an ability to learn from mistakes

  • Take advantage of opportunities before competitors do

  • Move forward without hesitation

  • Change direction without hesitation or guilt


Suggestions for overcoming the lack of commitment
Suggestions for overcoming the lack of commitment and problem solve

  • Cascading Messaging

  • Deadlines

  • Contingency and Worst-Case scenario Analysis

  • Low-Risk Exposure Therapy


The role of the leader1
The Role of the Leader and problem solve

  • Be comfortable with the prospect of making a decision that ultimately turns out to be wrong

  • Constantly push the group for closure around issues and adherence to schedules the team has set


4 avoidance of accountability
#4— and problem solveavoidance of ACCOUNTABILITY

  • “The secret of discipline is motivation. When a man is sufficiently motivated, discipline will take care of itself.”

  • ~Sir Alexander Paterson

In the context of teamwork, accountability refers specifically to the willingness of team members to call their peers on performance of behaviors that might hurt the team


Quick self check see how your team does
Quick Self Check— and problem solvesee how your team does

  • 3—usually 2—sometimes 1—rarely _____ We call out one another’s deficiencies or unproductive behaviors._____ We are deeply concerned about the prospect of letting down our peers._____ We challenge one another about our plans and approaches.


A team that avoids accountability
A team that avoids accountability… and problem solve

  • Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance

  • Encourages mediocrity

  • Misses deadlines and key deliverables

  • Place an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline


A team that holds one another accountable
A team that holds one another accountable … and problem solve

  • Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve

  • Identifies potential problems quickly by questioning one another’s approaches without hesitation

  • Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards

  • Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management and corrective action


Suggestions for overcoming avoidance of accountability
Suggestions for overcoming avoidance of accountability and problem solve

  • Team Rewards

  • Explicitly communicate goals and standards of behavior

  • Regularly discuss performance versus goals and standards


The role of the leader2
The Role of the Leader and problem solve

  • Allow the team to serve as the first and primary accountability mechanism

  • Be willing to serve as the ultimate arbiter of discipline when the team itself fails


5 inattention to results
#5—inattention to RESULTS and problem solve

  • “Teamwork is the quintessential contradiction of a society grounded in individual achievement.”

  • ~Marvin Weisbord


Preparing leadership for the 21 st century 1263931

and problem solveThe ultimate dysfunction of a team is the tendency of members to care about something other than the collective goals of the group.”~Patrick Lencioni


Distracters

Team Status and problem solve—to some people just being on the team means that they have met their goals, and because of this no longer buy into the goals, vision, and/or mission of the team

Individual Status—success of a specific person without regard to the status of the team as a larger unit. The desire for individual credit erodes the focus on collective success.

Distracters


A team that is not focused on results
A team that is not focused on results… and problem solve

  • Stagnates/fails to grow

  • Rarely defeats competitors

  • Loses achievement-oriented employees

  • Encourages team members to focus on their own careers and individual goals

  • Is easily distracted


A team that focuses on collective results
A team that focuses on collective results… and problem solve

  • Retains achievement-oriented employees

  • Minimize individualistic behavior

  • Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely

  • Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals/interests for the good of the team

  • Avoids Distractions


Overcoming inattention to
Overcoming inattention to … and problem solve

  • Public declaration of results

  • Results-based rewards


The role of the leader3
The Role of the Leader and problem solve

  • Set the tone for a focus on results

  • Be selfless and objective, reserve the rewards and recognition for those who make real contributions to achievement of group goals


Where we would like to be

ACCOUNTABILITY and problem solve

COMMITMENT

CONFLICT

TRUST

Where we would like to be!

focus on

Results


Attitude charades

Attitude Charades and problem solve

Group Activity

10 Minutes


Leadership in education

Leadership in Education and problem solve

Mr. Ira Rutherford

Superintendent

Flint Community Schools


Break

Break! and problem solve

Take 10 Minutes


Leadership in nonprofit

Leadership in Nonprofit and problem solve

Ms. Robin Lynn Grinnell

Director

Michigan Nonprofit Leadership Institute


Break1

Break! and problem solve

Take 5 Minutes


Viola hubbard

Viola Hubbard and problem solve

Demographic Influences on Leadership


Preparing leadership for the 21 st century 1263931

Bud Hodgkinson’ Study: “Demographic Realities and Opportunities” - Leading Too Many Children Behind – The leading demographic variable which influences contemporary American society is poverty not race.

The above change agents would minimize the general public’s state of education apathy!


Leadership in business public sector

Leadership in Business & Public Sector Opportunities” -

Mr. Ed Sarpolus

Vice President

EPIC/MRA


Break2

BREAK!!!! Opportunities” -

Take 10 Minutes


Every which way to lead

Every Which Way to Lead Opportunities” -

Group Activity

15 Minutes


Closing session it s almost over

Closing Session Opportunities” - It’s almost over…

15 Minutes