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International Environmental Problems and Policy. Office hours. PROFESSOR ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN 258 Phillips Hall 10:00-10:50 am MWF 836-4471 E-mail: grossmzc@uwec.edu Web: www.uwec.edu/grossmzc. Regions of the “World Village”. 333 East Asians 274 South Asians 132 Africans 120 Europeans

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office hours
Office hours

PROFESSOR ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN

258 Phillips Hall

10:00-10:50 am MWF

836-4471

E-mail: grossmzc@uwec.edu

Web: www.uwec.edu/grossmzc

regions of the world village
Regions of the “World Village”
  • 333 East Asians
  • 274 South Asians
  • 132 Africans
  • 120 Europeans
  • 86 Latin Americans
  • 50 North Americans
  • 5 from Oceania
where we live
Where we live
  • 452 in town
  • 548 in country
slide6
Ages
  • 310 children
  • 70 elderly
  • 610 between
demographics
Demographics
  • 22 children born
  • 9 people die
  • One-third of deaths are children under 5.
  • Numbers of elderly increasing rapidly.
human population at 6 billion
Human Population at 6 billion
  • Food shortages/famines
  • Water quality
  • Fossil fuel burning
  • Air and water pollution
  • Landscape destruction
  • Loss of biodiversity
languages
Languages
  • 500 speak one of six languages
    • Chinese
    • English
    • Hindi
    • Spanish
    • Russian
    • Arabic
  • 500 speak one of 6,000 languages
household income
Household income
  • Average annual income $4,890
  • 600 poor
  • 300 marginal
  • 100 well-off
ownership consumption
Ownership/consumption
  • 200 richest villagers own and consume 80% of goods
  • Other villagers own and consume remaining 20%
land use
Land use
  • Average of 6 acres for each person
    • 700 acres cropland
    • 1400 acres pasture
    • 1900 acres woodland
    • 2000 acres desert, other noneconomic land
land ownership
Land ownership

The richest 270 people control:

  • 40% of the cropland
  • 72% of the foodgrain

but feeds 27% of the people

– 83% of the fertilizer

united states population
United States Population
  • 45 people live in U.S.
  • 955 live elsewhere
united states consumption

United States Consumption

Oil 26%

Aluminum 24%

Copper 20%

Nickel 19%

Steel 13%

united states share of world pollution

United States Share of World Pollution

Toxic wastes 50%

Nitrogen oxides 26%

Carbon dioxide 26%

Sulfur oxides 25%

Chloroflurocarbons 22%

rich poor divisions
Rich/poor divisions
  • Wealthy countries tend to be located in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • About 1/5 of world population live in countries with per capita income > $25,000.00 (U.S.).
    • Poor people exist here as well.
  • Gap between rich and poor continues to increase.
    • Wealthiest 200 people in the world have combined wealth of $1 trillion - more than total wealth of poorest half (3 billion) of the world’s population.
environmental challenges
Environmental challenges
  • Wealthy countries exploit natural resources

in poor countries (often through corporations).

  • Elites in poor countries often cooperate with

wealthy countries and interests.

  • Poor exploit natural resources, because socio-economic conditions (dictated by rich countries and domestic elites) create a struggle for survival.
  • Poor in wealthy countries also face economic blackmail.

.

philadelphia infant mortality
Philadelphia Infant Mortality

Red area high than

at least 28 Third

World countries,

including:

Jamaica

Cuba

Costa Rica

Malaysia

Panama

Sri Lanka

South Korea

Taiwan

Uruguay

Argentina

Chile

adult literacy
Adult Literacy
  • 310 adults can read and write
  • 310 adults cannot read or write
  • Girls half as likely as boys to attend school
access to tv
Access to TV
  • 10% without access
  • 90% with access
access to fresh water
Access to fresh water
  • 30% of rural residents without access
  • 7% of urban residents without access
women and girls
Women and girls
  • Two-thirds of manual labor
  • One-tenth of wages
  • One-hundredth of property
  • Make up 70% of the poor.
life expectancy
Life expectancy
  • Not age lived to,

but affected by infant mortality rates.

  • Richest familes:

women 80, men 78

  • Poorest families:

48 for both

north south divisions
“North/South” Divisions
  • Poor countries tend to be located in Southern Hemisphere.
  • World Bank estimates more than 1.3 billion people (1/5 world population) live in acute poverty of < $1 (U.S.) per day.
    • 70% women and children
    • Self-Sustaining
      • Daily survival necessitates over-harvesting resources thus degrading chances of long-term sustainability.
former world divisions
Former world “divisions”
  • First World - Industrialized, market-oriented democracies of Western Europe, North America.
  • Second World - Centrally-planned socialist countries such as former USSR.
  • Third World - Ex-colonial nations such as

India, Malaysia, Iran, etc.

  • Fourth World - Poorest nations (and indigenous communities within wealthy nations).
current world system
Current world system
  • Core - Industrialized, market-oriented democracies of Western Europe, North America,

East Asia, Australia.

  • Periphery - Poor, ex-colonial nations such as

Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.

  • Semi-periphery - Partially industrialized

ex-colonial nations (South Africa, Brazil,

Mexico, South Korea, etc.)

indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
  • Indigenous (Native) people are often least powerful, most neglected people in the world.
    • At least half the world’s 6,000 distinct languages are dying.
    • Indigenous homelands may harbor vast percentage of world’s biodiversity.
    • Recognizing Native land rights and political rights may often be a solid ecological safeguard.
    • Who is “Indigenous”?
human development index
Human Development Index
  • United Nations releases Human Development Index (HDI). Based on social factors - ranges from 0-1.0.
    • In 2000: Canada had highest with 0.96 and Sierra Leone had lowest with 0.19.
  • Aggregate numbers hide many important

inequity issues:

    • Gender
    • Race
sustainable development
Sustainable Development
  • “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • Benefits must be available to all humans, not just sub-set of privileged group.
  • Economists: continual growth for people
  • Ecologists: non-renewable resources, limited waste capacity
signs of hope
Signs of hope
  • Progress had been made on many fronts.
    • Population has stabilized in many industrialized countries; population growth slowing in others.
    • Incidence of life-threatening diseases has been reduced in some countries.
    • Average life expectance nearly doubled.
world summit on sustainable development
World Summit onSustainable Development
  • Johannesburg, South Africa, Aug.-Sept. 2002
  • Ten years after 1992 Earth Summit in

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Rio + 10).

  • International grassroots NGOs

used as opportunity for networking.

wssd websites
Earth Summit 2002

www.earthsummit2002.org

UN site

www.johannesburgsummit.org

Linkages

www.iisd.ca/wssd/portal.html

Radio Earth Summit

http://www.radioearthsummit.org/

Girona Declaration

http://www.xs4all.nl/~ceo/un/gironadecl.html

Global Indaba

www.globalindaba.org.za

Independent Media Center

http://southafrica.indymedia.org/

WSSD websites