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Defining Shea Provenances: Profiling Product Qualities by Origin Appellation d'Origine Controllé (AOC): A series of laws governing the French wine industry: These laws brought “ order out of chaos ” in the wine industry. This model has been applied to many other products in many countries.

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defining shea provenances

Defining Shea Provenances:

Profiling Product Qualities by Origin

slide2

Appellation d'Origine Controllé (AOC):

A series of laws governing the French wine industry:

These laws brought “order out of chaos” in the wine industry.

This model has been applied to many other products in many countries.

© 2003 Wine Glossary: Appellation d'Origine Controllé

http://glossary.reference-guides.com/Wine/

slide3

Appellation d'Origine Controllé (AOC):

    • These laws control virtually everything related to the growth and production of wine in a given region.
  • Regional boundaries are specified.
  • Permitted grape varieties are defined.
  • Any wine labeled with a given appellation must comply with all the various regulations defining that appellation's wines.

© 2003 Wine Glossary: Appellation d'Origine Controllé

http://glossary.reference-guides.com/Wine/

slide4

Appellation d'Origine Controllé (AOC):

  • The appellation guarantees to the consumer that rigid growing and winemaking rules are followed and, therefore,allows the consumer to know what he is buying.
  • What is the purpose?
  • Increase the market by increasing the number of choices available.
  • Raise the product quality which increases prices.

© 2003 Wine Glossary: Appellation d'Origine Controllé

http://glossary.reference-guides.com/Wine/

slide5

Restaurant L’Oeuf Bouilli

Mme. Cissé, Propriétrice

ä

slide6

Restaurant L’Oeuf Bouilli

Menu

L’Oeuf Bouilli

ä

ä

Menu

L’Oeuf Bouilli

Omelette

Souflé

Kiche

etc.

etc.

etc.

slide7

Can a menu of shea nut and shea butter varieties be offered to the market?

  • Yes!
  • What shea regional varieties (provenances) are there?
  • http://prokarite.org/vitellaria-dbase-EN/index.html.
  • http://prokarite.org/vitellaria-dbase/index.html.
slide9

Trait variations in Vitellaria –

    • Variation in shea kernel chemical composition:
      • Fat content.
      • Fatty acid profiles.
        • hardness of shea butter
      • Antioxidants
        • phenolic compounds
        • tocopherols
      • Triterpenes.
        • sterols
slide10

Fatty Acid Profile (%)

Soft or liquid shea butter

slide11

Fatty Acid Profile (%)

Very hard shea butter

slide12

Total Triterpene Content

Regional variation in shea butter

slide14

2-trait combinations

Regional variations:

High

antioxidants

N’Djamena, CH

Mokwa, NG

Foumban, CM

Soft

butter

Hard

butter

Lan, BF

Abim, UG

Sebekoro, ML

Low

antioxidants

slide15

3-trait combinations

Regional variations:

Provenance 1 Provenance 2

High oleic

Acid %

High oleic

Acid %

High

Vit. E

High

Sterols

High

Vit. E

High

Sterols

slide16

Multiple-trait combinations

Myriad possibilities:

  • Fatty acids
    • Oleic
    • Stearic
    • Palmitic
    • Linoleic
  • Mono-unsaturated
  • Di-unsaturated
  • Poly-unsaturated
  • Triglycerides
    • SOS
    • OOS
    • POS
  • Vitamin E
  • a-tocopherol
  • b-tocopherol
  • g-tocopherol
  • d-tocopherol
  • Phenolics
  • water-soluble
  • fat – soluble
  • Triterpenes
  • cinnamyl
  • acetyl
slide17

Multiple trait combinations can be used to formulate different types of cosmetic products.

slide18

Shea producers can provide the menu of possibilities:

Multiple-trait combinations

  • Different consistencies/textures
  • Different levels of specific compounds
  • Cosmeceuticals
    • Choice of different antioxidants
    • Choice of triterpenes/sterols
    • UV absorbing compounds
  • Fat/water soluble
  • Green-tea catechins
  • Vit. E
  • Triterpenes
  • Carotenoids
slide21

Chocolate industry:

    • A different provenance strategy is required.
  • Cocoa butter improvers (CBIs)
  • Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs)
  • Sophisticated processing is required to create a refined additive to chocolate (up to 5% of final product weight) that increases the melting curve.
slide23

Triglyceride with the optimum melting properties (SOS):

  • Stearic acid (S)
  • Oleic acid (O)
  • Stearic acid (S)
slide24

CBI market targets:

  • 1.Shea nuts rich in SOS molecule
    • Stearic-Oleic-Stearic triglyeride
  • 2.High kernel fat content
    • Maximizes return on processing costs
  • Key value: PercentageofSOSin
  • thekernel
slide25

It should possible to create a shea nut grading system for chocolate industry exports based on SOS:

slide26

Rationale:

  • SOSis the chemically the same in any shea provenance—
  • The issue, therefore, is how muchSOS there is in the average kernel of a given population.
  • Ranking populations by kernel SOS % should determine their relative value to the chocolate industry.
  • With this simple, straight forward method, Vitellaria populations can be graded by CBI cost effectiveness and assigned price premiums.
slide28

Quality issues:

    • Shea nut grades and shea butter provenances also need to meet quality criteria to qualify.
  • Degree of fat degradation (some analyses):
  • Free fatty acid content – measures amount of component fatty acids liberated from glycerol.
  • Peroxide value – measures peroxide breakdown products (titration).
  • Anisodine value – measures peroxides (spectrophotometrically).
slide29

Thanks to all who contributed to this work:

  • INCO-DC Parklands project -
    • IER Mali
    • CNSF Burkina Faso
    • University of Ibadan Nigeria
    • COVOL Uganda
  • Ben Gurion University Oleo-Phytochemistry Lab
  • Aarhus Oliefabrik
  • Istituto Sperimentale per la Elaiotecnica
  • A special thanks to the late
  • Prof. Giorgio Bianchi
  • A great person and a great specialist
  • in oils and triterpenoids.