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History 230-M. John H. Pollitz Library 3 rd Floor Offices Work:333-6241 Home:326-2698 PollitzJohnH@ambrose.sau.edu. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Supporter of Iturbide 1833-1855 elected president 11 times Declared dictator Military man

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john h pollitz library 3 rd floor offices work 333 6241 home 326 2698 pollitzjohnh@ambrose sau edu

History 230-M

John H. Pollitz

Library 3rd Floor Offices

Work:333-6241

Home:326-2698

PollitzJohnH@ambrose.sau.edu

antonio lopez de santa anna
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
  • Supporter of Iturbide
  • 1833-1855 elected president 11 times
  • Declared dictator
  • Military man
  • With independence attacked then lost at San Jacinto

New York Historical Society

mexican american war
Mexican American War
  • 1835 Texas declares independence
    • Santa Anna tries to crush
    • Wins at Alamo
    • Loses at San Jacinto
  • 1845 US Congress votes to annex Texas
  • US invades disputed Rio Nueces area.
  • Mexico moves in and US declares war
mexican american war5
Mexican American War
  • US invades New Mexico then on to California
  • Taylor gets all the way to Saltillo
  • Santa Anna checks him there.
  • Winfield Scott invades at Vera Cruz
mexican american war6
Scott gets all the way to Mexico City

Battle at Chapultapec

Defended by cadets

1846-1847 US occupies Mexico

US divided over taking nothing to taking it all

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Mexico loses

Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, California

Losses tempered by North fearing South

1853 loses more in the Gadsden Purchase

Mexican American War
liberals v conservatives
Conservatives

Slow evolutionary change

Minimal government in hands of the Wealthy

They had the most to lose so best to rule

Support institutions

Liberals

Root out the evils left from Colonialism

Destroy certain institutions

Church – unproductive?

Army – Santa Anna experience

Freedom and involvement of all

Progress with a capital P

Liberals v. Conservatives
la reforma
La Reforma
  • Plan of Ayutla
    • Constituent assembly to establish a republican constitution
    • Break the power of the Church and Army
  • Revolutionary ideals of Spain and France
  • Young thinkers/leaders
    • Benito Juarez
    • Melchor Ocampo
    • Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
benito juarez
Benito Juarez
  • Zapotec from Oaxaca
  • Humble birth
  • Spent years in seminary before becoming lawyer
  • Spent 2 years in exile in New Orleans making cigars with other expatriates
ley juarez 1855
Ley Juarez - 1855
  • Did away with special courts for Church and Military
  • Civil marriages
  • Separated church and state
  • Church excommunicated him
1856 ley lerdo
1856 – Ley Lerdo
  • Prohibits Church from owning any land other than what is necessary for worship
  • Hoped to sell to campesinos
  • But scooped up by speculators

Miguel Lerdo de Tejada

constitution of 1857
Constitution of 1857
  • Basic document of Liberalism
  • Federal republic – states have certain amount of autonomy
  • No official state church
  • Personal liberties defended
  • Lasted until 1917
  • But couldn’t keep presidents in check
war of reform
War of Reform
  • Juarez leads
  • Church
    • Take away sources of income
      • Cemetaries, registrations, marriages and birth documents
  • Liberals win bitter brief war – Juarez returns to Mexico City 1861
  • Church begins selling land
  • Also wins European Catholic capitals ire
  • US supports
results
Results
  • Mexico in a financial mess
    • Little money and little sources of income
    • Owed Britain, France and Spain big time
  • Juarez declares moratorium on payments
    • They occupy Vera Cruz
    • Start collecting export/import taxes
  • Juarez cuts a deal but France stays on
french intervention
French Intervention
  • Napoleon III wanted Mexican protectorate
    • Wanted empire
    • Paris full of Conservative expatriates
    • Spanish wife
    • Betting on weakened US
maximillian
Maximillian
  • Thought he could help
  • Wouldn’t come until Mexicans voted for him
  • Saw himself as enlightened royal
intervention
Intervention
  • France had to pave the way
  • Fight their way to Mexico City
  • May 5, 1862 Battle of Puebla
  • Porfirio Diaz one of commanders
maximillian19
Maximillian
  • Juarez still has government in Ciudad Juarez
  • Alienated supporters
    • Didn’t return lands to Church
    • Tried to rule like Dom Pedro II – deal with conservatives and liberals
    • Did not support some of the outrageous French claims
  • Wanted to foster liberal monarchies throughout South America
french intervention20
French Intervention
  • Becoming discouraged
    • Holding cities but countryside in liberal hands
    • Trouble brewing with Prussia
    • French populace not supportive
    • Misjudged US
      • As soon as tide turned aid going to Juarez
      • After Appomattox, April, 1865 surplus arms start flowing across border
      • Volunteer fighters
maximilian carlota
Maximilian & Carlota
  • The French pulled out ahead of schedule
  • Maximilian stays in his “home country”
  • Carlota
    • In Europe
    • Pleads Maximilian’s case
    • Goes mad
  • Maximilian is executed
aftermath
Aftermath
  • Juarez returns to Mexico City
  • Wanted public education but void left by Church unfillable
    • Priest down to 3,000
    • Protestants could not fill
    • Illiteracy thrives
  • Liberal laws easily subverted
  • Stage set for the great dictator
porfirio diaz
Porfirio Diaz
  • Also from Qaxaca
  • Mixtec & Spanish blood
  • Military was his way to power
  • Battle of Puebla
  • Runs on issue of “no reelection”
diaz potizmo
Worked the system

Controlled the leadership of states

Divvied out perks

Rurales

Little more than sanctioned bandits

After first term gets out for 4 yrs. But retains power

Pan o palo – bread or club

If you played along you got bread, if not you got the club

Ley de Fuego

Diaz-potizmo
materialism
Materialism
  • Stability led to investment
    • Paradise for foreign investors
    • Railroads – all ran north and south
    • Telephones and telegraph
  • Foreigners protected in courts
  • Ley Lerdo applied to ejidos in big way
  • Yaquis
  • Immigrants
porfiriato
Porfiriato
  • By 1911 900 large landowners with ranches over several million acres. 9,000,000 campesinos with no land at all.
  • Exported cash crops but imported food stuffs.
  • Church found a friend – priests from 3,000 to 6,000
positivism
Positivism
  • 3 phases of understanding
    • Theological
    • Metaphysical
    • Positive/Scientific
  • Technology and Science held the answers

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

cientificos
Cientificos
  • José Limantour – 1892 Minister of Finance
  • Their idea of Positivism
  • Let the richest, who are most intelligent, exploit their opportunities to the fullest
  • Tied to social Darwinism
    • White man rule
    • Train the elite
the decline
The Decline

Diaz kept getting himself reelected

  • Ramón Corral – Vice President 1904
    • Nod to people who thought he was too old, 74.
    • So awful, so unfit, so detested, no one would wish Diaz ill.
  • 1908 interview, Diaz talked about wanting someone to compete against
  • People took up the challenge.
the madero threat
The Madero Threat
  • Used Diaz’s slogan from 1876, “effective suffrage – no reelection”
  • Party was the Anti-reelectionists
  • Diaz met with him and discounted him
  • Madero proposed political reform not social
  • Lost 1910 election 196 to a million
  • Jailed before the election
  • When released flees to US to work for true Revolution
slide38

(Marcus J. Wright, General Scott, New York: D. Appleton, 1897)

http://www.dmwv.org/dmwv/siteinfo.htm

slide40

http://www.dmwv.org/dmwv/siteinfo.htm

The War Between the United States and Mexico, Illustrated.

slide42

(Marcus J. Wright, General Scott, New York: D. Appleton, 1897)

http://www.dmwv.org/dmwv/siteinfo.htm

slide44

http://www.dmwv.org/dmwv/siteinfo.htm

The War Between the United States and Mexico, Illustrated.