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Introduction to Psychology. Exam 1 Study Session. Which Psychologist suggested that psychological capacities and traits were located in particular parts of the brain? a.) Paul Broca b.) William James c.) René Descartes d.) Franz Gall. Answer: D.) Franz Gall

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introduction to psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Exam 1 Study Session

slide2

Which Psychologist suggested that psychological capacities and traits were located in particular parts of the brain?

a.) Paul Broca

b.) William James

c.) René Descartes

d.) Franz Gall

slide3

Answer: D.) Franz Gall

Franz Gall developed phrenology, which suggests that different capacities and traits are located on different parts of the brain. The more predominant these characteristics/traits are in a person, the larger the corresponding bumps on the skull.

slide4

Empiricists believe that knowledge develops over time and that children start out with nothing but their basic reflexes.

a.) TRUE

b.) FALSE

slide5

Correct Answer: A.) TRUE

Empiricists, such as Piaget, believe that children start out with a “tabula rosa” or blank slate. It is from this blank slate at birth that we acquire knowledge from our environment, empiricists support the nurture side of the nature vs nurture debate.

slide6

_________ believe that mental processes are maladaptive and that most of the mind is beyond introspective access.

a.) Structuralists

b.) Behaviorists

c.) Psychoanalysts

d.) Functionalists

slide7

Correct Answer: C, Psychoanalysts

Freud developed Psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

slide8

Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality is known as:

a.) An illusion

b.) Consciousness

c.) Unconsciousness

d.) Hysteria

slide9

Correct Answer: A.) An illusion

Example of an illusion is the Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion where the two lines appear to be different sizes although they are the exact same length.

slide10

The branch of Psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is:

a.) Social Psychology

b.) Developmental Psychology

c.) Cultural Psychology

d.) Evolutionary Psychology

slide12

Philosophers that believe all knowledge is gained through experience are known as:

a.) Nativists

b.) Structuralists

c.) Empiricists

D.) Functionalists

slide13

Correct Answer: C.) Empiricists

Empiricism was originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events.

slide14

An operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a salient condition that cannot be measured.

A.) True

B.) False

slide15

Correct Answer: B.) False

Operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a CONCRETE condition that CAN be measured.

slide16

________ is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation; ________ is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.

A.) Predictive Validity; Reliability

B.) Construct Validity; Predictive Reliability

C.) Construct Validity; Reliability

D.) Predictive Validity; Construct Validity

slide17

Correct Answer: B.) Construct Validity; Predictive Validity

Construct Validity is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation.

Predictive Validity is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.

slide18

The idea that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn is known as:

A.) The Law of Samples

B.) The Law of Numbers

C.) The Law of Increasing Sample Sizes

D.) The Law of Large Numbers

slide19

Correct Answer: D.) The Law of Large Numbers states that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn.

slide20

A Normal Distribution is a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the ____ and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical.

A.) Range

B.) Mean

C.) Median

D.) Mode

slide21

Correct Answer: B.) Mean

The mean is the average of the measurements in a frequency distribution.

slide22

A researcher gathers knowledge about a group of people by observing them in their natural environments, what technique is this researcher using:

A.) Naturalistic Observation

B.) Systematic Observation

C.) Unobtrusive Observation

D.) Normative Observation

slide24

A researcher who hides the true purpose of an observation from the participants is using:

A.) A double-blind procedure

B.) A fairy tale procedure

C.) A single blind procedure

D.) A duping mechanism

slide25

Correct Answer: C.) A single blind procedure

A single blind procedure is an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the participant, a double blind procedure is where the true purpose is hidden from the researcher and the participant.

slide26

If a student’s grade increases with higher class attendance, this is an example of what type of correlation?

  • Positive correlation
  • Negative correlation
  • No relationship between grade and class attendance is present
slide27

Positive correlation

  • A positive correlation between two variable occurs
  • when both variable either increase or decrease together (variable A increases, variable B increases OR variable A decreases, variable B decrease)
slide29

FALSE

There are three possible reasons for correlation. Variable X can cause Variable Y; Variable Y can cause Variable X; Variable Z can cause both X and Y.

*Third Variable Problem

slide30

When designing an experiment, manipulation is required. What part of the experiment must be manipulated?

  • Dependent variable
  • Independent variable
  • Nothing is manipulated
  • Both A & B
slide31

B. Independent variable

The independent variable is manipulated because it

is under the control of the experimenter(s). The

dependent variable is measured.

slide32

Which of the following is NOT a measure of central tendency?

  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • All of the above ARE measures of central tendency
slide33

D. All of the above ARE measures of central tendency

Mode is the most frequent, mean is the average, and median is the middle…all of which describe

central tendency

slide35

B. Internal

Internal validity allows for accurate conclusions

about causal relations. External validity is having the

independent and dependent variables defined in a

natural way.

slide36

An experimenter wants to investigate eating disorders in ALL college females across the United States, but only females at one college are used for the investigation. What is the population?

  • Female college students at the one college
  • All college student
  • All female college students
  • None of the above
slide37

C. All female college students

The behavior of interest is eating disorders in all

female college students. The female college

students are the POPULATION. Since, it is very difficult to study the entire population of female college students, the experimenter uses female students on one college campus, the SAMPLE.

slide38

Scientist use _______ to generalize findings to _______.

  • populations, samples
  • subjects, samples
  • samples, populations
  • None of the above
slide39

C. samples, populations

Population

Sample

slide41

B. 100

Neurotransmitters: chemical forms of communication.

Examples: dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, norephinephrine, GABA, acetylocholine, gultamate

slide42

Cocaine is an example of a drug that is a dopamine, serotonin, and norephinephrine agonist. This means that cocaine _______ the function of those neurotransmitters.

  • blocks/reduces
  • stops
  • does not effect
  • increases/enhances
slide43

D. increases/enhances

Agonists are drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter. Antagonists are drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.

slide44

B

C

A

slide45

In the image, what part of the neuron does “A” represent?

  • Cell body
  • Axon
  • Dendrite
  • Myelin sheath
slide46

D. Myelin sheath

The myelin sheath is an insulating layer of fatty material that aids in neuronal communication.

slide48

B. B

Dendrites receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body.

slide49

The nervous system is made up of 2 main divisions, the peripheral and the central nervous systems. The peripheral is then divided into two more parts. What are the parts and their functions?

  • Autonomic-self-regulated actions of internal organs and glands; somatic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
  • Autonomic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles; somatic-self-regulated actions of internal organs and glands
  • Sympathetic-arousing; parasympathetic-calming
  • Sympathetic-calming; parasympathetic-arousing
slide50

Autonomic-self-regulated action of internal organs and glands; somatic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

  • The autonomic system is then broken down into the sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming).
slide51

Which type of neuron connects other neurons?

  • Sensory neurons
  • Motor neurons
  • Mirror neurons
  • Interneurons
slide52

D. Interneurons

Sensory neurons receive information from the external world.

Motor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles.

Mirror neurons are active when an animal performs a behavior AND when another animal is watching the performance of that behavior.

Interneurons connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, and other interneurons.

slide53

Which of the following is responsible for regulating body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior?

  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
slide54

B. Hypothalamus

The thalamus relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.

The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.

The hippocampus is critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored.

The amygdala plays a central role in emotional processes.

slide55

The _______ connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

  • Medula
  • Occipital lobe
  • Corpus callosum
  • Frontal lobe
slide56

C. Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum is the thick band of nerve fibers that allows the two hemispheres to communicate.

In extreme cases, the corpus callosum may be severed to prevent the spread of seizures that begin in one hemisphere and travel across the corpus callosum to the other hempisphere.