Introduction to Psychology. Exam 1 Study Session. Which Psychologist suggested that psychological capacities and traits were located in particular parts of the brain? a.) Paul Broca b.) William James c.) René Descartes d.) Franz Gall. Answer: D.) Franz Gall
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Exam 1 Study Session
Which Psychologist suggested that psychological capacities and traits were located in particular parts of the brain?
a.) Paul Broca
b.) William James
c.) René Descartes
d.) Franz Gall
Franz Gall developed phrenology, which suggests that different capacities and traits are located on different parts of the brain. The more predominant these characteristics/traits are in a person, the larger the corresponding bumps on the skull.
Empiricists believe that knowledge develops over time and that children start out with nothing but their basic reflexes.
Empiricists, such as Piaget, believe that children start out with a “tabula rosa” or blank slate. It is from this blank slate at birth that we acquire knowledge from our environment, empiricists support the nurture side of the nature vs nurture debate.
_________ believe that mental processes are maladaptive and that most of the mind is beyond introspective access.
Freud developed Psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality is known as:
a.) An illusion
Example of an illusion is the Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion where the two lines appear to be different sizes although they are the exact same length.
The branch of Psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is:
a.) Social Psychology
b.) Developmental Psychology
c.) Cultural Psychology
d.) Evolutionary Psychology
Philosophers that believe all knowledge is gained through experience are known as:
Empiricism was originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events.
An operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a salient condition that cannot be measured.
Operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a CONCRETE condition that CAN be measured.
________ is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation; ________ is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.
A.) Predictive Validity; Reliability
B.) Construct Validity; Predictive Reliability
C.) Construct Validity; Reliability
D.) Predictive Validity; Construct Validity
Construct Validity is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation.
Predictive Validity is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.
The idea that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn is known as:
A.) The Law of Samples
B.) The Law of Numbers
C.) The Law of Increasing Sample Sizes
D.) The Law of Large Numbers
Correct Answer: D.) The Law of Large Numbers states that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn.
A Normal Distribution is a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the ____ and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical.
The mean is the average of the measurements in a frequency distribution.
A researcher gathers knowledge about a group of people by observing them in their natural environments, what technique is this researcher using:
A.) Naturalistic Observation
B.) Systematic Observation
C.) Unobtrusive Observation
D.) Normative Observation
A researcher who hides the true purpose of an observation from the participants is using:
A.) A double-blind procedure
B.) A fairy tale procedure
C.) A single blind procedure
D.) A duping mechanism
A single blind procedure is an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the participant, a double blind procedure is where the true purpose is hidden from the researcher and the participant.
If a student’s grade increases with higher class attendance, this is an example of what type of correlation?
If two variables are correlated, then that means that they are causally related.
TRUE OR FALSE?
There are three possible reasons for correlation. Variable X can cause Variable Y; Variable Y can cause Variable X; Variable Z can cause both X and Y.
*Third Variable Problem
When designing an experiment, manipulation is required. What part of the experiment must be manipulated?
The independent variable is manipulated because it
is under the control of the experimenter(s). The
dependent variable is measured.
Mode is the most frequent, mean is the average, and median is the middle…all of which describe
Which type of validity allows you to draw inferences about causal relations?
Internal validity allows for accurate conclusions
about causal relations. External validity is having the
independent and dependent variables defined in a
An experimenter wants to investigate eating disorders in ALL college females across the United States, but only females at one college are used for the investigation. What is the population?
The behavior of interest is eating disorders in all
female college students. The female college
students are the POPULATION. Since, it is very difficult to study the entire population of female college students, the experimenter uses female students on one college campus, the SAMPLE.
Neurotransmitters: chemical forms of communication.
Examples: dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, norephinephrine, GABA, acetylocholine, gultamate
Cocaine is an example of a drug that is a dopamine, serotonin, and norephinephrine agonist. This means that cocaine _______ the function of those neurotransmitters.
Agonists are drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter. Antagonists are drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.
The myelin sheath is an insulating layer of fatty material that aids in neuronal communication.
Dendrites receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body.
The nervous system is made up of 2 main divisions, the peripheral and the central nervous systems. The peripheral is then divided into two more parts. What are the parts and their functions?
Autonomic-self-regulated action of internal organs and glands; somatic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
Sensory neurons receive information from the external world.
Motor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles.
Mirror neurons are active when an animal performs a behavior AND when another animal is watching the performance of that behavior.
Interneurons connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, and other interneurons.
Which of the following is responsible for regulating body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior?
The thalamus relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
The hippocampus is critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored.
The amygdala plays a central role in emotional processes.
The corpus callosum is the thick band of nerve fibers that allows the two hemispheres to communicate.
In extreme cases, the corpus callosum may be severed to prevent the spread of seizures that begin in one hemisphere and travel across the corpus callosum to the other hempisphere.