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Introduction to Psychology

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  1. Introduction to Psychology Exam 1 Study Session

  2. Which Psychologist suggested that psychological capacities and traits were located in particular parts of the brain? a.) Paul Broca b.) William James c.) René Descartes d.) Franz Gall

  3. Answer: D.) Franz Gall Franz Gall developed phrenology, which suggests that different capacities and traits are located on different parts of the brain. The more predominant these characteristics/traits are in a person, the larger the corresponding bumps on the skull.

  4. Empiricists believe that knowledge develops over time and that children start out with nothing but their basic reflexes. a.) TRUE b.) FALSE

  5. Correct Answer: A.) TRUE Empiricists, such as Piaget, believe that children start out with a “tabula rosa” or blank slate. It is from this blank slate at birth that we acquire knowledge from our environment, empiricists support the nurture side of the nature vs nurture debate.

  6. _________ believe that mental processes are maladaptive and that most of the mind is beyond introspective access. a.) Structuralists b.) Behaviorists c.) Psychoanalysts d.) Functionalists

  7. Correct Answer: C, Psychoanalysts Freud developed Psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

  8. Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality is known as: a.) An illusion b.) Consciousness c.) Unconsciousness d.) Hysteria

  9. Correct Answer: A.) An illusion Example of an illusion is the Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion where the two lines appear to be different sizes although they are the exact same length.

  10. The branch of Psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is: a.) Social Psychology b.) Developmental Psychology c.) Cultural Psychology d.) Evolutionary Psychology

  11. Correct Answer: A.) Social Psychology

  12. Philosophers that believe all knowledge is gained through experience are known as: a.) Nativists b.) Structuralists c.) Empiricists D.) Functionalists

  13. Correct Answer: C.) Empiricists Empiricism was originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events.

  14. An operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a salient condition that cannot be measured. A.) True B.) False

  15. Correct Answer: B.) False Operational definition is a description of an abstract property in terms of a CONCRETE condition that CAN be measured.

  16. ________ is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation; ________ is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions. A.) Predictive Validity; Reliability B.) Construct Validity; Predictive Reliability C.) Construct Validity; Reliability D.) Predictive Validity; Construct Validity

  17. Correct Answer: B.) Construct Validity; Predictive Validity Construct Validity is the tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation. Predictive Validity is the tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.

  18. The idea that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn is known as: A.) The Law of Samples B.) The Law of Numbers C.) The Law of Increasing Sample Sizes D.) The Law of Large Numbers

  19. Correct Answer: D.) The Law of Large Numbers states that as sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn.

  20. A Normal Distribution is a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the ____ and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical. A.) Range B.) Mean C.) Median D.) Mode

  21. Correct Answer: B.) Mean The mean is the average of the measurements in a frequency distribution.

  22. A researcher gathers knowledge about a group of people by observing them in their natural environments, what technique is this researcher using: A.) Naturalistic Observation B.) Systematic Observation C.) Unobtrusive Observation D.) Normative Observation

  23. Correct Answer: A.) Naturalistic Observation

  24. A researcher who hides the true purpose of an observation from the participants is using: A.) A double-blind procedure B.) A fairy tale procedure C.) A single blind procedure D.) A duping mechanism

  25. Correct Answer: C.) A single blind procedure A single blind procedure is an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the participant, a double blind procedure is where the true purpose is hidden from the researcher and the participant.

  26. If a student’s grade increases with higher class attendance, this is an example of what type of correlation? • Positive correlation • Negative correlation • No relationship between grade and class attendance is present

  27. Positive correlation • A positive correlation between two variable occurs • when both variable either increase or decrease together (variable A increases, variable B increases OR variable A decreases, variable B decrease)

  28. If two variables are correlated, then that means that they are causally related. TRUE OR FALSE?

  29. FALSE There are three possible reasons for correlation. Variable X can cause Variable Y; Variable Y can cause Variable X; Variable Z can cause both X and Y. *Third Variable Problem

  30. When designing an experiment, manipulation is required. What part of the experiment must be manipulated? • Dependent variable • Independent variable • Nothing is manipulated • Both A & B

  31. B. Independent variable The independent variable is manipulated because it is under the control of the experimenter(s). The dependent variable is measured.

  32. Which of the following is NOT a measure of central tendency? • Mean • Median • Mode • All of the above ARE measures of central tendency

  33. D. All of the above ARE measures of central tendency Mode is the most frequent, mean is the average, and median is the middle…all of which describe central tendency

  34. Which type of validity allows you to draw inferences about causal relations? • External • Internal

  35. B. Internal Internal validity allows for accurate conclusions about causal relations. External validity is having the independent and dependent variables defined in a natural way.

  36. An experimenter wants to investigate eating disorders in ALL college females across the United States, but only females at one college are used for the investigation. What is the population? • Female college students at the one college • All college student • All female college students • None of the above

  37. C. All female college students The behavior of interest is eating disorders in all female college students. The female college students are the POPULATION. Since, it is very difficult to study the entire population of female college students, the experimenter uses female students on one college campus, the SAMPLE.

  38. Scientist use _______ to generalize findings to _______. • populations, samples • subjects, samples • samples, populations • None of the above

  39. C. samples, populations Population Sample

  40. Approximately how many neurotransmitters have been identified? • 25 • 100 • 300 • 1,000

  41. B. 100 Neurotransmitters: chemical forms of communication. Examples: dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, norephinephrine, GABA, acetylocholine, gultamate

  42. Cocaine is an example of a drug that is a dopamine, serotonin, and norephinephrine agonist. This means that cocaine _______ the function of those neurotransmitters. • blocks/reduces • stops • does not effect • increases/enhances

  43. D. increases/enhances Agonists are drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter. Antagonists are drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.

  44. B C A

  45. In the image, what part of the neuron does “A” represent? • Cell body • Axon • Dendrite • Myelin sheath

  46. D. Myelin sheath The myelin sheath is an insulating layer of fatty material that aids in neuronal communication.

  47. In the image, what letter represents the dendrites of the neuron? • A • B • C

  48. B. B Dendrites receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body.

  49. The nervous system is made up of 2 main divisions, the peripheral and the central nervous systems. The peripheral is then divided into two more parts. What are the parts and their functions? • Autonomic-self-regulated actions of internal organs and glands; somatic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles • Autonomic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles; somatic-self-regulated actions of internal organs and glands • Sympathetic-arousing; parasympathetic-calming • Sympathetic-calming; parasympathetic-arousing

  50. Autonomic-self-regulated action of internal organs and glands; somatic-controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles • The autonomic system is then broken down into the sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming).