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Madhu Varga Pharmacological Aspects. By Dr. R. Sivakumar. Under the Guidance of Dr. J. R. Joshi M.D. Department of P. G. Studies in Kayacikitsa, Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Hubli ®Copyright 2007. Introduction

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slide1

Madhu Varga

Pharmacological Aspects

By

Dr. R. Sivakumar

Under the Guidance of

Dr. J. R. Joshi M.D.

Department of P. G. Studies in Kayacikitsa,

Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Hubli

®Copyright 2007

slide2

Introduction

Rigveda: “ This herb, born of honey, dripped in honey, sweetened by honey, honied, is the remedy for all injuries”.

“ Let every wind that blows drop honey; let the rivers and streams recreate honey; let all our medicines turn into honey; let the dawn and the evening be full of honey; our nourisher, this sky above, be full of honey; let our trees be honey; let the sun be honey, let our cows secrete honey ”. (1:9:6-8)

Qur’an: “Thy Lord taught the bees; To build its cells in hills,   On trees and in man’s habitations; Then to eat of all   the produce of the earth . . .  From within their bodies comes a drink of varying colors,  Wherein is healing for mankind”. (Surah XVI: 68 – 69)

Prophet Muhammad advises his followers to "Use two curatives: Honey and Qur'an."

  • "But Jonathan [son of Saul] . . . reached out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it into the honeycomb. He raised his hand to his mouth, and his eyes brightened." (1 Samuel 14:24).

Bible:

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 2 of 35

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Honey in Egyptian medicine

“Man of Bicor” 15000 BC. Cueva de la Arana, Valencia, Spain

Excerpt from the Edwin Smith Papyrus

Dioscorides, De Materia Medica,15th c. Iviron Monastery, Mount Athos, Greece.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 3 of 35

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Honey in Egyptian medicine

  • Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) “eating honey prolongs life”.
  • Hippocrates (460 – 377 BC) - "I eat honey and use it in the treatment of many diseases because honey offers good food and good health”.
  • Dioscorides (AD 40 – 90), Surgeon in Roman army, in his book “De Materia Medica (foremost classical source of modern botanical terminology and the leading pharmacological text until the 15th century) says,“Honey could be used as treatment for stomach disease, wound that has pus, hemorrhoids, and treatment to stop coughing.
  • Honey opens the blood vessels and attracts moisture.
  • If applied to fresh wounds it seals them. It is good for deep dirty wounds.
  • Honey mixed with salt could be dropped inside a painful ear.
  • It will kill lice if infested children’s skin is painted with it.
  • It may also improve vision.
  • Gargle with honey to reduce tonsillar swelling”.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 4 of 35

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References of Madhu & Madhu Varga in Samhitas

  • Charaka Samhita - Sutra – 27 Annapānavidhim Adhyāya 243 – 249
  • Susrutha Samhita - Sutra – 45 Dravadravyavidhim Adhyāya 132 – 147
  • Ashtānga Samgraha - Sutra – 6 Dravadravyavignaniya Adhyāya 91 - 98
  • Astānga Hrudaya - Sutra – 5 Dravadravyavignaniya Adhyāya 51.2 – 54
  • Kāshyapa Samhita - Purva Kānda – Madhuvisheshaniyam Adhyāya 21
  • Bhāvaprakasha - Purva Kānda– 6 / 22nd part
  • Dhanvantari Nigantu - Suvarnaadhi varga
  • Rāja Nigantu - Paneeya Varga
  • Yogaratnakara - Poorvardha – Varga

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 5 of 35

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Madhu Varga:

8 types of qÉkÉÑ + qÉkÉÑ ÎcNû¹

Definition of Madhu from Harita Samhita:

lÉÉlÉÉmÉÑwmÉmÉëMüÉUÉhÉÉÇ UxÉxÉÉUÉiqÉMÇü qÉkÉÑ |

Collective description given by Vagbhatacharya:

cɤÉÑwrÉÇ cNåûÌS iÉ×SèzsÉåwqÉÌuÉwÉÌWûkqÉÉxÉëÌmɨÉlÉÑiÉç |

MÑü¸ qÉåWû M×üÍqÉ cNûÌSï µÉÉxÉ MüÉxÉ AÌiÉxÉÉUÎeÉiÉç ||

uÉëhÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ xÉlkÉÉlÉ UÉåmÉhÉÇ uÉÉiÉsÉÇ qÉkÉÑ |

¤ÉÇ MüwÉÉrÉqÉkÉÑUÇ cÉ iɨÉÑsrÉÉ qÉkÉÑzÉMïüUÉ || A.xÉ.6

uÉÉiÉsÉÇ aÉÑ zÉÏiÉÇ cÉ U£üÌmɨÉMüTüÉmÉWûqÉ |

zÉlkÉÉiÉ× cNåûSlÉÇ Ã¤ÉÇ MüwÉÉrÉÇ qÉkÉÑUÇ qÉkÉÑ || cÉ.xÉÔ.27

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 6 of 35

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Madhu types – Pharmacological Importance

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 7 of 35

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Properties of Madhu

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 8 of 35

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Special Karmas mentioned by Acharyas

  • Sushrutha
  • Vagbhata
  • First drug in xÉlkÉÉlÉ aÉhÉ, ÂÍkÉU xjÉÉmÉlÉ aÉhÉ
  • Cakradutta
  • rÉÉåaÉuÉÉÌWûiuÉ aÉÑhÉÇ of qÉkÉÑ

aÉëÉÌWû

SÏmÉlÉ

xuÉrÉï

xÉÉæMÑüqÉÉrÉïMüU

¿ûÉÌS, WØû±

mÉëxÉÉSeÉlÉMü

uÉhrÉï

qÉåkÉÉMüU

uÉ×wrÉ

UÉåcÉlÉ

He says madhu possess yogavahi guna and further gives the definition of yogavahitvam while dealing about vata in cÉ.ÍcÉ.3

rÉÉåaÉÉSè rÉÉåÌaÉlÉÉå aÉÑhÉÇ uÉWûiÉÏÌiÉ rÉÉåaÉuÉÉWû: |

mÉUÍqÉÌiÉ AirÉjÉïqÉç ||

  • Danvantari Nigantu
  • oÉsrÉ

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 9 of 35

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Karmas - Interpretations

  • cɤÉÑwrÉqÉç – mÉëpÉÉuÉÇ (contains many vitamins and minerals)
  • ̧ÉSÉåwÉblÉÇ – sÉbÉÑiuÉÉiÉç MüTüblÉÇ mÉæÎcNûsrÉÉiÉç qÉÉkÉÑrÉÉïiÉç MüwÉÉrÉpÉÉuÉÉiÉç uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉblÉÇ – xÉÑ
  • (MüTüÌmɨÉWûUÉhÉÉÇ ´Éå¸Ç – cÉUMü, uÉÉapÉOû)
  • aÉÉÌWû, sÉåZÉlÉ, UÉåmÉhÉ, xÉlkÉÉlÉMüU,
  • MüwÉÉrÉ UxÉ mÉëkÉÉlÉ SìurÉxrÉ aÉÑhÉ (cÉ.xÉÔ.26)
  • uÉhrÉï, NåûSlÉ, Ã¤É aÉÑhÉ, zÉÏiÉ uÉÏrÉï
  • mÉëxÉÉSeÉlÉMÇü, ¿ûÉÌS, uÉhrÉï, oÉsrÉ,
  • qÉkÉÑU UxÉ mÉëkÉÉlÉ SìurÉxrÉ aÉÑhÉ (cÉ.xÉÔ.26)
  • uÉ×wrÉ, ÌuÉwÉ WûU, xÉlkÉÉlÉMüU, WØû±Ç

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 10 of 35

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Because of Acidic ph, Osmotic effect, Presence of enzymatic H2O2 and LekhanaProperty

M×üÍqÉWûUÇ – Bactericidal

uÉ×hÉzÉÉåkÉlÉÇ – SÒ¹ uÉëhÉxrÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉÇ

uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉÇ – zÉÑ® uÉëhÉxrÉ UÉåmÉhÉÇ

OSMOTIC EFFECT: Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution of fructose and glucose, The interaction of the sugar molecules with water molecules leaves very little water available to support the growth of microorganisms.

ACIDITY:Honey is acidic, with a ph ranging from 3.2 – 4.5 which is low enough to inhibit the growth of many pathogens.

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: It is the major antibacterial compound in honey. Bees secrete the enzyme glucose oxidase from nectar. It converts glucose in the presence of water and oxygen to glucoronic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

NON-PEROXIDE ANTIBACTERIAL FACTORS: Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives . An antifungal action has also been observed for some yeasts and species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as all the common dermatophytes. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the species most sensitive to the antibacterial activity of honey.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 11 of 35

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SPEEDY CLEARANCE OF INFECTION: Honey is reportedly extremely effective in the treatment of wounds infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria – MRSA as well as wounds infected with multi-resistant bacteria.

CLEANSING ACTION ON WOUNDS: Honey has a debriding effect on wounds so that surgical debridement is unnecessary or only a minimum required.

STIMULATION OF TISSUE REGENERATION: Honey promotes the formation of clean healthy granulation tissue and growth of epithelium over the wound, thus helping skin regenerate.   It has also been reported that dressing wounds with honey gives little or no scarring.

Helicobacter pylori has been implicated as a causative agent in peptic ulcers and honey’s antibacterial property is responsible for its therapeutic action in this setting.

There is a study testing the sensitivity of H. pylori isolated from biopsies of gastric ulcers against honey from New Zealand. 5% honey was found to inhibit the growth of H. pylori effectively.

Honey has also been found to be effective in treating bacterial gastroenteritis in infants.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 12 of 35

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Honey and Prebiotics

  • Honey can enhance the growth and acid production of human Bifido bacterium ssp.,Journal of Food Protection. 2002;65(1):214-8.)
  • Honey enhances the production of lactic acid from Bifidobacteria,Journal of Food Science, 2001;66(3):478-481.

Bifidobacteria are a group of bacteria considered important to the health of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., “good bacteria”). Increasing the populations of these “good bacteria” (and suppressing potentially deleterious microorganisms) are thought to be important to maintaining optimal gastrointestinal health. There are generally two approaches for increasing the populations of bifidobacteria in the gut: (1) ingesting the live and active cultures or (2) enhancing the growth of the indigenous bifidobacteria. The first method has been referred to as a “probiotic” while the second is considered a “prebiotic”.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 13 of 35

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Madhu in Svastha Avastha

  • Consuming qÉkÉÑ is considered auspicious.
  • Consuming qÉkÉÑ is followed as a ritual in festival days.
  • For SliÉ kÉÉuÉlÉ – AÉæwÉkÉÏ + qÉkÉÑ
  • qÉkuÉÉqoÉÑ – uÉwÉï GiÉÑ cÉrÉï
  • Honey is used for cosmetic purposes. It is claimed that many of CLEOPATRA’S cosmetics were honey based.
  • Ancestors used it as an anti decaying agent in the mummification process of the dead.
  • Honey as Energy Booster: It is composed primarily of Carbohydrates and Water , and also contains small amounts of a wide array of Vitaminsand Minerals, including Niacin , Riboflavin , Pantothenic acid , Calcium , Copper , Iron , Magnesium , Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 14 of 35

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Carbohydrates In Honey

Fructose (%)

Glucose (%)

Reducing Sugars (%)

Sucrose (%)

Fructose/Glucose Ratio

Average

38.38

31.28

76.65

1.31

1.23

Range

30.91-44.26

22.89-40.75

61.39-83.72

0.25-7.57

0.76-1.86

StandardDeviation

1.770

3.040

2.760

0.870

0.126

  • Composition of Honey
  • Carbohydrates (Natural sugars) 71.4%
  • Moisture (Water)17.1 %
  • Proteins 0.38%
  • Mineral traces 3%
  • Others: Vitamins (mainly B)
  • Formic acid
  • Gluconic acid
  • Ash
  • Nitrogen

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 15 of 35

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Madhu in Roga Avastha

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 16 of 35

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Madhu is one of the important dravya which is used in almost all the Ashtangas of Ayurveda

Madhu in Ashtanga Ayurveda

1. Kaya

2. Bala

3. Graha

4. Urdhvanga

5. Shalya

6. Damstra

7. Jara

8. Vrusha

In all these cases, Madhu is used as

1)Pradhana aushada 2) Aushada

3) Sahapana 4) Anupana 5) Pathya

In Shodhana as well as

In Shamana

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 17 of 35

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Madhu in Shodhana and Shamana Chikitsa

  • zÉÉåkÉlÉÇ zÉqÉlÉÇ cÉåÌiÉ xÉqÉÉxÉÉSÉæwÉkÉÇ Ì²kÉÉ |
  • zÉUÏUeÉÉlÉÉÇ SÉåwÉÉhÉÉÇ ¢üqÉåhÉ mÉUqÉÉæwÉkÉÇ
  • oÉÎxiÉÌuÉïUåMüÉå uÉqÉlÉÇ iÉjÉÉ iÉæsÉÇ bÉ×iÉÇ qÉkÉÑ || A.WØû.xÉÔ.AÉrÉÑwMüÉqÉÏrÉqÉkrÉÉrÉÇ
    • Madhu is the best among shamana dravyas for pacifying kapha.
    • Madhu is mentioned as one of the dravyas of
  • 1. Vamanopayogi gana, 2. Shirovirechanopaga gana,
  • 3. Niruhopayogi gana.
  • - A.S. Su 14. Sodanaadigana sangraha adhyaya

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 18 of 35

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Madhu in Vamanam

  • Madhu is added mostly in all vamana yogas for kaphajavyadhis
  • Madhu is the mentioned first in uÉqÉlÉÉåmÉaÉ aÉhÉ (cÉ.xÉÔ.4.wÉQèûÌuÉUåcÉlÉÏrÉqÉkrÉÉrÉ)
  • Madhu is used as one of the main drug in vamana yoga in kushta cikitsa.
  • Madhu in Virechanam
  • In U£üÌmÉ¨É ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ, with liberal quantities of madhu and sarkara
      • ̧ÉuÉ×iÉç+ApÉrÉ 2.AÉUauÉkÉ TüsÉ 3.§ÉÉrÉqÉÉhÉ 4. aÉuÉÉÍ¤É is given.
  • Madhu in Vasti
  • Madhu is one of the main drugs in ÌlÉÃWû uÉÎxiÉ.
  • qÉÉͤÉMÇü sÉuÉhÉÇ xlÉåWÇû MüsMÇü YuÉÉjÉÍqÉÌiÉ ¢üqÉÉiÉç |
  • AÉuÉÉmÉåiÉ ÌlÉÃWûÉhÉÉqÉåwÉ xÉÇrÉÉåeÉlÉå ÌuÉÍkÉ: || A.WØû.xÉÔ.19.oÉÎxiÉÌuÉÍkÉqÉkrÉÉrÉqÉç

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 19 of 35

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Importance of Madhu in mode of action of Vasti

  • Honey and salt represent glucose and electrolytes and they prevent dehydration . Salt has the property of stimulating ionic potential which may be the one of the causative factors for the mode of action of Vasti.
  • Madhutailika Vasti
  • It is an important formulation used practically for Prameha, Krimi, Gulma, Antravridhi, Udavartam. It is also Brumhanam, Rasayanam, Deepanam and Cakshushyam.
  • Madhu in Raktamokshana ( Jalaukavacharana )
  • After proper bloodletting with leech , Shatadouta Grutha is to be applied , the bitten parts should be rubbed with honey, cold water is sprinkled and only then, bandaging is done.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 20 of 35

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Madhu in Ashtanga Ayurveda

1. Madhu in Kayacikitsa

  • Importance of qÉkÉÑ in mÉëqÉåWû ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ (xÉÑ.ÍcÉ.11)
  • WûËUSìÉ+qÉkÉÑ taken with AÉqÉsÉMü xuÉUxÉ
  • AqÉsÉMü xuÉUxÉ + qÉkÉÑ, aÉÑQÕûÍcÉ xuÉUxÉ + qÉkÉÑ
  • ArÉxM×üÌiÉ + bÉ×iÉ + qÉkÉÑ – apart from curing mÉëqÉåWû, gives 100 years life
  • qÉkuÉÉxÉuÉxiÉϤhÉÉå qÉåWûmÉÏlÉxÉMüÉxÉÎeÉiÉç |
  • All the separate rÉÉåaÉs for the 20 mÉëqÉåWû are given along with qÉkÉÑ .
  • Diet for mÉëqÉåWû – Plenty of qÉkÉÑ should be given.
  • qÉkÉÑin UÉeÉrɤqÉ – MüuÉsÉaÉëWû with qÉkÉÑ is advised.
  • qÉkÉÑinÍcÉUMüÉUÏ AmÉxqÉÉU – oÉëɼÏUxÉ/MÑü¸UxÉ/uÉcÉÉ cÉÔhÉï + qÉkÉÑ
  • qÉkÉÑinFÃxiÉqpÉ – MÑü¸É± iÉæsÉ+qÉkÉÑ is indicated

xÉuÉï qÉåWû lÉÉzÉlÉ rÉÉåaÉ

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 21 of 35

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honey is a wonderful natural sweetener with an average glycemic index of 55, which puts it in the low glycemic range. But that average masks a wide range of different types of honey, all the way from 32 for Romanian locust honey to 87 for an unspecified variety of honey tested in Canada.

Vitamins: Some vitamins are highly needed by diabetes patients and are recommended by physicians to all diabetes patients, they are vitamin B1,B6, B12 ,C ,E and Biotin. Honey is a good source of most of these vitamins, at least to supply a part of the RDA in natural form.

Trace elements: Chromium is a critical nutrient in diabetes. It is presented as a supplement for people with, diabetes, pre-diabetic glucose intolerance and women with diabetes associated with pregnancy.

* Manganese is present in diabetics in 1/2 its amount that is present in normal individuals. Magnesium is significantly lowered in diabetes patients. * Vanadium given to diabetics proved to decrease their Insulin needs. * Zinc deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of diabetes in humans. It is involved in virtually all aspects of Insulin metabolism, synthesis, secretion and utilization. * Potassium supplementation yields improved Insulin sensitivity.

slide23

Apitherapy

Honey may lower plasma insulin levels, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine in healthy and diabetic subjects, Al-Waili N S. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidaemic comparison with dextrose and sucrose. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2004;7;100-107

Effect of ingesting honey on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitisRajan TV, Tennen H, Lindquist RL, Cohen L, Clive J. Effect of honey on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. 2002;88:198

Topical application of honey is an effective treatment in radiation-induced mucositis, Biswal BM, Zakaria A, Ahmad NM. Topical application of honey in the management of radiation mucositis. A preliminary study. Support Care Cancer. 2003;11:242-248.

Honey has been used as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from G.I problems to ophthalmologic disorders. More recently, honey has been examined for its potential to treat chronic conditions including risk factors for heart disease and seasonal allergies. Research into these areas is preliminary but potentially promising.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 22 of 35

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2. Madhu in Koumara Britya

  • mÉëÉzrÉqÉç (A.WØû.E.oÉÉsÉÉåmÉcÉUlÉÏrÉqÉkrÉÉrÉÇ)
  • WûUåhÉÑqÉɧÉÇ qÉåkÉÉrÉÑoÉïsÉÉjÉïqÉÍpÉqÉÎl§ÉiÉqÉç | LåÎlSìoÉëÉͼ uÉcÉÉzÉ„¡ûmÉÑwmÉÏMüsMÇü bÉ×iÉÇ qÉkÉÑ ||
  • cÉÉqÉÏMüUuÉcÉÉoÉëÉ¼Ï iÉÉmrÉmÉjrÉÉUeÉÏM×üiÉÉ: | ÍsɽÉlqÉkÉÑbÉ×iÉÉåmÉåiÉÉ WåûqÉkÉɧÉÏUeÉÉåÅjÉuÉÉ ||
  • qÉåkÉÉrÉÑoÉsÉÉjÉïÇ the very first prepn given to the new born consists of honey.
  • Sushrutha advises qÉkÉÑ+bÉ×iÉ+WåûqÉcÉÑhÉï for uÉmÉÑ:qÉåkÉÉoÉsÉ oÉÑήÌuÉuÉkÉïlÉqÉç
  • (xÉÑ.zÉÉ.10 aÉÍpÉïhÉÏ urÉÉMüUhÉzÉUÏUqÉkrÉÉrÉqÉç)
  • ÌmÉërÉÉsÉqÉ‹ qÉkÉÑMü qÉkÉÑ sÉÉeÉ ÍxÉiÉÉåmÉsÉæ: |
  • AmÉxiÉlÉxrÉ xÉqrÉÉåerÉ: mÉëÏhÉlÉÉå qÉÉåSMü: ÍzÉzÉÉå: ||
  • This preparation, the Modaka made with honey gives utmost pleasure,
  • contentment to the baby.
  • In oÉÉsÉÉqÉrÉmÉëÌiÉzÉåSqÉkrÉÉrÉÇ almost all the preparations are given with honey.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 23 of 35

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3. Madhu in Bhutavidhya

    • oÉÍsÉSÉlÉ – qÉkÉÑ is mainly used
    • In zÉMÑüÌlÉ aÉëWû ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ – uÉcÉÉ etc + qÉkÉÑ mÉëÌiÉxÉÉUhÉ is done.
  • 4. Madhu in Shalakya tantra
    • ̧ÉTüsÉÉÇ qÉkÉÑxÉÌmÉïprÉÉÇ ÌlÉÍzÉ lÉå§ÉoÉsÉÉrÉ cÉ | - A.xÉ.xÉÔ.10 A³ÉmÉÉlÉÌuÉÍkÉqÉkrÉÉrÉÇ
    • For MühÉïzÉÔsÉ – qÉkÉÑ + AÉæwÉkÉÏ – instilled into the ears.
    • In mÉÉåjÉMüÐ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ (uÉiqÉï UÉåaÉ mÉëÌiÉzÉåSqÉkrÉÉrÉÇ A.xÉ.E.12)
    • Generally after sÉåZÉlÉ, AɶrÉÉåiÉlÉ with qÉkÉÑ and ̧ÉTüsÉÉ is given.
    • Madhu is considered as best cakshushya dravya.
    • Honey is reportedly used by ophthalmologists for treating corneal ulcers in India and Russia where it has been used for chemical and thermal burns to the eye, conjunctivitis, and infections of the cornea.

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 24 of 35

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Honey and Oral Health

Honey is known to possess a variety of antioxidants and antibacterial substances that have been shown to inhibit growth of a wide range of bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial properties of honey may render it beneficial in the treatment of various oral ailments including periodontal disease and mouth ulcers.

Select honeys demonstrate antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Engeseth NH, Gheldof N, Wang X, Nickelsen JD, Husmillo G, Wu CD. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Honeys Against Oral Pathogens Journal of Dental Research. 2002;80:349. abstract- Paper presented at the International Association for Dental Research

Honey may aid in the treatment of gingivitis.English HK, Pack AR, Molan PC. The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. 2004 Apr;6(2):63-7.

The potential of honey to promote oral wellness.Molan PC The potential of honey to promote oral wellness. General Dentistry. 2001 Nov-2001 Dec 31; 49 (6):584-9

Madhu Varga - Pharmacological Aspects - Dr. R. Sivakumar Slide 25 of 35

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5. Madhu in Shalya Tantra

  • qÉkÉÑ has ´Éå¸ uÉëhÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ uÉëhÉ UÉåmÉhÉ property.
  • qÉkÉÑxÉÌmÉï application is mentioned as one
  • of the wÉ̸ÂmÉ¢üqÉÉ.
  • ¤ÉiÉÉåwqÉhÉÉå ÌlÉaÉëWûÉjÉïÇ xÉÇkÉÉlÉÉjÉïÇ iÉjÉæuÉ cÉ |xɱÉåuÉëhÉåwuÉÉrÉiÉåwÉÑ ¤ÉÉæSìxÉÌmÉïÌuÉïkÉÏrÉiÉå ||
  • Application of honey and ghee is indicated in extensive accidental
  • wounds in order to control heat of the abrasion and to promote
  • union.
  • In AzÉïxÉç , only two yogas have been mentioned for all types of
  • arshas and both of them contain madhu as chief ingredient
  • 1. aÉÉåqÉ賈 ÍxÉ® WûËUiÉMüÐ + aÉÑQû + qÉkÉÑ
  • 2. AmÉÉqÉÉaÉï qÉÔsÉ cÉÔhÉï + iÉhQÒûsÉÉåSMü + qÉkÉÑ

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qÉkÉÑin pÉaÉlSU ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ xÉÑ.ÍcÉ.8.

  • AÉUauÉkÉÌlÉzÉÉMüÉsÉÉcÉÔhÉï qÉkÉÑbÉ×iÉÉmsÉÑiÉqÉç |
  • AaÉëuÉÌiÉïmÉëÍhÉÌWûiÉ uÉëhÉÉlÉÉÇ zÉÉåkÉlÉÇ ÌWûiÉqÉç |
  • rÉÉåaÉÉåÅrÉÇ lÉÉzÉrÉirÉÉzÉÑ aÉÌiÉÇ qÉåbÉÍqÉuÉÉÌlÉsÉ: ||
  • Plenty of honey and ghee with AÉUauÉkÉ, ÌlÉzÉÉ, MüÉsÉÉ churna placed in wick
  • and applied to fistulous wound destroys the tract immediately as wind
  • removes the cloud.
  • InAzqÉUÏ, a best yoga which breaks all types of calculus within a week
  • is mentioned which has qÉkÉÑ as one of the main ingredient.
  • qÉkÉÑ + aÉÉå¤ÉÔU pÉÏeÉ cÉÔhÉï given with AÌuɤÉÏU

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Recent and Related Researches

  • Honey in the Treatment of Wounds and Burns.
  • Molan PC. Potential of honey in the treatment of wounds and burns. American
  • Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 2001;2(1):13-19
  • Honey’s antibacterial effects are not exclusively due to Osmolarity.
  • Cooper RA, Molan PC, Harding KG. "The sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive
  • cocci of clinical significance isolated from wounds". Journal of Applied
  • Microbiology. 2002;93:857-863.
  • Honey’s ability to stimulate inflammatory cytokine production from
  • monocytes may help explain it’s wound healing capacity.
  • Tonks, A. J; Cooper, R. A; Jones, K. P; Blair, S.; Parton, J., and Tonks,
  • A. "Honey stimulates inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes.“
  • Cytokine. 2003 Mar.
  • Honey contains a number of substances that contribute to its antimicrobial
  • activity. .Wahdan, Hal. Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey. Infection. 1998;26:30

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6. Madhu in Agada Tantra

  • In iÉ×iÉÏrÉandmÉgcÉqÉ ÌuÉwÉuÉåaÉÉuÉxjÉÉ, qÉkÉÑ is indicated
  • ÌuÉwÉeÉѸ SliÉMüɸxrÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ – qÉkÉÑ + AÉæwÉkÉ mÉëÌiÉxÉÉUhÉÇ
  • ÌuÉwÉeÉѸ AgeÉlÉxrÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ – xÉëÉåiÉÉåÅgeÉlÉ + qÉkÉÑ + AÉæwÉÍkÉ AgeÉlÉ
  • ÌuÉwÉeÉѸ MülÉïiÉæsÉxrÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ – qÉkÉÑ + oÉ×WûÌiÉ + xÉÌmÉï mÉëÌiÉmÉÔUhÉ / mÉÉlÉ
  • All formulations including qÉWûÉaÉS, iÉɤrÉÉïaÉS, AeÉÏiÉÉaÉS, xÉÇeÉÏuÉlÉÅaÉS
  • contain honey.

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7. Madhu As Rasayana

  • All Rasayana Yogas are given with Madhu.
  • pÉssÉiÉMü ¤ÉÉæSìÇ - 100 years of life with utmost health.
  • Haematinic and Immunomodulatory effects of honey on immunocompetent, immunodeficient and splenectomised experimental rodents .Biswas, A. K., Gomes, A ., Dasgupta, S. C. , Lab of Toxicology and Exp. Pharmacodynamics, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.
  • Myrtaceous honey and the use thereof as Immunomodulator.Vincent, Andrew; Mnl pharma ltd, Mumbai

Honey as Antioxidant

Antioxidants are substances that can retard or inhibit oxidation and/or neutralize the effects of damaging “free radicals”. In humans, oxidative stress is implicated in an ever-growing number of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Thus, increasing the body’s antioxidant content may help protect against cellular damage and the development of chronic diseases. Research indicates that honey contains numerous phenolic and non-phenolic antioxidants which largely depend upon the floral sources.

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Effect of processing and storage on antioxidant capacity of honey, Journal of Food Science, 2004;69(2):96-101

  • Chronic honey consumption increases plasma antioxidant concentration.Gross H. Effect of honey consumption on plasma antioxidant status in human subjects. Abstract presented at the American Chemical Society, March 29, 2004
  • Buckwheat Honey Increases Serum Antioxidant Capacity in Humans,Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, Vol. 51 pp. 1500-1505.
  • Honeys with high phenolic contents can increase serum antioxidant capacity in healthy human subjects.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2003;51(6):1732-1735.
  • Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources,Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002, Vol. 50, No. 21, pp.5870-5877.
  • Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various floral sources and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002;8;50(10):3050-5.

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8. Madhu in Vajikarana

  • xTüÌOûMüÉpÉÇ SìuÉÇ ÎxlÉakÉÇ qÉkÉÑUÇ qÉkÉÑaÉÎlkÉ cÉ | zÉÑ¢üÍqÉcNûÎliÉ MåüÍcɨÉÑ iÉæsÉ ¤ÉÉæSì ÌlÉpÉÇ iÉSÉ ||
  • Shukra has the smell and consistency of madhu. Drava guna and madhura rasa are common to both. Madhu also contains the pollens which are equated with the bheeja ( shukra ) dhatu. By the concept of samanairvruddhi , honey might act as aphrodisiac.
  • Honey is frequently a symbol or talisman for sweetness of every kind including its being considered as an aphrodisiac. The most interesting research on honey is related to NITRIC OXIDE - a key hormone involved in opening blood vessels and creating erections and clitoral engorgement. A good dose of honey (around 3 ounces) can increase nitric oxide / nitrite levels in the blood by 50% . The increase in nitric oxide activity was also measured in the saliva and urine, which suggests a real, whole-body effect.
  • The word 'HONEYMOON' comes from an old Viking tradition, where newlyweds were given a month to get to know each other. During that month (moon), they were encouraged to drink lots of mead, which is a wine made from honey. Vikings considered mead both an aphrodisiac and fertility enhancer.

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Madhuchishta

  • pÉÔiÉblÉ – wards of evil spirits
  • uÉëhÉ UÉåmÉhÉ - heals wounds
  • pÉalÉxÉlkÉÉlÉMüU - unites fractures
  • uÉÉiÉMÑü¸uÉÏxÉmÉïU£üÎeÉiÉç - eradicates raktaja
  • disorders
  • ÌmÉhQû iÉæsÉÇ - xÉqÉkÉÔcd¹qÉÉÎgeɸ xÉxÉeÉïUxÉxÉÉËUuÉqÉç
  • ÌmÉhQûiÉæsÉÇ iÉSprÉ…¡ûɲÉiÉU£üÂeÉÉmÉWûqÉç ||
  • In¤ÉiɤÉÏhÉ if SÏmiÉÉÎalÉ prevails, then the first zÉqÉlÉ rÉÉåaÉ to be given is
  • sÉɤÉÉ+eÉÏuÉlÉÏrÉ aÉhÉ+bÉ×iÉ + qÉkÉÑ ÎcNû¹ along with mÉrÉxÉç.
  • ÌmÉmmÉÍsÉ+qÉkÉÑMü+UÉåkÉë+MÑü¸+LsÉ+WûUåhÉÑ+kÉÉiÉMüÐ+zÉÉËUuÉ+WûËUSìɲå+xÉeÉïUxÉ.
  • Etc along with qÉkÉÑÍcɹ - ´Éå¸ rÉÉåaÉ for aÉhQûqÉÉsÉÉ, qÉhQûsÉ, mÉëqÉåWû, pÉaÉlSU.
  • Beeswax is a remarkable wax because it does not melt
  • readily. It can stand temperatures up to 60oC.
  • It is used as a base in many products including lipstick,
  • hand creams and beauty creams. Beeswax is also used for furniture polish
  • and candles.

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Thus, we saw that honey is being used in

  • Svastha Avastha
  • Roga Avastha
  • Shodhana Karma
  • Shamana Karma
  • Ashtanga Ayurveda

This shows the Pharmacological Importance of

Madhu and Madhu varga

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Thank U

Designed & Presented by

Dr. R. SIVAKUMAR