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Demand Side Approaches to Governance in World Bank Operations (2007 Civil Society Policy Forum). By Parmesh Shah Lead Rural Development Specialist South Asia Sustainable Development Department 18 th October, 2007. Agenda. Strengthening Demand for Good Governance

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Demand Side Approaches to Governancein World Bank Operations(2007 Civil Society Policy Forum)


Parmesh Shah

Lead Rural Development Specialist

South Asia Sustainable Development Department

18th October, 2007

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  • Strengthening Demand for Good Governance

  • Demand Side Approaches to Governance – Tools and Mechanisms

  • Application of Demand Side Approaches in WB Projects - Examples from South Asia

  • Achievements so Far: Promoting Demand Side Approaches to Governance in South Asia

  • Discussion

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Strengthening the Demand for Good Governance

  • Enabling environment for Social Accountability

    • Right to information legislation and practice (Orissa implementation of India-wide RTI legislation, Philippines public disclosure of senior officials’ private assets)

    • Independent, competitively owned media (Kenya, Eastern Europe)

    • Independent, executive branch oversight (Supreme audit institutions, Parliamentary accounts committees)

    • Opportunities for citizen and civil society input into development planning, implementation and monitoring (Uganda, PRSCs)

  • Enhancing Demand-Side Approaches in Bank Operations

    • Public disclosure of project-level contracting (Bangladesh E-procurement)

    • Participatory budgeting (Brazil)

    • Citizen and community oversight of investment operations (India DPIPs)

    • Community empowerment for improved local governance (Indonesia KDP)

  • Direct Support for Civil Society Capacity

    • Building local civil society capacity for oversight and participation (service delivery score cards, capacity of user groups, parental participation in schools, water users associations, community conservation groups)

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Demand Side Approaches to Governance: Tools & Mechanisms

Participatory Budgeting

Citizen Report Cards (CRC)

Community Score Cards (CSC)

Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys

Right to Information (RTI) Compliance

Social Audits

Project Websites

Community Radio

Increasing Transparency &

Access to Information

Enhancing Accountability & Citizen Oversight

Grievance Redress

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Demand Side Approaches to Governance in South Asia

  • Formulating Governance and Anti-Corruption Plans in projects (India – Bihar, Orissa)

  • Introducing/institutionalizing social accountability approaches in Community Driven Development (CDD) projects (Bangladesh; Sri Lanka; India - Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh)

  • Improving local government service delivery outcomes through social accountability mechanisms (India - Maharashtra, Kerala)

  • Increasing developmental effectiveness of sectoral approaches by enhancing demand side approaches to governance (India - Andhra Pradesh health sector)

  • Facilitating CSO oversight to improve outcomes of government programs (India – Rajasthan Mid-Day Meal Scheme)

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Example 1 - Governance and Anti-Corruption Plans in New Projects: Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project

Transparency & Information Dissemination:

  • Appointment of a nodal Right to Information (RTI) officer to adhere to statutory RTI requirements

  • Public display of all information related to release of funds, physical and financial progress and expenditures

  • Training of community organization members in financial/budget literacy

  • Project website

    Grievance Redress and CSO/Citizens' Participation:

  • Dedicated grievance redress cell with an exclusive hotline for receiving calls and SMSs and a web interface

    Enhanced Public Oversight & Accountability:

  • Community Score Cards

  • Social Audits through sub-committees

  • Institutional and Service Delivery Report Cards

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Example 2 - Institutionalizing Social Accountability Approaches in CDD Projects: The Gemidiriya Project, Sri Lanka


  • Micro-planning, social audits and community assessment process (CAP) being used by communities to evaluate quality and effectiveness of local service providers in project villages

  • Creation of a cadre of grassroots Community Professionals and a Community Professional Learning and Training Center to act as local community monitors on an ongoing basis

    Scale Up:

  • Government plans to scale up CAP to other non-project villages and local government services

    Service Delivery Context:

  • Numerous local, public and private service providers, such as - village savings and credit organizations, small infrastructure work committees, contractors and so forth

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Example 3 – Improving Local Government Service Delivery Outcomes through Social Accountability Mechanisms: Satara District, Maharashtra)


  • Reduction in infant, child and maternal mortality rates and malnutrition

  • Significant mobilization of community resources

  • Creation of a cadre of community monitors which include NGOs, parents, teachers and children that assist in local problem solving and improved targeting (special pediatric camps for malnourished children)

  • Transparent sharing of data with parents, children and communities

    Scale Up:

  • District Local Government scaling up micro-planning and community monitoring to 121 villages in Phase 1 and eventually to all 1,500 villages

  • UNICEF is dovetailing micro-planning with CSC based community monitoring

    Service Delivery Context:

  • Child and maternal health including


  • Being extended to other local government

    service delivery sectors

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Combating Malnutrition Locally: Growth Charts in Maharashtra Outcomes through Social Accountability Mechanisms: Satara District, Maharashtra)

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Example 4 - Increasing Developmental Effectiveness of Sectoral Approaches: The Health Sector in Andhra Pradesh


  • Formation of public-private-community partnerships for innovative interventions such as - health insurance, nutrition centers, health risk fund, community managed ambulance services and drug depots

  • Institutionalization of a user feedback mechanism by which over 5,000 villagers provide feedback through community score cards annually


  • Community monitoring through community health score cards being rolled out in about 450 villages in Phase I

  • Potential of gathering user feedback for program implementation in all 1,570 primary health centers covering a total rural population of 5.5 million

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Example 5 - Facilitating CSO Oversight to Improve Program Outcomes: The Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Rajasthan


  • Dissemination of Expenditure Tracking Survey results in:

    • Advance transfer of funds for cooking meals

    • Improvement in quality of food grains (increase in number of inspections, immediate redress of complaints)

    • Improvement in basic infrastructure (School Grant Facility extended to construct kitchens, food grain storage rooms)

    • Increased involvement of teachers and parents (teachers and children not involved in cooking and serving meals; increased parent oversight)


    • Mid-day meal scheme (10.2 million children in 75,000 primary schools in Rajasthan)

    • PETS conducted by Consumer Unity and Trust Society – International to provide third party feedback to improve implementation of government program

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Achievements so Far: Demand Side Approaches in South Asia Outcomes:

  • Current and Prospective Centers of Excellence – CSOs, Universities and Government Training Institutions

    • Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai

    • Center for Good Governance (CGG), Hyderabad

    • Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), New Delhi

    • Yashwantrao Chavan Center for Development Administration (YASHADA), Pune

    • CUTS International, Jaipur

    • BRAC University Centre for Governance Studies, Bangladesh

    • Institute for Participatory Interaction in Development, Sri Lanka

  • South Asia Social Accountability Network (

  • World Bank GAC Strategy and Implementation Plan

  • Technical Advice to Bank Staff and Governments

    • Social Accountability Sourcebook

    • Guidance Notes

  • Action Research Projects through CSOs and NGOs

  • Knowledge Creation and Dissemination

    • Stocktaking of Social Accountability Initiatives

    • Case Studies

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THANK YOU Outcomes: