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Introduction to Computers PowerPoint Presentation
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Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers

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Introduction to Computers

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  1. Lesson 6 Introduction to Computers

  2. The Operating System (OS) • The operating system (OS) is software that controls the interaction between hardware and user software

  3. OS main functions • Provides the user interface. • Loads programs • Coordinates how programs work withCPU, RAM, Printer, …& other software. • Manages the way information is stored on and retrieved from disks.

  4. User Interface • The items you see and use on the computer screen are the user interface

  5. Graphical User Interface (GUI) • A GUI is a user interface that is made up of graphic objects instead of text commands. • GUI, pronounced ‘GOO-ee’

  6. Desktop • The computer’s main interface

  7. Icons • The graphic objects that you see on the desktop are called icons. • Icons represent resources on the PC or network.

  8. Taskbar • The taskbar appears at the bottom of the Windows desktop and lets you launch and manage software programs

  9. Start Button and Start Menu • Click the Start button to open the Start menu, which provides access to your software programs

  10. Shortcut or Context Menu • Right-click on an object to access a shortcut or context menu that has the object’s most-used commands

  11. Window • When a software program runs, it appears in a rectangular frame, called a window

  12. Parts of a Window • Title bar • Minimize, Maximize and Close buttons • Scroll bars • Toolbars • Menu bar

  13. Active Window • The window that is currently in use

  14. Menus and the Menu Bar • You choose some tasks from commands in lists called menus, accessed from the menu bar

  15. Dialog Box • Special-purpose window that gives you choices for what you want the software to do next

  16. Running Programs • System calls – • request services from the OS.Example: we want the word processingprogram to retrieve a file

  17. Clipboard Sharing information • Temporary holding area for data that is being copied or moved • Choosing Edit: Cut or Copy places information on the Clipboard • Edit: Paste places the information from the Clipboard into the document(Object Linking and Embedding)

  18. Multitasking • The computer’s ability to perform two or more procedures simultaneously

  19. Two Kinds of Multitasking • Cooperative multitaskingCurrently running programs will periodically check the OS to see whether any other programs need the CPU • Preemptive multitaskingassigns a priority to each program in a list that contains running programs

  20. File Management • Manage files by saving them in folders in a hierarchical file system

  21. How the Operating System Manages Hardware • Processing InterruptsOS uses interrupt requests (IRQs) to CPU • Providing Drivers“drive” – the hardware device • Networking computersThe network server manages the flow of data.

  22. Utility • A utility is a software program that enhances or extends the operating system’s capabilities

  23. Kinds of Utilities • Disk defragmenter • Data compression • Backup • Disk management • Screen savers • Antivirus • Firewall – Intrusion Detection

  24. Review Questions • What is the Operating System? • What is a Graphical User Interface? • What is the Clipboard? • What are the two kinds of multitasking?

  25. UNIX • Old operating system, developedby Bell Labs in the 1970s • Still used today in insurance, medicine, banking, manufacturingand Web servers • Many versions : AT&T (System V), Berkeley (BSD) IBM (AIX), SUN (Solaris) • Command-line interface

  26. MS-DOS • Most popular PC operating system during the 1980s and early 1990s, now obsolete • Command-line interface • Supported only one user and a single processor. • Load only one application into memory at a time • Designed to recognize only 640KB of RAM

  27. Macintosh • Offered first graphical user interfacebeginning in the mid-1980s • Mac OS was ahead of Windows with many features, network support , plug &play • Still popular with publishers, multimedia developers,graphic artists and schools

  28. Windows 3.X • Windows was Microsoft’s first graphical user interface, introduced in the mid-1980s • Operating environment, not operating system, that ran on top of DOS • Windows 3.0 introduced in 1990 was Microsoft’s first successful version of Windows • Windows 3.11 -- Workgroups • Windows 3.x refers to more than one member of the Windows 3 family, nowconsidered obsolete

  29. OS/2 Warp • Graphical user interface developed in 1982 jointly by IBM and Microsoft for Intel microprocessors • Multitasking, GUI-based OS provides built- in speech recognition • Can run on a wide range of hardware platforms. • Now obsolete

  30. Windows NT (New Technology) • Introduced in 1993, 32-bit OS 2 versions : Workstation , Server • Windows NT Workstation still used inarchitectural firms, audio and videoproduction studios and graphics studios • Windows NT server offered security features • Microsoft stopped supporting Windows NT in2001

  31. Windows 9X • A complete OS , released in 1995 • Windows 95 was the firstmember of the Windows 9x family, 32-bit , preemptive multitasking, it continued to include older (16-bit code) • Windows 98 considered to be an upgrade of 95, includes the Internet Explorer • Released in 2000, Windows ME was the last member of the Windows 9x family, still widely used, butconsidered by experts to be obsolete

  32. LINUX • Released in late 1990s • New version of UNIX • Distributed for free sources, “freeware” • Windows-based GUI environments --shells • Commercial version -- Red Hat , Novell Red Hat Certified Engineer program (RHCE)

  33. Windows 2000 • Released in 2000, Combined the features of Windows 98 and Windows NT • Professional support symmetric multi-processing (SMP)up to 2 processors • Server EditionServer Standard (SMP up to 2 processors) Advanced Server (SMP up to 4 processors) Data Center Server (SMP up to 32 processors)

  34. Windows XP • Released in 2001 • Available in two editions: home – consumer-grade andprofessional – enterprise • Digital Media Support –Media player8 • Advanced Networking and Communication universal plug & play connect multiple computers to Internet via a single connection • Advanced Mobile Computing IrComm modem support

  35. Network Operating Systems • Run on a network server dedicated to providing various services to other computers on the network • Windows Server NT, 2000, 2003 • Novell Network NetWare, Linux server – SuSE standard SuSE Enterprise • Unix for servers

  36. Windows .Net • Windows Sever 2003, latest addition to the server-based Windows OS family • Application Center – Web-based applications • SQL Server -- Web-based database • Commerce Server – create and Maintain e-commerce infrastructures

  37. Embedded Operating Systems • Built into an electronic device’s circuitry • Found in devices such as PDAs automobiles, cell phones, medical equipments

  38. The most popular embedded operating systems: • Windows XP Embeded • Windows CE .NET latest version of Windows CE support wireless Communications, multimedia and Web browsing • Palm OS • Pocket PC OS • Symbian found is “smart” cell phones from Nokia and Sony Ericsson. Feature Internet connectivity, games, multimedia, and touch screen functions

  39. Review Questions • What is the oldest operating system? • What was the most popular operating system in the 1980s? • Which operating system was the first graphical user interface? • When was Windows first introduced?