AS Level – Week 28Theory Module 1 Transfer of Learning
Transfer of Learning Transfer is the effect that the learning or performance of one skill has on the learning or performance of another skill. If the teacher/coach can apply this knowledge correctly, they can decrease the learning time, maximise the use of the time available and develop relevant practices. The notion of transfer is liked to the schema theory, allowing us to modify movement patterns to suit new situations. Example; a netball player transferring their passing movement skills and spatial awareness to basketball.
There are 5 various forms of transfer. • Positive Transfer – this involves previously learnt skills helping the development of new skills. E.g. trampoline skills for the high diver. • Negative Transfer – this involves previously learnt skills hindering the development of new skills. Usually this is temporary and can be eliminated with relevant practices. E.g. a tennis player, when playing badminton, may not be able to generate the power needed to hit the shuttlecock effectively because they are used to play with a firm wrist rather than a flexible wrist. • Bilateral Transfer – this involves the transfer of learning from one limb to another, rather than from skill to skill. Often kinaesthetic awareness from the dominant limb can improve performance. E.g. a games player who can use both feet or hands will have a distinct advantage over one who can only use their dominant limb.
Proactive Transfer – this occurs when the skill being learnt has an effect on skills being developed in the future. A coach may gradually develop subroutines to ensure a skill is fully understood and mastered. E.g. a young tennis player will learn basic forehand and backhand before developing topspin and more advanced shots. • Retroactive Transfer – this occurs when the skill being developed has an effect on one that has been previously learnt. E.g. an experienced tennis player may have to alter their basic technique as more advanced shots are developed. When learning the forehand stroke, they are told to stand in a side-on position, but as their skill levels progress, they often have a more open stance and alter the basic movement. Forehand shot gets better.
Implications for Training The coach must use the transfer of learning to maximise skill development. This can be achieved by: • Identifying elements of the skill that are transferable, improving and hindering learning. • Developing good basic movement patterns initially and then progressing to more complex skills. • Making practice situations relevant and realistic to the competitive environment. • Eliminating the opportunity for bad habits to develop (negative transfer).