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Alternative Animal Agriculture. Production. animals other than those traditionally raised usually in small scale and provides a product for a specialty market. Production. Some producers may supplement their traditional operation with alternative animals.

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production
Production
  • animals other than those traditionally raised
  • usually in small scale and provides a product for a specialty market
production3
Production
  • Some producers may supplement their traditional operation with alternative animals.
  • Many specialty animal producers use the enterprise as a hobby or a part time income
rabbit production
Rabbit Production
  • have been raised for food for hundreds of years.
  • Romans produced rabbits as far back as 250 BC and used rabbit meat as a substantial part of their diet.
rabbit production5
Rabbit Production
  • the Phoenicians were great sailors who did a great deal of trading
  • They were given credit for introducing domesticated rabbits as far back as 1100 BC.
us rabbit production
US Rabbit Production
  • rabbits were brought into the country around 1900 and were produced in large rabbitries in California.
  • Since that early beginning, the industry has grown all across the country.
rabbit production7
Rabbit Production
  • produced by small, part-time growers.
  • Several large commercial operations in the US
rabbit production8
Rabbit Production
  • experts estimate that between 7 and 10 million rabbits are produced each year
  • Americans consume 10 - 13 million pounds of rabbit meat each year
rabbit production9
Rabbit Production
  • some rabbit meat consumed in the US is imported from Europe
  • France is the largest rabbit producer
  • Rabbit production is larger in Europe
rabbit production10
Rabbit Production
  • American Rabbit Breeders Assn (ARBA) registers and promotes all breeds of purebred rabbits grown in this country.
rabbit production11
Rabbit Production
  • can be raised under almost any climatic condition.
  • Facilities take up little space
  • raised indoors in cages called hutches
rabbit production12
Rabbit Production
  • usually heated in the winter and cooled in the summer to provide comfort for the animals
  • in milder climates, the rabbit house may be insulated and not need to be heated or cooled
rabbit production13
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits gain weight on relatively small amounts of feed
  • feed efficiency for rabbits is 2.5:1
  • for every 2.5 pounds of feed the animal eats, it gains one pound
rabbit production14
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits can also be fed lower quality feed than some other animals
  • demand for rabbit meat is much greater than the supply
  • many restaurants offer dishes made from rabbit
rabbit production15
Rabbit Production
  • USDA points out that rabbit meat is one of the most nutritious meats available
  • high in protein and low in fat and cholesterol
  • easily digestible and flavorful
rabbit production16
Rabbit Production
  • also used as a source of fur
  • used by scientists in research ranging from medical to product testing
  • popular as pets
rabbit production17
Rabbit Production
  • very prolific
  • produce young 30 days after breeding
  • raise 4 to 5 litters per year
  • litters consist of up to 8 per litter
rabbit production18
Rabbit Production
  • some breeds reach sexual maturity at five months of age
rabbit production19
Rabbit Production
  • in 1859 sailors released a pair (2) of wild European rabbits in Australia
  • In 30 years, over 20,000,000 rabbits inhabited the country
rabbit production20
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits became a serious pest in both Australia and New Zealand
  • they have no natural predators in these countries
rabbit production21
Rabbit Production
  • extreme measures have been taken to control the wild rabbit population
  • rabbits are slaughtered for meat at 8 weeks of age
rabbit production22
Rabbit Production
  • offer great potential for developing countries that have ample roughage to feed animals but are short on grain
  • can produce much needed protein on relatively inexpensive feed.
rabbit production23
Rabbit Production
  • US has potential to develop the rabbit meat market
  • consumers have trouble eating something cute and cuddly.
llama production
Llama production
  • native to South America
  • belong to the same family as camels
  • in Chile, Peru and Bolivia were raised by the ancient Inca’s for work animals
llama production25
Llama production
  • well adapted to the cool, thin mountain air of the Andes mountains
  • can adapt to most climatic conditions
llama production26
Llama production
  • have developed into an animal industry in the US over the past 15 years
  • estimated that there are about 20,000 llamas in the US and the number is growing
llama production27
Llama production
  • llamas stand three to four feet high at the shoulders
  • weigh between 250 and 400 pounds when mature
  • can carry heavy packs for long distances
llama production28
Llama production
  • can go longer than many animals without water
  • can survive on low quality forage
  • two types of fibers in their coats - long guard hairs
llama production29
Llama production
  • short fibers that keep the animal warm
  • fiber length may range from 3-10 inches
llama production30
Llama production
  • used as pack animals in the western US for camping and hunting trips into the mountains
  • hair is made into rope
llama production31
Llama production
  • Alpaca - close relative to the llama is desired for its high quality wool which is made into rugs and blankets
fish bait production
Fish Bait Production
  • earthworms are grown in beds that have been built up by loose porous materials
  • include shredded paper, shredded cardboard, garden compost, grass clippings
fish bait production33
Fish Bait Production
  • straw, well decayed manure
  • the pH of the bedding is closely monitored and kept slightly acidic ( pH 6.8)
fish bait production34
Fish Bait Production
  • beds are kept moist
  • lights are used to prevent the worms from crawling out of the beds
  • worms are sensitive to light and only come out at night
fish bait production35
Fish Bait Production
  • if the worms sense light they will stay in the bottom of the bed
  • worms are fed vegetable scraps and cornmeal
fish bait production36
Fish Bait Production
  • worms mature at about two months of age
  • packed and marketed with about 100 worms or 25 night crawlers per container
fish bait production37
Fish Bait Production
  • earthworms are also sold to gardeners because they help improve the soil
  • create pores in the soil to improve air and water movement
fish bait production38
Fish Bait Production
  • also produce castings (manure) which helps enrich the soil
crickets
Crickets
  • raised in wooden boxes
  • floors are covered with sand in which the adults lay their eggs
  • sand is covered with fine wood shavings or other shredded material
crickets40
Crickets
  • heat lamps are used to warm the sand until the eggs hatch
  • crickets are caged and shipped to bait outlets where they are sold to fishermen
ostrich production
Ostrich Production
  • ostriches are the largest existing bird in the world. Mature males may stand as tall as nine feet and weigh as much as 330lbs. The sheer size of the bird makes them valuable for meat, feathers and leather.
ostrich production42
Ostrich Production
  • the leather is of exceptional quality in that it is very soft, durable texture. The plumage of the male is quite attractive and is used in decorating and clothing.
ostrich production43
Ostrich Production
  • eggs are currently too valuable to use for any purpose other than brooding
  • the potential exists for eggs to be used as a food source.
  • One egg equals the content of 24 chicken eggs.
ostrich production44
Ostrich Production
  • raised to a limited extent in the U.S. Because of their low numbers, they are quite expensive to buy.
  • Allows people to make a good profit by selling young ostriches to people to raise
ostrich production45
Ostrich Production
  • the birds have to be kept within a high fence and require protection from cold weather.
  • Sand must be provided for the females to build their nests and lay their eggs.
ostrich production46
Ostrich Production
  • the adults are hardy and resistant to disease, but the chicks are susceptible and are therefore watched under close supervision.
ostrich production47
Ostrich Production
  • one drawback to raising ostriches is that the animal can be quite dangerous.
  • They defend themselves by flailing their legs and kicking.
ostrich production48
Ostrich Production
  • their toenails are sharp and can severely injure or even kill a person they attack.
  • Extreme caution has to be taken in the daily feeding and care of the birds.
laboratory animal prod
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • Lab animals are used by scientists for conducting experiments for things such as: food, medicines, and cosmetics
  • considerable controversy over the use of animals for experimentation
laboratory animal prod50
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • No one can deny the benefits that humans have brought about through animal research
  • animals are raised under strict conditions
laboratory animal prod51
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • The animals have no genetic defects
  • harbor no disease organisms
  • tainted animals would cause a well designed experiment to have skewed results
honey bees
Honey bees
  • classified as an insect
  • because of insect like characteristics
  • also classified as an important agricultural animal
honey bees53
Honey bees
  • many crops would not survive without the help from bees
  • most ag animals rely on bees to pollinate the plants that they eat
honey bees54
Honey bees
  • bees assist pollination by scattering pollen from one plant to the next as they gather nectar and pollen
  • most insects work on flowers and go from one type of flower to another
honey bees55
Honey bees
  • bees work a particular kind of flower for a period of time
  • this process ensures that blossoms are thoroughly pollinated
honey bees56
Honey bees
  • fruit growers hire beekeepers to bring in truckloads of bees in the spring when the trees are blooming
  • bees are kept in wooden boxes called hives
honey bees57
Honey bees
  • each hive is a separate colony of bees
  • beekeepers can move the hives around to different orchards for a small fee.
honey bees58
Honey bees
  • in addition, the beekeeper harvests hundreds of pounds of honey each year
  • bees produce and store honey for food during the winter
  • honey is made from nectar the bees gather from flowers
honey bees59
Honey bees
  • different flowers produce different nectar
  • makes different colors and flavors of honey
  • bees store honey in six sided cells joined together to create a honeycomb
honey bees60
Honey bees
  • the cells are made from wax the bees produce
  • beekeepers help bees get started by placing foundations comb frames on which they build the rest of the comb
honey bees61
Honey bees
  • the frames are hung into boxes called supers
  • beekeeper needs to keep enough space between the supers so the bees don’t fuse them together
honey bees62
Honey bees
  • this is usually about 3/8 inch
  • enough space for two bees to work back to back
honey bees63
Honey bees
  • beekeeper must pry the supers apart in order to remove them
  • bees fuse them together with propoils - a sticky substance from tree sap
honey bees64
Honey bees
  • honey is harvested by extracting it from the cells without damaging them
  • empty frames are put back into the super
  • the super is put back into the hive
honey bees65
Honey bees
  • bees fill the frames again
  • harvested honey is processed, packaged and sold
types of bees
Types of bees
  • within a colony there are three types of bees
  • queen
  • drones
  • workers
queen
Queen
  • exists to lay eggs for the hive
  • she lays thousands of eggs in her lifetime
  • other bees feed and care for her
queen68
Queen
  • she is recognized as queen because she is larger and slender
  • kept in the lower part of the hive called the brood chamber
queen69
Queen
  • entrances are large enough for the workers to pass through but too small for the queen to pass through
  • prevents the queen from laying eggs in the comb - honey
queen70
Queen
  • lays eggs in larger cells called brood cells
  • eggs hatch into larvae and are fed by the worker bees
  • larvae develop into pupae and then into adults
drones
Drones
  • are male bees whose specific purpose is to mate with the queen
  • when the new queen emerges she goes on a maiden flight
  • during the flight she mates with all the drones
drones72
Drones
  • drones are then removed from the hive by worker bees
  • are not allowed to winter in the hive
  • in spring, new drones will hatch
workers
Workers
  • sterile females
  • some collect nectar and pollen
  • some care for the queen
  • some scout the area for pollen
  • some serve as guard bees at the service entrance
workers74
Workers
  • serve short six week lives
  • so continual reproducing is done by the queen and drones
queen75
Queen
  • can be produced commercially in small hives called nukes
new queens
New Queens
  • when a hive becomes crowded
  • bees produce a special large cell called a queen cell
  • larva in this cell is fed a special substance called royal jelly
new queens77
New Queens
  • when the new queen emerges the old queen will leave with a portion of the bees
  • called a swarm
  • and form a new colony
africanized bees
Africanized bees
  • nicknamed the killer bee
  • aggressive nature
  • scientists from Brazil imported the killer bee to cross with regular bees
africanized bees79
Africanized bees
  • the idea was to produce a hybrid of honey bee that would be more productive
  • will invade a bee colony
  • kill the queen and replace her with their own queen
africanized bees80
Africanized bees
  • her eggs will hatch into African bees
  • adapted to tropical climates
  • do not thrive in temperate climates
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