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8-11-2007. (Lecture 2). CS8421 Computing Systems Dr. Jose M. Garrido. Class Will Start Momentarily…. Vehicle systems Traffic control Process control Medical systems Military RT systems Manufacturing Robots systems Security control. Telecommunication systems Computer games

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8 11 2007

8-11-2007

(Lecture 2)

CS8421 Computing SystemsDr. Jose M. Garrido

  • Class
      • Will
          • Start
          • Momentarily…
real time applications and examples
Vehicle systems

Traffic control

Process control

Medical systems

Military RT systems

Manufacturing Robots systems

Security control

Telecommunication systems

Computer games

Multimedia systems

Household appliance monitoring & control

Building energy control

Real-Time Applications and Examples
properties of real time systems
Properties of Real-Time Systems
  • Timeliness - the system must perform operations in timely manner
  • Reactiveness - the system continuously responds to (random) events
  • Concurrency - multiple simultaneous activities are carried out
  • Distribution - tasks cooperate in multiple computing sites
rts time issues
RTS Time Issues
  • The goal is to reduce two specific intervals:
    • service time - the interval taken to compute a response to a given input
    • latency - the interval between the time of occurrence of an input and the time at which it starts being serviced
  • The sum of these two intervals represents the response time. This must be shorter than the deadline for this type of input.
architecture
Architecture
  • Architecture refers to the attributes visible to the programmer
    • Instruction set
    • Number of bits used for data representation
    • I/O mechanisms
    • Addressing techniques.
  • Is there a multiply instruction?
organization
Organization
  • Organization refers to how features are implemented
    • Control signals
    • Interfaces
    • Memory technology.
  • Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?
architecture organization
Architecture & Organization
  • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture
  • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture
  • This gives code compatibility
    • At least backwards
  • Organization differs between different versions
structure function
Structure & Function
  • Structure is the way in which components relate to each other
  • Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure
computer architecture overview
Computer Architecture Overview

Components of a computer system:

  • CPU
  • Main Memory
  • Secondary Storage
  • I/O Devices
  • Bus
  • Operating System
computer functions
Computer Functions

The computer functions are:

  • Data processing
  • Data storage (memory)
  • Data movement (I/O)
  • Control
structure top level
Structure - Top Level

Computer

Peripherals

Central

Processing

Unit

Main

Memory

Computer

Systems

Interconnection

Input

Output

Communication

lines

structure the cpu
Structure - The CPU

CPU

Arithmetic

and

Logic Unit

Computer

Registers

I/O

System

Bus

CPU

Internal CPU

Interconnection

Memory

Control

Unit

structure the control unit
Structure - The Control Unit

Control Unit

CPU

Sequencing

Logic

ALU

Control

Unit

Internal

Bus

Control Unit

Registers and

Decoders

Registers

Control

Memory

eniac background
ENIAC - background
  • Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
  • Eckert and Mauchly
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Trajectory tables for weapons
  • Started 1943
  • Finished 1946
    • Too late for war effort
  • Used until 1955
eniac details
ENIAC - Details
  • Decimal (not binary)
  • 20 accumulators of 10 digits
  • Programmed manually by switches
  • 18,000 vacuum tubes
  • 30 tons
  • 15,000 square feet
  • 140 kW power consumption
  • 5,000 additions per second
von neumann turing
von Neumann/Turing
  • Stored Program concept
  • Main memory store programs and data
  • ALU operating on binary data and binary code
  • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing
  • Input and output equipment operated by control unit
  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies
    • IAS
  • Completed 1952
ias details
IAS - details
  • 1000 x 40 bit words
    • Binary number
    • 2 x 20 bit instructions
  • Set of registers (storage in CPU)
    • Memory Buffer Register
    • Memory Address Register
    • Instruction Register
    • Instruction Buffer Register
    • Program Counter
    • Accumulator
    • Multiplier Quotient
functioning of the ias computer
Functioning of the IAS Computer
  • Repetitively performing an instruction cycle
  • An instruction cycle has two subcycles
    • Fetch cycle – the “opcode” of instruction and its address are loaded into registers IR and MAR
    • Execute cycle -- interpretation of the “opcode” and execution of the instruction
instructions of the ias computer
Instructions of the IAS Computer
  • The IAS computer had 21 instructions
  • These instructions are grouped as:
    • Data transfer
    • Unconditional branch
    • Conditional branch
    • Arithmetic
    • Address modify
commercial computers
Commercial Computers
  • 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation
  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)
  • US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations
  • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation
  • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II
    • Faster
    • More memory
slide29
IBM
  • Punched-card processing equipment
  • 1953 - the 701
    • IBM’s first stored program computer
    • Scientific calculations
  • 1955 - the 702
    • Business applications
  • Lead to 700/7000 series
  • The IBM 7094 introduced the data channel, a smaller specialized I/O processor
transistors
Transistors
  • Replaced vacuum tubes
  • Smaller
  • Cheaper
  • Less heat dissipation
  • Solid State device
  • Made from Silicon (Sand)
  • Invented 1947 at Bell Labs
  • William Shockley et al.
transistor based computers
Transistor Based Computers
  • Second generation machines
  • NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines
  • IBM 7000
  • DEC - 1957
    • Produced PDP-1
microelectronics
Microelectronics
  • Literally - “small electronics”
  • A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections
  • These can be manufactured on a semiconductor
  • e.g. silicon wafer
  • Used in the third generation of computers
generations of electronics
Generations of Electronics
  • Vacuum tube - 1946-1957
  • Transistor - 1958-1964
  • Small scale integration - 1965 on
    • Up to 100 devices on a chip
  • Medium scale integration - to 1971
    • 100-3,000 devices on a chip
  • Large scale integration - 1971-1977
    • 3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip
  • Very large scale integration - 1978 to date
    • 100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip
  • Ultra large scale integration
    • Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip
moore s law
Moore’s Law
  • Increased density of components on chip
  • Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel
  • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year
  • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little
    • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months
  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance
  • Smaller size gives increased flexibility
  • Reduced power and cooling requirements
  • Fewer interconnections increases reliability
ibm 360 series
IBM 360 series
  • 1964
  • Replaced (& not compatible with) 7000 series
  • First planned “family” of computers
    • Similar or identical instruction sets
    • Similar or identical O/S
    • Increasing speed
    • Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. more terminals)
    • Increased memory size
    • Increased cost
  • Multiplexed switch structure
dec pdp 8
DEC PDP-8
  • 1964
  • First minicomputer
  • Did not need air conditioned room
  • Small enough to sit on a lab bench
  • $16,000
    • $100k+ for IBM 360
  • Embedded applications & OEM
  • BUS STRUCTURE
dec pdp 8 bus structure
DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure

I/O

Module

Main Memory

I/O

Module

Console

Controller

CPU

OMNIBUS

semiconductor memory
Semiconductor Memory
  • 1970
  • Fairchild
  • Size of a single core
    • i.e. 1 bit of magnetic core storage
  • Holds 256 bits
  • Non-destructive read
  • Much faster than core
  • Capacity approximately doubles each year
intel
Intel
  • 1971 - 4004
    • First microprocessor
    • All CPU components on a single chip
    • 4 bit
  • Followed in 1972 by 8008
    • 8 bit
    • Both designed for specific applications
  • 1974 - 8080
    • Intel’s first general purpose microprocessor
improving speed
Improving Speed
  • Pipelining
  • On board cache
  • On board L1 & L2 cache
  • Branch prediction
  • Data flow analysis
  • Speculative execution
performance mismatch
Performance Mismatch
  • Processor speed increased
  • Memory capacity increased
  • Memory speed lags behind processor speed
pentium evolution 1
Pentium Evolution (1)
  • 8080
    • first general purpose microprocessor
    • 8 bit data path
    • Used in first personal computer – Altair
  • 8086
    • much more powerful
    • 16 bit
    • instruction cache, prefetch few instructions
    • 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC
  • 80286
    • 16 Mbyte memory addressable
    • up from 1Mb
  • 80386
    • 32 bit
    • Support for multitasking
pentium evolution 2
Pentium Evolution (2)
  • 80486
    • sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining
    • built in maths co-processor
  • Pentium
    • Superscalar
    • Multiple instructions executed in parallel
  • Pentium Pro
    • Increased superscalar organization
    • Aggressive register renaming
    • branch prediction
    • data flow analysis
    • speculative execution
pentium evolution 3
Pentium Evolution (3)
  • Pentium II
    • MMX technology
    • graphics, video & audio processing
  • Pentium III
    • Additional floating point instructions for 3D graphics
  • Pentium 4
    • Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals
    • Further floating point and multimedia enhancements
  • Itanium
    • 64 bits
powerpc
PowerPC
  • IBM, Motorola, Apple
  • Used in Apple Macintosh
  • RISC architecture
    • 601
    • 603
    • 604
    • 620
    • 740/750 (G3)
    • G4
    • G5
what is a program
What is a Program?
  • A sequence of steps (instructions?)
  • For each step, an arithmetic or logical operation is carried out
  • For each operation, a different set of control signals is needed
function of control unit
Function of Control Unit
  • For each operation a unique operationcode is provided
    • e.g. ADD, MOVE
  • A hardware segment accepts the code and issues the control signals
  • This is the foundation for a computer!
components
Components
  • The Control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit constitute the Central Processing Unit
  • Data and instructions need to get into the system and results out
    • Input/output
  • Temporary storage of code and results is needed
    • Main memory
instruction cycle
Instruction Cycle
  • Two steps:
    • Fetch
    • Execute
fetch cycle
Fetch Cycle
  • Program Counter (PC) holds address of next instruction to fetch
  • Processor fetches instruction from memory location pointed to by PC
  • Increment PC
    • Unless told otherwise
execute cycle
Execute Cycle
  • Instruction loaded into Instruction Register (IR)
  • Processor interprets instruction and performs required actions
categories of actions
Categories of Actions
  • Processor-memory
    • data transfer between CPU and main memory
  • Processor I/O
    • Data transfer between CPU and I/O module
  • Processing
    • Some arithmetic or logical operation on data
  • Control
    • Alteration of sequence of operations
    • e.g. jump
  • Combination of above
fetch decode execute interrupt cycle
Fetch/Decode/Execute/Interrupt Cycle
  • Instruction Fetch. The number of processor/bus cycles required depends on the width of the instruction and the width of the bus
  • Decode. Determine what the instruction will actually do, in particular, what operands are required before the instruction can execute
  • Operand Fetch - multiple operands may require multiple fetches
  • Execute Instruction
  • Check for Interrupts.
example of execution
Example of Execution
  • The processor has a single data register, the accumulator, AC
  • Both instructions and data are 16 bits long
  • Instruction format:
    • 4 bits for the opcode, for 16 different opcodes
    • 12 bits for the address (4K)
  • Opcodes: 1=load AC, 2=store AC, 5= add to AC
  • Instruction format using Hex notation
end of lecture
End of Lecture

End

Of

Today’s

Lecture.

8-21-07

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