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A hyperbaric chamber is used in the treatment of certain diseases. Chapter 11 Gases. 11.10 Partial Pressure (Dalton’s Law). Partial Pressure. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure of each gas in a mixture is the pressure that gas would exert if it were by itself in the container.

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Chapter 11 gases l.jpg

A hyperbaric chamber is used in the treatment of certain diseases.

Chapter 11 Gases

11.10

Partial Pressure (Dalton’s Law)


Partial pressure l.jpg
Partial Pressure diseases.

The partial pressure of a gas

  • is the pressure of each gas in a mixture

  • is the pressure that gas would exert if it were by itself in the container


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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures diseases.

Dalton’s law of partial pressuresstates

that the total pressure

  • depends on the total number of gas particles, not on the types of particles

  • exerted by a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of those gases

    PT = P1 + P2 + P3 .....


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The total pressure of two gases is the sum of their partial pressures.

Illustrating Partial Pressures


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Under water, the pressure on a diver is greater than the atmospheric pressure.

Scuba Diving

  • When a scuba diver is below the ocean surface, the increased pressure causes more N2(g)to dissolve in the blood.

  • If a diver rises too fast, the dissolved N2 can form bubbles in the blood, a dangerous and painful condition called "the bends.”

  • For deep descents, helium, which does not dissolve in the blood, is added to O2.


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Solving for Partial Pressure atmospheric pressure.


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Learning Check atmospheric pressure.

A scuba tank contains O2 with a pressure of 0.450 atm and He at 855 mmHg. What is the total pressure in mmHg in the tank?


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Solution atmospheric pressure.

STEP 1 Write the equation for the sum of partial pressures.

Ptotal = Po2 + PHe

STEP 2Solve for the unknown pressure.

Convert the pressure in atm to mmHg to match units.

0.450 atm x 760 mmHg = 342 mmHg = PO2 1 atm

STEP 3Substitute known pressure and calculate the unknown.

Ptotal = 342 mmHg + 855 mmHg

= 1197 mmHg


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A Nitrox mixture is used to fill scuba tanks. atmospheric pressure.

Learning Check

For some dives, scuba divers use a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases (Nitrox) with a pressure of 8.00 atm. If the oxygen in a tank of Nitrox has a partial pressure of 2190 mmHg, what is the partial pressure of the nitrogen?

1) 520 mmHg

2) 2040 mmHg

3) 3890 mmHg


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Solution atmospheric pressure.

STEP 1 Write the equation for the sum of partial pressures.

Ptotal = PO2 + PN2

Ptotal = 8.00 atm x 760 mmHg = 6080 mmHg

1 atm

STEP 2Solve for the unknown pressure.

Ptotal = PO + PN2

2

PN2= Ptotal - PO2


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Solution (continued) atmospheric pressure.

STEP 3Substitute known pressure and calculate the unknown.

PN2= Ptotal - PO2

PN2= 6080 mmHg - 2190 mmHg

= 3890 mmHg (3)


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Gases Collected over Water atmospheric pressure.

A gas produced in the

laboratory

  • usually contains water vapor

  • PT = Pwater + Pgas

  • has a partial pressure obtained by subtracting the vapor pressure of water from the PT


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Gases Collected over Water atmospheric pressure.


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Learning Check atmospheric pressure.

The decomposition of KClO3 produces O2 gas and solid KCl. If 124 mL of O2 is collected over water at 762 mmHg at 20.0 C, how many moles of O2 are produced? (Partial pressure water at 20.0 C = 18 mmHg.)

2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)


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Solution atmospheric pressure.

STEP 1 Obtain the vapor pressure of water.

Partial pressure of water at 20.0 C = 18 mmHg

STEP 2Subtract vapor pressure from total P of gas mixture to give partial pressure of needed gas.

PT = Pwater + Pgas

Pgas = PT - Pwater

PO2 = 762 mmHg - 18 mmHg = 744 mmHg


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Solution (continued) atmospheric pressure.

STEP 3 Use ideal gas law to convert Pgasto moles or grams of gas collected.

PV = nRT

n = PV = (744 mmHg)(0.124 L) = 0.00505 mol of O2

RT (62.4 L • mmHg)(293 K)

mol • K


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Gases We Breathe atmospheric pressure.

The air we breathe

  • is a gas mixture

  • contains mostly N2 and O2 and small amounts of other gases


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Gas Exchange During Breathing atmospheric pressure.


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Blood Gases atmospheric pressure.

  • In the lungs, O2 enters the blood, while CO2 from the blood is released.

  • In the tissues, O2 enters the cells, while CO2 is released into the blood.


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Blood Gases atmospheric pressure.

In the body,

  • O2 flows into the tissues because the partial pressure of O2 is higher in the blood and lower in the tissues

  • CO2 flows out of the tissues because the partial pressure of CO2 is higher in the tissues and lower in the blood


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