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Terminal Servers on 64-bit Windows Platforms Bernhard Tritsch Microsoft MVP – Terminal Server Community Website: www.wtstek.com Question Can I pimp my terminal servers by migrating them to 64-bit Windows? TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS Windows Server 2003 Family

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terminal servers on 64 bit windows platforms

Terminal Servers on 64-bit Windows Platforms

Bernhard Tritsch

Microsoft MVP – Terminal Server

Community Website: www.wtstek.com

question
Question
  • Can I pimp my terminal servers by migrating them to 64-bit Windows?

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

32-bit

Applications

32-bit

Applications

64-bit

Applications

32-bit

Windows

64-bit

Windows

64-bit

Windows

32-bit

Drivers

64-bit Drivers

64-bit Drivers

32-bit

Drivers

32-bit

Drivers

Devices

Devices

Devices

x64 and Itanium

x86 and x64

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

User Mode

32-bit Application

64-bit Application

WOW64

Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition

Kernel Mode

64-bit Device Driver

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

32 bit memory tuning

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

32-bit Memory Tuning
  • Boot.ini switches
    • /3GB allows 3 GB for User und 1 GB for Kernel Mode
    • /USERVA allows more granular memory mgmt.
  • PAE (Physical Address Extension)
    • Relies on specific hardware features, CPU has 36-bit address bus
    • Mapping of virtual 32-bit to physical 36-bit addresses
  • AWE (Address Windowing Extensions )
    • Set of APIs used to address virtual memory >4GB
    • Applications require specific code
  • PAE and AWE consume CPU performance!!!

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

32 bit support on x64

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

32-bit Support on x64
  • Windows on Windows 64 (WoW64)
    • 64-bit Windows supports the execution of 32-bit applications by using WoW64
  • Performance limitations?
    • Substantial on Itanium
    • Minimal or non on x64
  • No support of…
    • applications using a 16-bit installer
    • applications requiring a 32-bit system filter driver or any other 32-bit kernel-mode drivers

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

what s wow64 doing

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

What‘s WOW64 doing?
  • Isolation of 32-bit applications from 64-bit applications while maintaining data exchange functionalities and interoperability
  • Converting system calls (Thunking)
  • Mapping of I/O data streams from 32-bit applications to 64-bit drivers

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

what s wow64 doing11

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

What‘s WOW64 doing?
  • Mapping of applications memory into 64-bit system address space
  • Coordination of COM and RPC communication
  • Application communication using copy and paste
  • Redirection of file and registry access – this is a really interesting topic!

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

redirection of file access

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Redirection of File Access

Applications

  • 32-bit apps %SystemDrive%\Program Files (x86)
  • 64-bit apps %SystemDrive%\Program Files

System files

  • 32-bit System files  %windir%\syswow64
  • 64-bit System files  %windir%\system32

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

registry access

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Registry Access
  • x64 has one physical registry, but a logical view of 32-bit and 64-bit areas respectively
  • Redirection: Registry access from 32-bit applications is redirected to a specific node (WoW6432Node in HKLM\Software)
  • Reflection: Mirroring of some 32-bit and 64-bit registry areas to synchronize system settings (last write wins)

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

but what about memory

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

But what about Memory?
  • Increased memory usage!!!
  • Data structures are bigger on x64 platforms
  • System file cache requires to double memory for comparable performance on 32-bit systems

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

scalability benchmarking

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Scalability – Benchmarking
  • Microsoft has a certain “history” regarding TS benchmarks and resulting white papers
  • New white papers include predominantly relative results rather than absolute numbers: “64-bit systems are x% better than 32-bit systems”
  • Not memory, but CPUs or data I/O came out to be the limiting factors…if there was enough memory available on the system

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Microsoft Test – 8-Way Server, 40 GB RAM

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

citrix marketing slide

18%

Presentation Server x64 Edition

Presentation Server 4.0

60%

112%

116%

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Citrix Marketing Slide...

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

test environment

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Test Environment

Clients

  • Test servers: dual-core CPUs, 4 – 16 GB RAM
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003, 32-bit und 64-bit Editions
  • 10 dual CPU test clients with 4 GB RAM acting as load creators
  • 1 PC used for monitoring and controlling the tests

Control

Test server

32-bit

Test server

64-bit

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

apps and test sequence

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Apps and Test Sequence
  • Applications (launched after user logon)
    • After 10 seconds: Notepad.exe, ANSI test file, 8.4 KB
    • After 30 seconds: Adobe Acrobat Reader 7, PDF document, 3.8 MB
    • After 50 seconds : Microsoft Word 2003, DOC document, 3.1 MB
  • Create new session every minute

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

32 bit and 64 bit intel
32-bit, 2 Cores, 4 GB

200 active sessions

1,400 processes

43,000 context switches per second

125 x Command shell

123 x Notepad

118 x Acrobat Reader

112 x WinWord

64-bit, 2 Cores, 4 GB

159 active sessions

1,100 processes

35,000 context switches per second

102 x Command shell

99 x Notepad

98 x Acrobat Reader

86 x WinWord

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

32-bit and 64-bit (Intel)

However, only 20-25 users in a production environment

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

64 bit results intel
64-bit, 4 Cores, 16 GB

270 active sessions

2,500 processes

64,000 context switches per second

228 x Command shell

223 x Notepad

222 x Acrobat Reader

214 x WinWord

64-bit, 4 Cores HT, 16 GB

341 active sessions

ca. 2,900 processes

60,000 context switches per second

252 x Command shell

241 x Notepad

238 x Acrobat Reader

231 x WinWord

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

64-bit Results (Intel)

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

64 bit results amd
64-bit, 4 Cores, 8 GB

171 active sessions

1,700 processes

45,000 context switches per second

165 x Command shell

164 x Notepad

158 x Acrobat Reader

149 x WinWord

64-bit, 4 Cores, 16 GB

322 active sessions

2,900 processes

70,000 context switches per second

264 x Command shell

261 x Notepad

256 x Acrobat Reader

252 x WinWord

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

64-bit Results (AMD)

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

32 bit results amd
32-bit, 4 Cores, 16 GB

319 active sessions

2,800 processes

70,000 context switches per second

243 x Command shell

243 x Notepad

243 x Acrobat Reader

237 x WinWord

NOTE:

PAE switch, but only up to ~8 GB can be used

When hitting the 8 GB limit, the page reads per second increased signifficantly

The time to open the user session and launch the applications successfully was much longer compared to 64-bit systems

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

32-Bit Results (AMD)

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

slide35
64-Bit, AMD, 16 GB RAM

32-Bit, AMD, 16 GB RAM

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

reality check

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Reality Check
  • Additional test in a real customer environment
  • Initial setup with 32-bit systems
    • Dual Xeon 3.2 GHz with 4 GB
    • Application profile: Microsoft Office, Lotus Notes, two to three bank-specific applications (such as Java application J2SE)
  • Result with 64-bit systems
    • +25% users on Dual Xeon 3.2 GHz with 8 GB
    • +50% users on 2 x Dual Core Xeon DP 2.8 GHz with 8 GB

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Performance

16

12

8

4

32-bit system

Memory (in GB)

64-bit system

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

migration how and when

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Migration – how and when?
  • Migrating terminal servers from 32-bit to 64-bit is not as easy as it seems
  • Challenges – 64-bit incompatibilities
    • Installation routines
    • Drivers and system tools (Resource Kit tools)
    • Scripts modifying system files and registry

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

so what s the result

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

So, what‘s the result?
  • Start migrating now
    • 64-bit is the future – that‘s for sure
    • The technology is mature...
    • ...but you will need some time to get comfortable with it

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

additional information

TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Additional Information
  • Terminal Server Capacity and Scalinghttp://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/techinfo/overview/tsscaling.mspx
  • Terminal Services Scaling and Performance on x64-Based Versions of Windows Server 2003http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologies /terminalservices/default.mspx
  • Bernhard Tritsch’s Terminal Server scalability evaluation http://www.wtstek.com/item2/Article20041125.htm
  • The Big Iron Test - Scalability of Large Terminal Server Platformshttp://www.visionapp.de/fileadmin/documents/English_ documents/TechnicalWhitepaper_Big-Iron-Test_EN.pdf
  • visionapp Remote Desktop – Free Downloadhttp://www.visionapp.com

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium

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TRITSCH: 64-BIT TERMINAL SERVERS

Thank you

www.wtstek.com

PubForum 2006, Brussels • Belgium