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    1. Realism and the Origin of the Avant-Garde in Paris Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet

    3. Gustave Courbet, The Cellist, Self-Portrait, 1847, Oil on canvas 46 1/8 x 35 1/2 in (117 x 90 cm) Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

    4. Courbet, Portrait of the Artist (Wounded Man) 1844-54 Oil on canvas 31 7/8 x 38 1/4 in (81 x 7 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

    5. Courbet, Man With a Pipe, 1846

    6. Courbet, Self-Portrait with Dog, 1842

    7. Courbet, The Stonebreakers, 1849 (destroyed in WW II)

    8. Courbet, Portrait of Proudhon, 1853

    9. Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Phalanstery - plans for utopian communities Fourierism

    10. Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans 1849-1850, oil on canvas, 10' 3 x 21' 9" Musee d'Orsay, Paris

    11. Thomas Couture, Romans of the Decadence, 1847

    12. Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849 compare with Thomas Couture, Romans of the Decadence, 1847

    13. Jean-Baptiste-Simon Chardin, Grace at Table, 1740 (19"/15") Louvre Genre painting, a traditional academic mode

    14. William Bouguereau, (left) Mother and Children, The Rest, 1879 (right) Home From the Harvest, 1878, Cummer Museum of Art, Jacksonville, Florida

    15. William Bouguereau, The Broken Pitcher, 1891, the De Young MA, San Francisco

    16. Honore Daumier, Third Class Carriage, o/c, 1862, c.25"/35"

    17. Daumier, The Uprising, 1849

    18. Courbet, The Studio: An Allegory of Seven Years of the Artist's Life, 1855, oil on canvas, over 20, across Musee dOrsay, Paris

    19. I have studied, outside of any system and without prejudice, the art of the ancients and of the Moderns. I no more wanted to imitate the one than to copy the other; nor, furthermore, was it my intuition to attain the trivial goal of art for art's sake. No! I simply wanted to draw forth from a complete acquaintance with tradition the reasoned and independent consciousness of my own individuality" "To know in order to be able to create, that was my idea. To be in a position to translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my epoch, according to my own estimation: to be not only a painter, but a man as well: in short, to create living art - this is my goal. Gustave Courbet, statement for his Pavilion of Realism, build next to the Paris International Exhibition of 1855

    20. (left) Destruction of Paris following the Franco-Prussian war, siege of Paris, and (right) the Commune 1871, Communards shot by firing squad of French soldiers in the streets of Paris

    21. Courbet, the Communard, and the destruction of the Vendome column, symbol of Napoleonic (French) imperialism "Inasmuch as the Vendme column is a monument devoid of all artistic value, tending to perpetuate by its expression the ideas of war and conquest of the past imperial dynasty, which are reproved by a republican nation's sentiment, citizen Courbet expresses the wish that the National Defense government will authorise him to disassemble this column. Courbet

    22. Self-Portrait at Sainte-Pelagie, c. 1872 Prison cell in Switzerland from September to December 1871.

    23. Henri Fantin-Latour. Portrait of Edouard Manet. 1867, oil on canvas Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Parisian dandy, flaneur, and Painter of Modern Life

    24. Henri Fantin-Latour, A Studio in the Batignolles (Homage to Manet) 1870, Oil on canvas. 204 x 273.5 cm. Muse d'Orsay, Paris, France

    25. Manet, At the Caf, lithograph, 1869

    26. Manet, Concert at the Tuileries, 1862 o/c, c. 46 x 30, National Gallery, London Portraits of Charles Baudelaire by Manet on left, 1865

    27. Manet, Dejeuner Sur LHerb (Luncheon on the Grass), 1862

    28. Titian, Concert Champtre (Italian Renaissance) 1510 compared with Edouard Manet (French Realism), Djeuner Sur LHerbe

    29. Marcantonio Raimondi, Judgment of Paris, (engraving after Raphael), 1520 compare with Manet, Djeuner Sur LHerbe

    30. Manet, Olympia, 1863, Oil on canvas, 51 x 74 3/4 in, (130.5 x 190 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

    31. Titian or Giorgione, Venus of Urbino, 1510 (Louvre) compared to Olympia 1863

    32. Alexandre Cabanel (French Academic Painter, 1823-1889) Birth of Venus, 1863

    33. Jean Leon Gerome (Academic classicism), Phrynee Before the Judges, 1861 Daumier cartoon: Venuses Again, Always Venuses

    34. William Bouguereau, Birth of Venus, 1879 and Paul Baudry, Venus and Cupid, c. 1857

    37. Manet, Universal Exposition of 1867, 1867, o/c Painter of Modern Life

    38. 1867 Paris International Exhibition

    39. Napoleon III and Baron Haussmann urban renewal, Paris:1853-1869

    40. Emperor Napoleon III by Hipolyte Flandrin (Salon of 1863) with Plan of Paris radical urban renewal designed by Baron Haussmann, 1853-1869

    41. Manet, Civil War in Paris (the Commune) 1871, lithograph

    42. Manet, The Bar at the Folies Bergere 1881