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Moral Issues in Business 11 th Edition by William H. Shaw and Vincent Barry. Lecture Outlines. Part I: Moral Philosophy and Business. Chapter 1: The Nature of Morality Chapter 2: Normative Theories of Ethics Chapter 3: Justice and Economic Distribution. Chapter One: The Nature of Morality.

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moral issues in business 11 th edition by william h shaw and vincent barry

Moral Issues in Business11th Editionby William H. Shaw and Vincent Barry

Lecture Outlines

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part i moral philosophy and business

Part I: Moral Philosophyand Business

Chapter 1: The Nature of Morality

Chapter 2: Normative Theories of Ethics

Chapter 3: Justice and Economic Distribution

chapter one the nature of morality

Chapter One: The Nature of Morality

This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:

• any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;

• preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;

• any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

overview
Overview
  • Chapter One examines the following topics:
  • Business and organizational ethics.
  • Moral versus nonmoral standards, etiquette and professional codes.
  • Religion and business morality.
  • Ethical relativism and the “game” of business.
  • Moral principles, conscience, and self-interest.
  • Personal values, integrity, and responsibility.
  • Moral Reasoning, arguments, and judgments.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

introduction to business ethics
Introduction to Business Ethics
  • What is ethics? The study of right and wrong, duty and obligation, moral norms, individual character, and responsibility.
  • What is business ethics? The study of right and wrong, duty and obligation, moral norms, individual character, and responsibility – in the context of business.
moral versus nonmoral standards
Moral Versus Nonmoral Standards
  • Nonmoral standards: Standards about behavior or practices with no serious or immediate effects upon human well-being.
  • Moral standards: Standards about behavior or practices with serious or immediate effects upon human well-being.
some features of moral standards
Some Features of Moral Standards
  • Moral standards take priority over nonmoral standards.
  • The soundness or validity of moral standards depend on the quality of the arguments or the reasoning that support them.
morality and etiquette
Morality and Etiquette
  • Rules of etiquette are nonmoral in character and are meant to serve as guidelines for socially acceptable behavior.
  • Violations of etiquette can sometimes have moral implications.
  • The strict observance of rules of etiquette can sometimes conceal serious moral issues.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

1 morality and law
(1) Morality and Law
  • Statutes: Laws enacted by legislative bodies such as the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.
  • Regulations: Laws enacted by special boards or agencies for various kinds of conduct.
  • Common law: The body of judge-made laws developed in English-speaking countries over the course of many centuries.
  • Constitutional law: Court rulings on the requirements of the U.S. Constitution and on the constitutionality of legislation.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

2 morality and law
(2) Morality and Law
  • The distinction between morality and legality:
    • An action can be illegal but morally right.
    • An action can be legal but morally wrong.
  • Professional codes: The rules that govern the conduct of the members of a given profession.
    • Individuals have the responsibility to critically assess the rules of their professions.
    • These rules are not always complete and reliable guides to adequate moral conduct.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

1 the sources of morality
(1) The Sources of Morality
  • The justification of moral norms: Moral philosophers study mainly the justification, rather than the origin, of moral norms.
  • The claim that morality is based on religion:
    • Religion provides incentives to be moral.
    • Religion provides moral guidance.
    • Moral norms are in essence divine commands.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

2 the sources of morality
(2) The Sources of Morality
  • Ethical relativism: The view according to which moral norms derive their ultimate justification from the customs of the society in which they occur.
  • This means that moral norms are not universal, but are dependent upon a particular cultural or social context.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

3 the sources of morality
(3) The Sources of Morality
  • Implications of relativism:
    • There is no independent standard by which to judge the rightness or wrongness of other societies.
    • The idea of ethical progress loses its significance.
    • It makes no sense to criticize the moral code of one’s own society or culture.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

4 the sources of morality
(4) The Sources of Morality
  • Relativism and the “game” of business:
    • The idea that business is a just game captures the thesis of Albert Carr.
    • He argued that business professionals are expected to follow a code that has little or nothing to do with ethics.
    • This view entails – incorrectly – that the practices of business professionals cannot (or should not) be evaluated from a moral standpoint.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

1 the importance of moral principles
(1) The Importance of Moral Principles
  • What it means to have principles: Accepting moral principles is not just a matter of intellectual recognition, but of profound individual commitment to a set of values.
  • Conscience: The internalized set of moral principles taught to us by various authority figures – parents and social institutions.
  • Conscience and its limits: Conscience is not always a reliable guide because it can be (1) conflicted and (2) erroneous.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

2 the importance of moral principles
(2) The Importance of Moral Principles
  • Moral principles and self-interest: The morality of an action can run counter to our self-interest.
    • The moral point of view requires that we restrict our self-interest to satisfy social co-existence.
    • In situations of conflict between moral principles and self-interest, it is important to appeal to shared principles of justification.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

morality and personal values
Morality and Personal Values
  • Morality in the narrow sense: The moral principles or rules that do, or should, govern the conduct of individuals in their relations with others.
  • Morality in the broad sense: The values, ideals, and aspirations that influence the decisions and lifestyles of individuals and entire societies.
  • Business ethics are mainly concerned with morality in the narrow sense.
  • But values, ideals, and aspirations also affect the behavior and ethical choices of business professionals.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

1 individual integrity and moral responsibility
(1) Individual Integrity and Moral Responsibility
  • Organizational norms: Employees of business organizations (especially corporations) are:
    • Expected to further profit goals.
    • Often pressured to compromise moral values and ignore or violate rules of ethical conduct.
  • Conformity: Studies show that individuals are more prone to act unethically when they are a part of an organization or a group.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

2 individual integrity and moral responsibility
(2) Individual Integrity and Moral Responsibility
  • Groupthink: The pressure on group members to conform to morally questionable policies or strategies, often resulting in unethical conduct.
  • Diffusion of responsibility: The multiplicity, complexity, and distribution of tasks that can lead individuals to feel less responsibility or accountability for their actions.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

1 moral reasoning
(1) Moral Reasoning
  • Argument: A group of statements in which one statement (conclusion) is true and follows from the others (premises).
  • Example:
  • If Norman is bald, then Norman does not need a haircut.
  • It is the case that Norman is bald.
  • Therefore, Norman does not need a haircut.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

2 moral reasoning
(2) Moral Reasoning
  • Requirements for a sound argument: If its statements (premises and conclusion) are true and its form (or structure) is correct.
    • Validity: The correctness of an argument.
    • Invalid arguments: Those with incorrect form (or structure).
  • Determining whether an argument is valid or invalid requires familiarity with the rules of logic.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

3 moral reasoning
(3) Moral Reasoning
  • Moral arguments: Those conflicting theories and beliefs whose conclusions are moral judgments, based on the premise of moral standards and statements of fact.
  • Example:
  • If an action violates the law, it is morally wrong.
  • Affirmative action on behalf of women and minorities in personnel matters violates the law.
  • Therefore, affirmative action on behalf of women and minorities in personal matters violates the law.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

4 moral reasoning
(4) Moral Reasoning
  • What makes a moral judgment defensible? If it is supported by a moral standard that can be defended as well as relevant facts.
  • Evaluating moral arguments:
  • Clarifying the terms of the premises.
  • Examining the factual claims.
  • Assessing the moral standard.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

5 moral reasoning
(5) Moral Reasoning
  • Thus, an argument can be refuted by:
  • Uncovering ambiguity in the terms.
  • Questioning the factual claims.
  • Challenging the moral standards.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1

6 moral reasoning
(6) Moral Reasoning
  • Criteria for moral judgments:
  • Should be logical.
    • Embedded in valid arguments.
    • Compatible with moral and nonmoral beliefs.
  • Should be based on facts.
    • Using supportive, relevant, and true information.
  • Should be based on acceptable moral principles.

Moral Issues in Business

Chapter 1