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Supporting standards comprise 35% of the U. S. History Test 9 (C)

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  1. Supporting standards comprise 35% of the U. S. History Test 9 (C)

  2. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, Rosa Parks, Hector P. Garcia, & Betty Friedan

  3. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) 1 Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Martin Luther King Jr.

  4. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929–1968) was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American civil rights movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president.

  5. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful struggle against segregation in Albany, Ga., in 1962, and organized nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Ala., that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.  With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful struggle against segregation in Albany, Ga., in 1962, and organized nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Ala., that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.  J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI ‘s COINTELPRO for the rest of his life. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.

  6. On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he and the SCLC helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery and the following year, he took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he and the SCLC helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery and the following year, he took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam.” In 1968 King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tn. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam.” In 1968 King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tn. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities.

  7. King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. MLK Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U. S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets and a county in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor. A memorial statue on the National Mall was opened to the public in 2011. King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. MLK Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U. S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets and a county in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor. A memorial statue on the National Mall was opened to the public in 2011.

  8. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) 2 Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Cesar Chavez

  9. Chavez worked in the fields until 1952, when he became an organizer for the Community Service Organization (CSO), a Latino civil rights group. He was hired and trained by Fred Ross as an organizer targeting police brutality. Chavez urged Mexican Americans to register and vote, and he traveled throughout California and made speeches in support of workers’ rights. He later became CSO’s national director in 1958. Chavez worked in the fields until 1952, when he became an organizer for the Community Service Organization (CSO), a Latino civil rights group. He was hired and trained by Fred Ross as an organizer targeting police brutality. Chavez urged Mexican Americans to register and vote, and he traveled throughout California and made speeches in support of workers’ rights. He later became CSO’s national director in 1958. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent made the farm workers’ struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the bargaining agent for 50,000 field workers in California and Florida. However, by the mid-1980s membership in the UFW had dwindled to around 15,000. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent made the farm workers’ struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the bargaining agent for 50,000 field workers in California and Florida. However, by the mid-1980s membership in the UFW had dwindled to around 15,000. When Filipino American farm workers initiated the Delano grape strike on September 8, 1965, to protest for higher wages, Chavez eagerly supported them. Six months later, Chavez and the NFWA led a strike of California grape pickers on the historic farmworkers march from Delano to the California state capitol in Sacramento for similar goals. When Filipino American farm workers initiated the Delano grape strike on September 8, 1965, to protest for higher wages, Chavez eagerly supported them. Six months later, Chavez and the NFWA led a strike of California grape pickers on the historic farmworkers march from Delano to the California state capitol in Sacramento for similar goals.

  10. Cesar Chavez (1927–1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Delores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW). A Mexican-American, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members. Cesar Chavez (1927–1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Delores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW). A Mexican-American, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members. The Chavez family faced many hardships in California. The family would pick peas and lettuce in the winter, cherries and beans in the spring, corn and grapes in the summer, and cotton in the fall. When Chavez was a teenager, he and his older sister Rita would help other farm workers and neighbors by driving those unable to drive to the hospital to see a doctor. In 1942, Chavez quit school in the seventh grade. It would be his final year of formal schooling, because he did not want his mother to have to work in the fields. Chavez dropped out to become a full-time migrant farm worker. 

  11. The UFW encouraged all Americans to boycott table grapes as a show of support. The strike lasted five years and attracted national attention. In March 1966, the U. S. Senate Committee on Labor & Public Welfare’s Subcommittee on Migratory Labor held hearings in California on the strike. During the hearings, subcommittee member Robert F. Kennedy expressed his support for the striking workers. The UFW encouraged all Americans to boycott table grapes as a show of support. The strike lasted five years and attracted national attention. In March 1966, the U. S. Senate Committee on Labor & Public Welfare’s Subcommittee on Migratory Labor held hearings in California on the strike. During the hearings, subcommittee member Robert F. Kennedy expressed his support for the striking workers. After his death he became a major historical icon for the Latino community, organized labor, and liberal movement, symbolizing support for workers and for Hispanic power based on grass roots organizing and his slogan “Sí se puede” (Spanish for “Yes, one can” or, roughly, “Yes, it can be done”). His supporters say his work led to numerous improvements for union laborers. His birthday, March 31, has become Cesar Chavez, a state holiday in California, Colorado, & Texas. After his death he became a major historical icon for the Latino community, organized labor, and liberal movement, symbolizing support for workers and for Hispanic power based on grass roots organizing and his slogan “Sí se puede” (Spanish for “Yes, one can” or, roughly, “Yes, it can be done”). His supporters say his work led to numerous improvements for union laborers. His birthday, March 31, has become Cesar Chavez, a state holiday in California, Colorado, & Texas.

  12. Among a host of other acknowledgments of Chavez’ contributions, in 2007 the University of Texas at Austin unveiled its own Cesar Chavez statue on campus. In Austin, Texas, 1st Street was renamed “César Chávez Boulevard” in 1993. In April, 2010, the city of Dallas, Texas, changed street signage along the downtown street-grade portion of Central Expressway, renaming it for Chavez; part of the street passes adjacent to the downtown Dallas Farmers Market complex. El Paso has a controlled-access highway, the portion of Texas Loop 375 running beside the Rio Grande, called the “César Chávez Border Highway’; also in El Paso, the alternative junior-senior high school in the Ysleta Independent School District is named for Chavez. In 2005, a Cesar Chavez commemorative meeting was held in San Antonio, honoring his work on behalf of immigrant farmworkers and other immigrants. Chavez High School in Houston is named in his honor. Among a host of other acknowledgments of Chavez’ contributions, in 2007 the University of Texas at Austin unveiled its own Cesar Chavez statue on campus. In Austin, Texas, 1st Street was renamed “César Chávez Boulevard” in 1993. In April, 2010, the city of Dallas, Texas, changed street signage along the downtown street-grade portion of Central Expressway, renaming it for Chavez; part of the street passes adjacent to the downtown Dallas Farmers Market complex. El Paso has a controlled-access highway, the portion of Texas Loop 375 running beside the Rio Grande, called the “César Chávez Border Highway’; also in El Paso, the alternative junior-senior high school in the Ysleta Independent School District is named for Chavez. In 2005, a Cesar Chavez commemorative meeting was held in San Antonio, honoring his work on behalf of immigrant farmworkers and other immigrants. Chavez High School in Houston is named in his honor.

  13. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) 3 Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Rosa Parks

  14. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913–2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U. S. Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement.” She was of African, Cherokee-Creek, and Scots-Irish ancestry. Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in the U.S. states of California and Ohio. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913–2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U. S. Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement.” She was of African, Cherokee-Creek, and Scots-Irish ancestry. Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in the U.S. states of California and Ohio. In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks. Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her husband’s urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when less than 7% of African Americans had a high school diploma. Despite the Jim Crow laws and discrimination by registrars, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Ala., Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake’s order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Ala., Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake’s order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation.

  15. Rosa Parks De Bus at Detroit Henry Ford Museum Others had taken similar steps, including Irene Morgan in 1946, Sarah Louise Keys in 1955, and the members of the Browder v. Gayle lawsuit were arrested months before Parks. NAACP organizers believed that Parks was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws though eventually her case became bogged down in the state courts. In her autobiography, My Story she said: “People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in. . . . I did not want to be mistreated, I did not want to be deprived of a seat that I had paid for. It was just time. . . . There was opportunity for me to take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that manner. I had not planned to get arrested. . . . I didn’t hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the more oppressive it became. ” In her autobiography, My Story she said: “People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in. . . . I did not want to be mistreated, I did not want to be deprived of a seat that I had paid for. It was just time. . . . There was opportunity for me to take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that manner. I had not planned to get arrested. . . . I didn’t hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the more oppressive it became. ”

  16. On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis. On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.  Parks was the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and state segregation laws, as she was a responsible, mature woman with an excellent reputation. King said that Mrs. Parks was regarded as “one of the finest citizens of Montgomery—not one of the finest Negro citizens, but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery.”

  17. Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King Jr., a new minister in town who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement. Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King Jr., a new minister in town who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement. At the time, Parks acted as a private citizen “tired of giving in.” Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store. Eventually, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American U. S. Representative. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and lived a largely private life in Detroit.

  18. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) 4 Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Hector P. Garcia

  19. Dr. Hector Garcia Perez (1914-1996) was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G. I. Forum. He earned national prominence he earned through his work on behalf of Hispanic Americans. Dr. Hector Garcia Perez (1914-1996) was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G. I. Forum. He earned national prominence he earned through his work on behalf of Hispanic Americans. A descendant of Spanish land grantees, Dr. García was born in the city of Llera, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to José GarcíaGarcía and FaustinaPerézGarcía, both schoolteachers. His family fled the violence of the Mexican Revolution in 1917, legally immigrating to Mercedes, Tx. Hector and five of his siblings, José Antonio García, Clotilde Pérez García, Cuitláhuac Pérez García, Xicotencátl Pérez García, and Dalia García-Malison did become physicians. A descendant of Spanish land grantees, Dr. García was born in the city of Llera, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to José GarcíaGarcía and FaustinaPerézGarcía, both schoolteachers. His family fled the violence of the Mexican Revolution in 1917, legally immigrating to Mercedes, Tx. Hector and five of his siblings, José Antonio García, Clotilde Pérez García, Cuitláhuac Pérez García, Xicotencátl Pérez García, and Dalia García-Malison did become physicians.

  20. Upon completing his internship in 1942, García volunteered for combat in the army, where he was placed in command of a company of infantry. Later, he commanded a company of combat engineers before being transferred to the medical corps. He was stationed in Europe, where he rose to the rank of major, earned the Bronze Star, and six battle stars. Upon completing his internship in 1942, García volunteered for combat in the army, where he was placed in command of a company of infantry. Later, he commanded a company of combat engineers before being transferred to the medical corps. He was stationed in Europe, where he rose to the rank of major, earned the Bronze Star, and six battle stars. In 1945, with the war over, Dr. García and his family returned to Southern Texas, settling in Corpus Christi, where the League of United Latin American Citizens had been formed to defend the rights of Hispanic Americans seven years earlier. He opened a private medical practice with his brother José Antonio, where he treated all patients regardless of their ability to pay. In 1947, he was elected president of the local chapter of LULAC. In the same year he was hospitalized with life-threatening acute nephritis. While recuperating, he heard the local superintendent of schools bragging about the segregation in his district. At that moment, he made a private oath that if he recovered he would dedicate his life to the equality of his people. In 1945, with the war over, Dr. García and his family returned to Southern Texas, settling in Corpus Christi, where the League of United Latin American Citizens had been formed to defend the rights of Hispanic Americans seven years earlier. He opened a private medical practice with his brother José Antonio, where he treated all patients regardless of their ability to pay. In 1947, he was elected president of the local chapter of LULAC. In the same year he was hospitalized with life-threatening acute nephritis. While recuperating, he heard the local superintendent of schools bragging about the segregation in his district. At that moment, he made a private oath that if he recovered he would dedicate his life to the equality of his people.

  21. After being discharged from the hospital, he began helping other Mexican American veterans file claims with the Veteran’s Administration. He helped veterans to obtain services from the VA since the administration was slow to respond to the Hispanic American veterans’ needs. After being discharged from the hospital, he began helping other Mexican American veterans file claims with the Veteran’s Administration. He helped veterans to obtain services from the VA since the administration was slow to respond to the Hispanic American veterans’ needs. In 1948 he found that impoverished workers in Mathis, Tx. to be ill-clothed, malnourished, and diseased from lack of basic sanitation. On March 26 of the same year, he called a meeting to address the concerns of Mexican American veterans. This meeting developed into the American G.I. Forum, which soon had chapters in 40 Texas cities and became the primary vehicle by which Mexican American veterans expressed their discontent with the official discrimination against them and asserted their right to equality. In 1948 he found that impoverished workers in Mathis, Tx. to be ill-clothed, malnourished, and diseased from lack of basic sanitation. On March 26 of the same year, he called a meeting to address the concerns of Mexican American veterans. This meeting developed into the American G.I. Forum, which soon had chapters in 40 Texas cities and became the primary vehicle by which Mexican American veterans expressed their discontent with the official discrimination against them and asserted their right to equality. Garcia continued through the 1950s, 60s, & 70s as an advocate and spokesperson for Mexican-American rights and their equal treatment in American society. Garcia continued through the 1950s, 60s, & 70s as an advocate and spokesperson for Mexican-American rights and their equal treatment in American society.

  22. Supporting Standard (9)The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The Student is expected to: (C) 4 Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Betty Friedan

  23. Betty Friedan (1921–2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women’s movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to bring women “into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men.” Betty Friedan (1921–2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women’s movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to bring women “into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men.” “The shores are strewn with the casualties of the feminine mystique. They did give up their own education to put their husbands through college, and then, maybe against their own wishes, ten or fifteen years later, they were left in the lurch by divorce. The strongest were able to cope more or less well, but it wasn’t that easy for a woman of forty-five or fifty to move ahead in a profession and make a new life for herself and her children or herself alone.” “The shores are strewn with the casualties of the feminine mystique. They did give up their own education to put their husbands through college, and then, maybe against their own wishes, ten or fifteen years later, they were left in the lurch by divorce. The strongest were able to cope more or less well, but it wasn’t that easy for a woman of forty-five or fifty to move ahead in a profession and make a new life for herself and her children or herself alone.”

  24. Friedan asserted that women are as capable as men for any type of work or any career path against arguments to the contrary by the mass media, educators and psychologists. The restrictions of the 1950s, and the trapped, imprisoned feeling of many women forced into these roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of oppressive laws and social views that restricted women. Friedan asserted that women are as capable as men for any type of work or any career path against arguments to the contrary by the mass media, educators and psychologists. The restrictions of the 1950s, and the trapped, imprisoned feeling of many women forced into these roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of oppressive laws and social views that restricted women. NOW lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same affirmative action granted to blacks to women, and for a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme Court. NOW lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same affirmative action granted to blacks to women, and for a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme Court.

  25. Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second Stage (1981), critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of some feminists who could be broadly classified as gender feminists. Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second Stage (1981), critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of some feminists who could be broadly classified as gender feminists.

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