MCB100 Introductory Microbiology March 4, 2019 Chapter 7 – Microbial Genetics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MCB100 Introductory Microbiology March 4, 2019 Chapter 7 – Microbial Genetics PowerPoint Presentation
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MCB100 Introductory Microbiology March 4, 2019 Chapter 7 – Microbial Genetics

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  1. MCB100 Introductory Microbiology March 4, 2019 Chapter 7 – Microbial Genetics

  2. MCB100 Introductory Microbiology 2019 Microbial Genetics Chapter 7, 8 (pgs. 237-246) The Central Dogma

  3. The "Central Dogma" of Molecular Biology - The genetic material in a living organism is DNA. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by a copy of the DNA. Reproduction of a DNA molecule is called "replication". - Replication is semiconservative – each daughter molecule is made of one old strand of DNA and one newly synthesized strand that is complimentary to the older template strand. An enzyme that makes DNA is called a DNA-polymerase.

  4. The "Central Dogma" of Molecular Biology - Information within the DNA that tells the cell how to make a specific protein is copiedonto a molecule of mRNA. Synthesis of RNA is called transcription. An enzyme that makes RNA is called an RNA-polymerase. The normal RNA polymerase found in a cell makes a single-stranded molecule of RNA by using one of the two strands of DNA as the template. This is a DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase.

  5. The "Central Dogma" of Molecular Biology (continued) - The information in the mRNA, which is a sequence of nucleotides is used to direct thesynthesis of a protein, which is a sequence of amino acids. The synthesis of a protein converts information in the "nucleotide language" into the "amino acid language.“Protein synthesis is called translation. The Roles of Proteins, RNA and DNA Enzymes are proteins. Most of the things a cell does depend on proteins. The synthesis of proteins is controlled by mRNA. The synthesis of RNA is directed by DNA. The synthesis of DNA is directed by DNA. DNA is the storage site of genetic information. DNA structure is covered on pages 191 – 195 of the text, replication is on 195 – 200.

  6. Terminology of the Central Dogma What is meant by the term “post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression”? A. something that controls the rate of initiation of DNA synthesis B. something that controls the start of mRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase C. something that controls the reading of mRNA and protein synthesis by ribosomes D. something that controls the catalytic activity of an enzyme

  7. Terminology of the Central Dogma What is meant by the term “post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression”? A. something that controls the rate of initiation of DNA synthesis B. something that controls the start of mRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase C. something that controls the reading of mRNA and protein synthesis by ribosomes D. something that controls the catalytic activity of an enzyme

  8. Cellular Compartmentalization The Cytoplasm vs. The Nucleus Choose the ONE question asked below where the answer is NOT "the cytoplasm". A. Where in a bacterial cell will you find the ribosomes? B. Where in a eukaryotic cell does transcription occur? C. Where in a eukaryotic cell does translation occur? D. Where in a bacterial cell will you find DNA synthesis (replication) occurring? E. Where in a bacterial cell does RNA synthesis occur?

  9. Cellular Compartmentalization The Cytoplasm vs. The Nucleus Choose the ONE question asked below where the answer is NOT "the cytoplasm". A. Where in a bacterial cell will you find the ribosomes? B. Where in a eukaryotic cell does transcription occur? C. Where in a eukaryotic cell does translation occur? D. Where in a bacterial cell will you find DNA synthesis (replication) occurring? E. Where in a bacterial cell does RNA synthesis occur?

  10. Fig. CO07 DNA Double Helix

  11. The “Semi-Conservative" Mechanism of DNA Replication Replication is the duplication of a DNA molecule. Since DNA is composed of two strands that have a complementary sequence, each strand can act as a template for directing the synthesis of the other strand. The enzyme that makes new DNA is called DNA polymerase III. Replication is a bidirectional process. "Semi-conservative replication" means that the new double stranded DNA molecules consist of one strand that is from the old DNA molecule and one strand that is from the new DNA molecule.

  12. Double stranded DNA